ELF objects processed by the link-editor and runtime linker provide many global symbols to which other objects can bind. These symbols describe the object's application binary interface (ABI). During the evolution of an object, this interface can change due to the addition or deletion of global symbols. In addition, the object's evolution can involve internal implementation changes.
Versioning refers to several techniques that can be applied to an object to indicate interface and implementation changes. These techniques provide for controlled evolution of the object, while maintaining backward compatibility.
This chapter describes how to defined an object's ABI. Also covered, are how changes to this ABI interface can affect backward compatibility. These concepts are explored with models that convey how interface, together with implementation changes, can be incorporated into a new release of an object.
The focus of this chapter is on the runtime interfaces of dynamic executables and shared objects. The techniques used to describe and manage changes within these dynamic objects are presented in generic terms. A common set of naming conventions and versioning scenarios as applied to shared objects can be found in Appendix B, Versioning Quick Reference.
Developers of dynamic objects must be aware of the ramifications of an interface change and understand how such changes can be managed, especially in regards to maintaining backward compatibility with previously shipped objects.
The global symbols that are made available by any dynamic object represent the object's public interface. Frequently, the number of global symbols that remain in an object after a link-edit are more than you would like to make public. These global symbols stem from the symbol state that is required between the relocatable objects used to create the object. These symbols represent private interfaces within the object.
To define an object'sABI, you should first determine those global symbols that you want to make publicly available from the object. These public symbols can be established using the link-editor's -M option and an associated mapfile as part of the final link-edit. This technique is introduced in Reducing Symbol Scope. This public interface establishes one or more version definitions within the object being created. These definitions form the foundation for the addition of new interfaces as the object evolves.
The following sections build upon this initial public interface. First though, you should understand how various changes to an interface can be categorized so that these interfaces can be managed appropriately.