EnvironmentConfig settings, lock mode parameters determine how records are
locked during read operations. Record locking is used to enforce the
isolation modes that are configured. Record locking is summarized below for
read and write operations. For more information on isolation levels and
transactions, see Writing Transactional Applications.
With one exception, a record lock is always acquired when a record is
read or written, and a cursor will always hold the lock as long as it is
positioned on the record. The exception is when
is specified, which allows a record to be read without any locking.
Both read (shared) and write (exclusive) locks are used. Read locks are
normally acquired on read (
get method} operations and write locks on
put method) operations. However, a write lock will be
acquired on a read operation if
RMW is specified.
Because read locks are shared, multiple accessors may read the same record. Because write locks are exclusive, if a record is written by one accessor it may not be read or written by another accessor. An accessor is either a transaction or a thread (for non-transactional operations).
Whether additional locking is performed and how locks are released depend on whether the operation is transactional and other configuration settings.
Transactional operations include all write operations for a transactional
database, and read operations when a non-null
is passed. When a null transaction parameter is passed for a write
operation for a transactional database, an auto-commit transaction is
With transactions, read and write locks are normally held until the end
of the transaction (commit or abort). Write locks are always held until the
end of the transaction. However, if
READ_COMMITTED is configured,
then read locks for cursor operations are only held during the operation and
while the cursor is positioned on the record. The read lock is released
when the cursor is moved to a different record or closed. When
READ_COMMITTED is used for a database (non-cursor) operation, the read
lock is released before the method returns.
specified, read and write locking as described above provide Repeatable Read
isolation, which is the default transactional isolation level. If
Serializable isolation is configured, additional "next key" locking is
performed to prevent "phantoms" -- records that are not visible at one point
in a transaction but that become visible at a later point after being
inserted by another transaction. Serializable isolation is configured via
Non-transactional operations include all operations for a
non-transactional database (including a Deferred Write database), and read
operations for a transactional database when a null
parameter is passed.
For non-transactional operations, both read and write locks are only held while a cursor is positioned on the record, and are released when the cursor is moved to a different record or closed. For database (non-cursor) operations, the read or write lock is released before the method returns.
Because the current thread is the accessor (locker) for non-transactional operations, a single thread may have multiple cursors open without locking conflicts. Two non-transactional cursors in the same thread may access the same record via write or read operations without conflicts, and the changes make by one cursor will be visible to the other cursor.
However, a non-transactional operation will conflict with a transactional
operation for the same record even when performed in the same thread. When
using a transaction in a particular thread for a particular database, to
avoid conflicts you should use that transaction for all access to that
database in that thread. In other words, to avoid conflicts always pass the
transction parameter, not null, for all operations. If you don't wish to
hold the read lock for the duration of the transaction, specify
|Enum Constant and Description|
Uses the default lock mode and is equivalent to passing
Read committed isolation provides for cursor stability but not repeatable reads.
Reads modified but not yet committed data.
Acquire write locks instead of read locks when doing the retrieval.
|Modifier and Type||Method and Description|
Returns the enum constant of this type with the specified name.
Returns an array containing the constants of this enum type, in the order they are declared.
clone, compareTo, equals, getDeclaringClass, hashCode, name, ordinal, valueOf
public static final LockMode DEFAULT
nullfor the lock mode parameter.
The default lock mode is
READ_UNCOMMITTED when this lock
mode is configured via
TransactionConfig.setReadUncommitted(boolean). The Read Uncommitted mode
overrides any other configuration settings.
Otherwise, the default lock mode is
READ_COMMITTED when this
lock mode is configured via
TransactionConfig.setReadCommitted(boolean). The Read Committed mode
overrides other configuration settings except for
Otherwise, the default lock mode is to acquire read locks and release
them according to the
default locking rules for
transactional and non-transactional operations.
public static final LockMode READ_UNCOMMITTED
locking rules for information on how Read
Uncommitted impacts transactional and non-transactional locking.
public static final LockMode READ_COMMITTED
Databaseget methods, not to
Cursormethods. To configure a cursor for Read Committed isolation, use
locking rules for information on how Read
Committed impacts transactional and non-transactional locking.
public static final LockMode RMW
Because it causes a write lock to be acquired, specifying this lock
mode as a
get (read) method
parameter will override the Read Committed or Read Uncommitted isolation
mode that is configured using
TransactionConfig. The write lock will acquired and held until the end
of the transaction. For non-transactional use, the write lock will be
released when the cursor is moved to a new position or closed.
Setting this flag can eliminate deadlock during a read-modify-write cycle by acquiring the write lock during the read part of the cycle so that another thread of control acquiring a read lock for the same item, in its own read-modify-write cycle, will not result in deadlock.
public static LockMode values()
for (LockMode c : LockMode.values()) System.out.println(c);
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