Programming WebLogic JTA
WebLogic Server 9.0 includes support for the Logging Last Resource (LLR) transaction optimization through JDBC data sources. LLR is a performance enhancement option that enables one non-XA resource to participate in a global transaction with the same ACID guarantee as XA. LLR is a refinement of the "Last Agent Optimization." It differs from Last Agent Optimization in that it is transactionally safe. The LLR resource uses a local transaction for its transaction work. The WebLogic Server transaction manager prepares all other resources in the transaction and then determines the commit decision for the global transaction based on the outcome of the LLR resource's local transaction.
For more information about the advantages of LLR, see "Understanding the Logging Last Resource Transaction Option" in Configuring and Managing WebLogic JDBC.
In many cases a global transaction becomes a two-phase commit (2PC) transaction because it involves a database operation (using JDBC) and another non-database operation, such as a message queueing operation (using JMS). In cases such as this where there is one database participant in a 2PC transaction, the Logging Last Resource (LLR) Optimization transaction option can significantly improve transaction performance by eliminating some of the XA overhead for database processing and by avoiding the use of JDBC XA drivers, which typically are less efficient than non-XA drivers. The LLR transaction option does not incur the same data risks as borne by the Emulate Two-Phase Commit JDBC data source option and the NonXAResource resource adapter (Connector) option.
At server boot or data source deployment, LLR data sources load or create a table on the database from which the data source pools database connections. The table is created in the schema determined by the user specified to create database connections. If the database table cannot be created or loaded, then server boot will fail.
Within a global transaction, the first connection obtained from an LLR data source reserves an internal JDBC connection that is dedicated to the transaction. The internal JDBC connection is reserved on the specific server that is also the transactions' coordinator. All subsequent transaction operations on any connections obtained from a same-named data source on any server are routed to this same single internal JDBC connection.
When an LLR transaction is committed, the WebLogic Server transaction manager handles the processing transparently. From an application perspective, the transaction semantics remain the same, but from an internal perspective, the transaction is handled differently than standard XA transactions. When the application commits the global transaction, the WebLogic Server transaction manager atomically commits the local transaction on the LLR connection before committing transaction work on any other transaction participants. For a two-phase commit transaction, the transaction manager also writes a 2PC record on the database as part of the same local transaction. After the local transaction completes successfully, the transaction manager calls commit on all other global transaction participants. After all other transaction participants complete the commit phase, the related LLR 2PC transaction record is freed for deletion. The transaction manager will lazily delete the transaction record after a short interval or with another local transaction.
If the application rolls back the global transaction or the transaction times out, the transaction manager rolls back the work in the local transaction and does not store a 2PC record in the database.
To enable the LLR transaction optimization, you create a JDBC data source with the Logging Last Resource transaction protocol, then use database connections from the data source in your applications. WebLogic Server automatically creates the required table on the database.
See "Create LLR-enabled JDBC data sources" in the Administration Console Online Help. Also see "Understanding the Logging Last Resource Transaction Option" in Configuring and Managing WebLogic JDBC.
Each WebLogic server instance maintains a database "LLR" table on the database to which a JDBC LLR data source pools database connections. These tables are used for storing transaction log records, and are automatically created. If multiple LLR data sources are deployed on the same WebLogic server instance and connect to the same database instance and database schema, they will also share the same LLR table.
LLR table names are automatically generated unless administrators choose to configure them. The default table name is
SERVERNAME. For some DBMSs, the maximum length for a table name is 18 characters. You should consider maximum table name length when configuring your environment.
For each committed 2PC LLR transaction, the transaction manager automatically inserts a transaction record into an LLR database table. Once LLR transactions complete, the transaction manager lazily deletes their transaction records. If an LLR table transaction log record delete fails, the server will log a warning message and retry the delete again later.
If a transaction's coordinating server crashes before an LLR resource stores its transaction log record or before an LLR resource commits, the transaction rolls back. If the server crashes after the LLR resource is committed, the transaction will eventually fully commit. During server boot, the transaction coordinator will use the LLR resource to read the transaction log record from the database and then use the recovered information to commit any unfinished work on any participating non-LLR XA resources.
If the JDBC connection in an LLR resource fails during the commit of the local transaction, the result depends on whether the transaction is a one-phase commit (1PC, where the LLR resource is the only participant) or 2PC:
During server startup, the transaction manager for each WebLogic server must recover incomplete transactions coordinated by the server, including LLR transactions. To do so, each server will attempt to read the transaction records from the LLR database tables for each LLR data source. If the server cannot access the LLR database tables or if the recovery fails, the server will not start and the transaction manager will mark the server with a bad health state: HealthState.HEALTH_FAILED.
If a timeout occurs during recovery, it may be due to unresolved local transactions that have locked rows within the LLR log tables. Such local transactions must be resolved so that the transaction manager can determine the state of the global transaction whose record is stored in the locked row. Local database transactions can only be diagnosed and resolved using each database's specific tools (the commands differ from database to database).
Within a global transaction with an LLR participant, WebLogic Server automatically routes all connection operations to the transaction's coordinating server. This routing can be expensive. You may see better performance if you optimize your applications to run directly on the coordinating server if possible, and optimize your applications to use connection instances that are directly hosted on the coordinator.
For client applications that begin a transaction, the coordinator of transaction is the first WebLogic server the client calls under the transaction (any RMI, EJB, JDBC, or JMS call). In the JMS case, this is the server that hosts the client's JMS connection, which is not necessarily the same as the server that hosts the JMS destination.
For server side applications, the coordinator of the transaction is the local server if a local resource is invoked first (including JMS destinations and JDBC connections) unless a remote server is called first (any remotely hosted JDBC connection, EJB, RMI call, or JMS connection). This includes remote servers in other clusters or domains.
The LLR optimization provides a significant increase in performance for insert, update, and delete operations. However, for read operations with LLR, performance is somewhat slower than read operations with XA. For best performance, you may want to configure a non-LLR JDBC data source for read-only operations.