The cfgadm command provides configuration administration operations on dynamically reconfigurable hardware resources. These operations include displaying status, (-l), initiating testing, (-t), invoking configuration state changes, (-c), invoking hardware specific functions, (-x), and obtaining configuration administration help messages (-h). Configuration administration is performed at attachment points, which are places where system software supports dynamic reconfiguration of hardware resources during continued operation of Solaris.
Configuration administration makes a distinction between hardware resources that are physically present in the machine and hardware resources that are configured and visible to Solaris. The nature of configuration administration functions are hardware specific, and are performed by calling hardware specific libraries.
Configuration administration operates on an attachment point. Hardware resources located at attachment points can or can not be physically replaceable during system operation, but are dynamically reconfigurable by way of the configuration administration interfaces.
An attachment point defines two unique elements, which are distinct from the hardware resources that exist beyond the attachment point. The two elements of an attachment point are a receptacle and an occupant. Physical insertion or removal of hardware resources occurs at attachment points and results in a receptacle gaining or losing an occupant. Configuration administration supports the physical insertion and removal operations as well as other configuration administration functions at an attachment point.
Attachment points have associated state and condition information. The configuration administration interfaces provide control for transitioning attachment point states. A receptacle can exist in one of three states: empty, disconnected or connected, while an occupant can exist in one of two states: configured or unconfigured.
A receptacle can provide the empty state, which is the normal state of a receptacle when the attachment point has no occupants. A receptacle can also provide the disconnected state if it has the capability of isolating its occupants from normal system access. Typically this state is used for various hardware specific testing prior to bringing the occupant's resources into full use by the system, or as a step in preparing an occupant for physical removal or reconfiguration. A receptacle in the disconnected state isolates its occupant from the system as much as its hardware allows, but can provide access for testing and setup. A receptacle must provide the connected state, which allows normal access to hardware resources contained on any occupants. The connected state is the normal state of a receptacle that contains an occupant and that is not currently undergoing configuration administration operations.
The hardware resources contained on an occupant in the unconfigured state are not represented by normal Solaris data structures and are thus not available for use by Solaris. Operations allowed on an unconfigured occupant are limited to configuration administration operations. The hardware resources of an occupant in the configured state are represented by normal Solaris data structures and thus some or all of those hardware resources can be in use by Solaris. All occupants provide both the configured and unconfigured states,
An attachment point can be in one of five conditions: unknown, ok, failing, failed, or unusable. An attachment point can enter the system in any condition depending upon results of power-on tests and non-volatile record keeping.
An attachment point with an occupant in the configured state is in one of four conditions: unknown, ok, failing, or failed. If the condition is not failing or failed an attachment point can change to failing during the course of operation if a hardware dependent recoverable error threshold is exceeded. If the condition is not failed an attachment point can change to failed during operation as a result of an unrecoverable error.
An attachment point with an occupant in the unconfigured state can be in any of the defined conditions. The condition of an attachment point with an unconfigured occupant can decay from ok to unknown after a machine dependent time threshold. Initiating a test function changes the attachment point's condition to ok, failing or failed depending on the outcome of the test. An attachment point that does not provide a test function can leave the attachment point in the unknown condition. If a test is interrupted, the attachment point's condition can be set to the previous condition, unknown or failed. An attachment point in the unknown, ok, failing, or failed conditions can be re-tested.
An attachment point can exist in the unusable condition for a variety of reasons, such as inadequate power or cooling for the receptacle, an occupant that is unidentifiable, unsupported, incorrectly configured, etc. An attachment point in the unusable condition can never be used by the system. It typically remains in this condition until the physical cause is remedied.
An attachment point also maintains busy information that indicates when a state change is in progress or the condition is being reevaluated.
Attachment points are referred to using hardware specific identifiers (ap_ids) that are related to the type and location of the attachment points in the system device hierarchy. An ap_id can not be ambiguous, it must identify a single attachment point. Two types of ap_id specifications are supported: physical and logical. A physical ap_id contains a fully specified pathname, while a logical ap_id contains a shorthand notation that identifies an attachment point in a more user-friendly way.
For example, an attachment point representing a system's backplane slot number 7 could have a physical ap_id of /devices/central/fhc/sysctrl:slot7 while the logical ap_id could be system:slot7. Another example, the third receptacle on the second PCI I/O bus on a system could have a logical ap_id of pci2:plug3.
Attachment points may also be created dynamically. A dynamic attachment point is named relative to a base attachment point which is present in the system. ap_ids for dynamic attachment points consist of a base component followed by two colons (::) and a dynamic component. The base component is the base attachment point ap_id. The dynamic component is hardware specific and generated by the corresponding hardware specific library.
For example, consider a base attachment point, which represents a SCSI HBA, with the physical ap_id /devices/sbus@1f,0/SUNW,fas@e,8800000:scsi and logical ap_id c0 . A disk attached to this SCSI HBA could be represented by a dynamic attachment point with logical ap_id c0::dsk/c0t0d0 where c0 is the base component and dsk/c0t0d0 is the hardware specific dynamic component. Similarly the physical ap_id for this dynamic attachment point would be: /devices/sbus@1f,0/SUNW,fas@e,8800000:scsi::dsk/c0t0d0
An ap_type is a partial form of a logical ap_id that can be ambiguous and not specify a particular attachment point. An ap_type is a substring of the portion of the logical ap_id up to but not including the colon (:) separator. For example, an ap_type of pci would show all attachment points whose logical ap_ids begin with pci.
The use of ap_types is discouraged. The new select sub-option to the -s option provides a more general and flexible mechanism for selecting attachment points. See OPTIONS.
The cfgadm command interacts primarily with hardware dependent functions contained in hardware specific libraries and thus its behavior is hardware dependent.
For each configuration administration operation a service interruption can be required. Should the completion of the function requested require a noticeable service interruption to interactive users, a prompt is output on the standard error output for confirmation on the standard input before the function is started. Confirmation can be overridden using the -y or -n options to always answer yes or no respectively. Hardware specific options, such as test level, are supplied as sub-options using the -o option.
Operations that change the state of the system configuration are audited by the system log daemon syslogd(1M).
The following options are supported:
Specifies that the -l option must also list dynamic attachment points.
Performs the state change function on the attachment point specified by ap_id.
Specify function as insert, remove, disconnect, connect, configure or unconfigure. These functions cause state transitions at the attachment point by calling hardware specific library routines and are defined in the following list.
Performs operations that allows the user to manually insert an occupant or to activate a hardware supplied mechanism that performs the physical insertion. insert can have hardware specific side effects that temporarily suspend activity in portions of the system. In such cases the hardware specific library generates appropriate warning messages and informs the user of any special considerations or procedures unique to that hardware. Various hardware specific errors can cause this function to fail and set the receptacle condition to unusable.
Performs operations that allow the user to manually remove an occupant or to activate a hardware supplied mechanism to perform the physical removal. remove can have hardware specific side effects that temporarily suspend activity in portions of the system. In such cases the hardware specific library generates appropriate warning messages and informs the user of any special considerations or procedures unique to that hardware. Various hardware specific errors can cause this function to fail and set the receptacle condition to unusable.
Performs hardware specific operations to put a receptacle in the disconnected state, which can prevent an occupant from operating in a normal fashion through the receptacle.
Performs hardware specific operations to put the receptacle in the connected state, which allows an occupant to operate in a normal fashion through the receptacle.
Performs hardware specific operations that allow an occupant's hardware resources to be usable by Solaris. Occupants that are configured are part of the system configuration and are available for manipulation by Solaris device manipulation maintenance commands (eg: psradm(1M), mount(1M), ifconfig(1M)).
Performs hardware specific operations that logically remove an occupant's hardware resources from the system. The occupant must currently be configured and its hardware resources must not be in use by Solaris.
State transition functions can fail due to the condition of the attachment point or other hardware dependent considerations. All state change functions in the direction of adding resources, (insert, connect and configure) are passed onto the hardware specific library when the attachment point is in the ok or unknown condition. All other conditions require the use of the force option to allow these functions to be passed on to the hardware specific library. Attachment point condition does not prevent a hardware specific library being called for related to the removal (remove, disconnect and unconfigure), of hardware resources from the system. Hardware specific libraries can reject state change functions if the attachment point is in the unknown condition.
The condition of an attachment point is not necessarily changed by the state change functions, however errors during state change operations can change the attachment point condition. An attempt to override a condition and force a state change that would otherwise fail can be made by specifying the force option (-f). Hardware specific safety and integrity checks can prevent the force option from having any effect.
Forces the specified action to occur. Typically, this is a hardware dependent override of a safety feature. Forcing a state change operation can allow use of the hardware resources of occupant that is not in the ok or unknown conditions, at the discretion of any hardware dependent safety checks.
Prints out the help message text. If ap_id or ap_type is specified, the help routine of the hardware specific library for the attachment point indicated by the argument is called.
Lists the state and condition of attachment points specified. Attachment points can be filtered by using the -s option and select sub-option. Invoking cfgadm without one of the action options is equivalent to -l without an argument. The format of the list display is controlled by the -v and -s options. When the -a option is specified attachment points are dynamically expanded.
Suppress any interactive confirmation and assume that the answer is no. If neither -n or -y is specified, interactive confirmation is obtained through the standard error output and the standard input. If either of these standard channels does not correspond to a terminal (as determined by isatty(3C)) then the -n option is assumed.
Supplies hardware specific options to the main command option. The format and content of the hardware option string is completely hardware specific. The option string hardware_options conforms to the getsubopt(3C) syntax convention.
Supplies listing options to the list (-l) command. listing_options conforms to the getsubopt(3C) syntax convention. The sub-options are used to specify the attachment point selection criteria ( select=select_string), the type of matching desired (match=match_type), order of listing (sort=field_spec), the data that is displayed (cols=field_spec and cols2=field_spec), the column delimiter (delim=string) and whether to suppress column headings (noheadings).
When the select sub-option is specified, only attachment points which match the specified criteria will be listed. The select sub-option has the following syntax:
cfgadm -s select=attr1(value1):attr2(value2)...
cfgadm -s match=match_type,select=attr1(value1)...
Arguments to the select sub-option can be quoted to protect them from the shell.
A field_spec is one or more data-fields concatenated using colon (:), as in data-field:data-field:data-field. A data-field is one of ap_id, physid, r_state, o_state, condition, type, busy, status_time, status_time_p, class, and info. The ap_id field output is the logical name for the attachment point, while the physid field contains the physical name. The r_state field can be empty, disconnected or connected. The o_state field can be configured or unconfigured. The busy field can be either y if the attachment point is busy, or n if it is not. The type and info fields are hardware specific.The status_time field provides the time at which either the r_state, o_state, or condition of the attachment point last changed. The status_time_p field is a parsable version of the status_time field. If an attachment point has an associated class, the class field lists the class name. If an attachement point does not have an associated class, the class field lists none.
The order of the fields in field_spec is significant: For the sort sub-option, the first field given is the primary sort key. For the cols and cols2 sub-options, the fields are printed in the order requested. The order of sorting on a data-field can be reversed by placing a minus (-) before the data-field name within the field_sec for the sort sub-option. The default value for sort is ap_id. The defaults values for cols and cols2 depend on whether the -v option is given: Without it cols is ap_id:r_state:o_state:condition and cols2 is not set. With -v cols is ap_id:r_state:o_state:condition:info and cols2 is status_time:type:busy:physid:. The default value for delim is a single space. The value of delim can be a string of arbitrary length. The delimiter cannot include comma (,) character, see getsubopt(3C). These listing options can be used to create parsable output. See NOTES.
Performs a test of one or more attachment points. The test function is used to re-evaluate the condition of the attachment point. Without a test level specifier in hardware_options, the fastest test that identifies hard faults is used.
More comprehensive tests are hardware specific and are selected using the hardware_options.
The results of the test is used to update the condition of the specified occupant to either ok if no faults are found, failing if recoverable faults are found or failed if any unrecoverable faults are found.
If a test is interrupted, the attachment point's condition can be restored to its previous value or set to unknown if no errors were found or failing if only recoverable errors were found or to failed if any unrecoverable errors were found. The attachment point should only be set to ok upon normal completion of testing with no errors.
Executes in verbose mode. For the -c, -t and -x options outputs a message giving the results of each attempted operation. Outputs detailed help information for the -h option. Outputs verbose information for each attachment point for the -l option.
Performs hardware specific functions. Private hardware specific functions can change the state of a receptacle or occupant. Attachment point conditions can change as the result of errors encountered during private hardware specific functions. The format and content of the hardware_function string is completely hardware specific. The option string hardware_function conforms to the getsubopt(3C) syntax convention.
Suppresses any interactive confirmation and assume that the answer is yes.
The required privileges to use this command are hardware dependent. Typically, a default system configuration restricts all but the list option to the superuser.
The following example lists all attachment points except dynamic attachment points.
example# cfgadm Ap_Id Type Receptacle Occupant Cond system:slot0 cpu/mem connected configured ok system:slot1 sbus-upa connected configured ok system:slot2 cpu/mem connected configured ok system:slot3 unknown connected unconfigured unknown system:slot4 dual-sbus connected configured failing system:slot5 cpu/mem connected configured ok system:slot6 unknown disconnected unconfigured unusable system:slot7 unknown empty unconfigured ok c0 scsi-bus connected configured unknown c1 scsi-bus connected configured unknown
The following example lists all current configurable hardware information, including those represented by dynamic attachment points:
example# cfgadm -al Ap_Id Type Receptacle Occupant Cond system:slot0 cpu/mem connected configured ok system:slot1 sbus-upa connected configured ok system:slot2 cpu/mem connected configured ok system:slot3 unknown connected unconfigured unknown system:slot4 dual-sbus connected configured failing system:slot5 cpu/mem connected configured ok system:slot6 unknown disconnected unconfigured unusable system:slot7 unknown empty unconfigured ok c0 scsi-bus connected configured unknown c0::dsk/c0t14d0 disk connected configured unknown c0::dsk/c0t11d0 disk connected configured unknown c0::dsk/c0t8d0 disk connected configured unknown c0::rmt/0 tape connected configured unknown c1 scsi-bus connected configured unknown
The following example lists all attachment points whose class begins with scsi, ap_id begins with c and type field begins with scsi. The argument to the -s option is quoted to protect it from the shell.
example# cfgadm -s "match=partial,select=class(scsi):ap_id(c):type(scsi)" Ap_Id Type Receptacle Occupant Cond c0 scsi-bus connected configured unknown c1 scsi-bus connected configured unknown
The following example lists current configurable hardware information for ap-type system in verbose mode:
example# cfgadm -v -l system Ap_Id Receptacle Occupant Condition Information When Type Busy Phys_Id system:slot1 connected configured ok Apr 4 23:50 sbus-upa n /devices/central/fhc/sysctrl:slot1 system:slot3 connected configured ok non-detachable Apr 17 11:20 cpu/mem n /devices/central/fhc/sysctrl:slot3 system:slot5 connected configured ok Apr 4 23:50 cpu/mem n /devices/central/fhc/sysctrl:slot5 system:slot7 connected configured ok Apr 4 23:50 dual-sbus n /devices/central/fhc/sysctrl:slot7
The When column represents the status_time field.
The following example tests two occupants using the hardware specific extended test:
example# cfgadm -v -o extended -t system:slot3 system:slot5 Testing attachment point system:slot3 ... ok Testing attachment point system:slot5 ... ok
The following example configures an occupant in the failing state to the system using the force option:
example# cfgadm -f -c configure system:slot3
The following example unconfigures an occupant from the system:
example# cfgadm -c unconfigure system:slot4
The following example configures an occupant:
example# cfgadm -c configure c0::dsk/c0t0d0
See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of cfgadm: LC_TIME, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH and TZ.
Determines how cfgadm displays column headings and error messages. Listing output data is not affected by the setting of this variable.
Determines how cfgadm displays human readable status changed time (status_time).
Specifies the timezone used when converting the status changed time. This applies to both the human readable (status_time) and parsable (status_time_p) formats.
The following exit values are returned:
An error occurred.
Configuration administration not supported on specified target.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
|ATTRIBUTE TYPE||ATTRIBUTE VALUE|
cfgadm_pci(1M), cfgadm_sbd(1M), cfgadm_usb(1M), cfgadm_scsi(1M), ifconfig(1M), mount(1M), prtdiag(1M), psradm(1M), syslogd(1M), config_admin(3CFGADM), getopt(3C), getsubopt(3C), isatty(3C), attributes(5), environ(5)
Diagnostic messages appear on the standard error output. Other than options and usage errors, the following are diagnostic messages produced by this utility:
cfgadm: Configuration administration not supported on ap_id
cfgadm: No library found for ap_id
cfgadm: ap_id is ambiguous
cfgadm: operation: Insufficient privileges
cfgadm: Attachment point is busy, try again
cfgadm: No attachment points with specified attributes found
cfgadm: System is busy, try again
cfgadm: operation: Operation requires a service interruption
cfgadm: operation: Data error: error_text
cfgadm: operation: Hardware specific failure: error_text
See config_admin(3CFGADM) for additional details regarding error messages.
Hardware resources enter the unconfigured pool in a hardware specific manner. This can occur at various times such as: system initialization or as a result of an unconfigure operation. An occupant that is in the unconfigured state is not available for use by the system until specific intervention occurs. This intervention can be manifested as an operator initiated command or it can be by way of an automatic configuring mechanism.
The listing option of the cfgadm command can be used to provide parsable input for another command, for example within a shell script. For parsable output, the -s option must be used to select the fields required. The -s option can also be used to suppress the column headings. The following fields always produce parsable output: ap_id, physid, r_state, o_state, condition, busy status_time_p, class, and type. Parsable output never has white-space characters embedded in the field value.
The following shell script fragment finds the first good unconfigured occupant of type CPU.
found= cfgadm -l -s "noheadings,cols=ap_id:r_state:condition:type" | \ while read ap_id r_state cond type do if [ "$r_state" = unconfigured -a "$cond" = ok -a "$type" = CPU ] then if [ -z "$found" ] then found=$ap_id fi fi done if [ -n "$found" ] then echo "Found CPU $found" fi
The format of the parsable time field (status_time_p) is YYYYMMDDhhmmss, giving the year, month, day, hour, minute and second in a form suitable for string comparison.
Reference should be made to the hardware specific documentation for details of System Configuration Administration support.