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Oracle Solaris Cluster Concepts Guide
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Document Information


1.  Introduction and Overview

2.  Key Concepts for Hardware Service Providers

3.  Key Concepts for System Administrators and Application Developers

Administrative Interfaces

Cluster Time

High-Availability Framework

Zone Membership

Cluster Membership Monitor

Failfast Mechanism

Cluster Configuration Repository (CCR)

Global Devices

Device IDs and DID Pseudo Driver

Device Groups

Device Group Failover

Multiported Device Groups

Global Namespace

Local and Global Namespaces Example

Cluster File Systems

Using Cluster File Systems

HAStoragePlus Resource Type

syncdir Mount Option

Disk Path Monitoring

DPM Overview

Monitoring Disk Paths

Using the cldevice Command to Monitor and Administer Disk Paths

Using Oracle Solaris Cluster Manager to Monitor Disk Paths

Using the clnode set Command to Manage Disk Path Failure

Quorum and Quorum Devices

About Quorum Vote Counts

About Quorum Configurations

Adhering to Quorum Device Requirements

Adhering to Quorum Device Best Practices

Recommended Quorum Configurations

Quorum in Two-Host Configurations

Quorum in Greater Than Two-Host Configurations

Atypical Quorum Configurations

Bad Quorum Configurations

Load Limits

Data Services

Data Service Methods

Failover Data Services

Scalable Data Services

Load-Balancing Policies

Failback Settings

Data Services Fault Monitors

Developing New Data Services

Characteristics of Scalable Services

Data Service API and Data Service Development Library API

Using the Cluster Interconnect for Data Service Traffic

Resources, Resource Groups, and Resource Types

Resource Group Manager (RGM)

Resource and Resource Group States and Settings

Resource and Resource Group Properties

Support for Oracle Solaris Zones

Support for Global-Cluster Non-Voting Nodes (Solaris Zones) Directly Through the RGM

Criteria for Using Support for Solaris Zones Directly Through the RGM

Requirements for Using Support for Solaris Zones Directly Through the RGM

Additional Information About Support for Solaris Zones Directly Through the RGM

Support for Solaris Zones on Oracle Solaris Cluster Nodes Through Oracle Solaris Cluster HA for Solaris Zones

Criteria for Using Oracle Solaris Cluster HA for Solaris Zones

Requirements for Using Oracle Solaris Cluster HA for Solaris Zones

Additional Information About Oracle Solaris Cluster HA for Solaris Zones

Service Management Facility

System Resource Usage

System Resource Monitoring

Control of CPU

Viewing System Resource Usage

Data Service Project Configuration

Determining Requirements for Project Configuration

Setting Per-Process Virtual Memory Limits

Failover Scenarios

Two-Host Cluster With Two Applications

Two-Host Cluster With Three Applications

Failover of Resource Group Only

Public Network Adapters and IP Network Multipathing

SPARC: Dynamic Reconfiguration Support

SPARC: Dynamic Reconfiguration General Description

SPARC: DR Clustering Considerations for CPU Devices

SPARC: DR Clustering Considerations for Memory

SPARC: DR Clustering Considerations for Disk and Tape Drives

SPARC: DR Clustering Considerations for Quorum Devices

SPARC: DR Clustering Considerations for Cluster Interconnect Interfaces

SPARC: DR Clustering Considerations for Public Network Interfaces

4.  Frequently Asked Questions


System Resource Usage

System resources include aspects of CPU usage, memory usage, swap usage, and disk and network throughput. Oracle Solaris Cluster enables you to monitor how much of a specific system resource is being used by an object type. An object type includes a host, node, zone, disk, network interface, or resource group. Oracle Solaris Cluster also enables you to control the CPU that is available to a resource group.

Monitoring and controlling system resource usage can be part of your resource management policy. The cost and complexity of managing numerous machines encourages the consolidation of several applications on larger hosts. Instead of running each workload on separate systems, with full access to each system's resources, you use resource management to segregate workloads within the system. Resource management enables you to lower overall total cost of ownership by running and controlling several applications on a single Oracle Solaris system.

Resource management ensures that your applications have the required response times. Resource management can also increase resource use. By categorizing and prioritizing usage, you can effectively use reserve capacity during off-peak periods, often eliminating the need for additional processing power. You can also ensure that resources are not wasted because of load variability.

To use the data that Oracle Solaris Cluster collects about system resource usage, you must do the following:

By default, system resource monitoring and control are not configured when you install Oracle Solaris Cluster. For information about configuring these services, see Chapter 10, Configuring Control of CPU Usage, in Oracle Solaris Cluster System Administration Guide.

System Resource Monitoring

By monitoring system resource usage, you can do the following:

Data about system resource usage can help you determine the hardware resources that are underused and the applications that use many resources. Based on this data, you can assign applications to nodes that have the necessary resources and choose the node to which to failover. This consolidation can help you optimize the way that you use your hardware and software resources.

Monitoring all system resources at the same time might be costly in terms of CPU. Choose the system resources that you want to monitor by prioritizing the resources that are most critical for your system.

When you enable monitoring, you choose the telemetry attribute that you want to monitor. A telemetry attribute is an aspect of system resources. Examples of telemetry attributes include the amount of free CPU or the percentage of blocks that are used on a device. If you monitor a telemetry attribute on an object type, Oracle Solaris Cluster monitors this telemetry attribute on all objects of that type in the cluster. Oracle Solaris Cluster stores a history of the system resource data that is collected for seven days.

If you consider a particular data value to be critical for a system resource, you can set a threshold for this value. When setting a threshold, you also choose how critical this threshold is by assigning it a severity level. If the threshold is crossed, Oracle Solaris Cluster changes the severity level of the threshold to the severity level that you choose.

Control of CPU

Each application and service that is running on a cluster has specific CPU needs. Table 3-4 lists the CPU control activities that are available.

Table 3-4 CPU Control

Global-cluster voting node
Assign CPU shares
Global-cluster non-voting node
Assign CPU shares

Assign number of CPU

Create dedicated processor sets

Note - If you want to apply CPU shares, you must specify the Fair Share Scheduler (FFS) as the default scheduler in the cluster.

Controlling the CPU that is assigned to a resource group in a dedicated processor set in a global-cluster non-voting node offers the strictest level of control. If you reserve CPU for a resource group, this CPU is not available to other resource groups.

Viewing System Resource Usage

You can view system resource data and CPU assignments by using the command line or through Oracle Solaris Cluster Manager. The system resources that you choose to monitor determine the tables and graphs that you can view.

By viewing the output of system resource usage and CPU control, you can do the following:

Oracle Solaris Cluster does not provide advice about the actions to take, nor does it take action for you based on the data that it collects. You must determine whether the data that you view meets your expectations for a service. You must then take action to remedy any observed performance.