The ikecert command manipulates the machine's on-filesystem public-key certificate databases. See FILES.
ikecert has three subcommands, one for each of the three major repositories, plus one for listing available hardware tokens:
certlocal deals with the private-key repository,
certdb deals with the public-key repository, and
certrldb deals with the certificate revocation list (CRL) repository.
tokens shows the available PKCS#11 tokens for a given PKCS#11 library.
The only supported PKCS#11 library and hardware is the Sun Cryptographic Accelerator 4000.
Except for tokens, each subcommand requires one option, possibly followed by one or more option-specific arguments.
The tokens subcommand lists all available tokens in the PKCS#11 library specified in /etc/inet/ike/config.
The following options are supported:
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option installs (adds) a private key into the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) local ID database. The key data is read from standard input, and is in a Solaris-only format.
This option cannot be used with PKCS#11 hardware objects.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option reads a certificate from standard input and adds it to the IKE certificate database. The certificate must be a X.509 certificate in PEM Base64 or ASN.1 BER encoding. The certificate adopts the name of its identity.
This option can import a certificate into a PKCS#11 hardware key store one of two ways: Either a matching public key object and an existing private key object were created using the certlocal -kc option, or if a PKCS#11 token is explicitly specified using the -T option.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option installs (adds) a CRL into the IKE database. The CRL reads from standard input.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option extracts a private key from the IKE local ID database. The key data are written to standard output. The slot specifies which private key to extract. Private keys are only extracted in binary/ber format.
Use this option with extreme caution. See SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS.
This option will not work with PKCS#11 hardware objects.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option extracts a certificate from the IKE certificate database which matches the certspec and writes it to standard output. The output-format option specifies the encoding format. Valid options are PEM and BER. This extracts the first matching identity. The default output format is PEM.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option extracts a CRL from the IKE database. The key data are written to standard output. The certspec specifies which CRL that is extracted. The first one that matches in the database is extracted. See PARAMETERS for details on certspec patterns.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option generates a IKE public/private key pair and adds it into the local ID database. It also generates a certificate request and sends that to standard output. For details on the above options see PARAMETERS for details on the dname argument and see ALTERNATIVE NAMES for details on the altname argument(s) to this command.
If -T is specified, the hardware token will generate the pair of keys.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, generates a public/private key pair and adds it into the local ID database. This option also generates a self-signed certificate and installs it into the certificate database. See PARAMETERS for details on the dname and altname arguments to this command.
If -T is specified, the hardware token will generate the pair of keys, and the self-signed certificate will also be stored in the hardware.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option lists private keys in the local ID database. The -v option switches output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is printed.
Use the -v option with extreme caution. See SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS. The -v option will not work with PKCS#11 hardware objects.
When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option lists certificates in the IKE certificate database matching the certspec, if any pattern is given. The list displays the identity string of the certificates, as well as, the private key if in the key database. The -v switches the output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is printed.
If the matching ceritifcate is on a hardware token, the token ID is also listed.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option lists the CRLs in the IKE database along with any certificates that reside in the database and match the Issuer Name. certspec can be used to specify to list a specific CRL. The -v option switches the output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is printed. See PARAMETERS for details oncertspec patterns.
When specified with the certlocal subcommand, deletes the local ID in the specified slot. If there is a corresponding public key, it is not be deleted.
If this is invoked on a PKCS#11 hardware object, it will also delete the PKCS#11 public key and private key objects. If the public key object was already deleted by certdb -r, that is not a problem.
Removes certificates from the IKE certificate database. Certificates matching the specified certificate pattern are deleted. Any private keys in the certlocal database corresponding to these certificates are not deleted. This removes the first matching identity.
If this is invoked on a PKCS#11 hardware object, it will also delete the certificate and the PKCS#11 public key object. If the public key object was already deleted by certlocal -r, that is not a problem.
When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option deletes the CRL with the given certspec.
The following parameters are supported:
Specifies the pattern matching of certificate specifications. Valid certspecs are the Subject Name, Issuer Name, and Subject Alternative Names.
These can be specified as certificates that match the given certspec values and that do not match other certspec values. To signify a certspec value that is not supposed to be present in a certificate, place an ! in front of the tag.
Valid certspecs are:
<Subject Names> SUBJECT=<Subject Names> ISSUER=<Issuer Names> SLOT=<Slot Number in the certificate database> Example:"ISSUER=C=US, O=SUN" IP=22.214.171.124 !DNS=example.com Example:"C=US, O=CALIFORNIA" IP=126.96.36.199 DNS=sun.com
Valid arguments to the alternative names are as follows:
IP=<IPv4 address> DNS=<Domain Name Server address> EMAIL=<email (RFC 822) address> URI=<Uniform Resource Indicator value> DN=<LDAP Directory Name value> RID=<Registered Identifier value>
Valid Slot numbers can be specified without the keyword tag. Alternative name can also be issued with keyword tags.
Subject Alternative Names the certificate. The argument that follows the -A option should be in the form of tag=value. Valid tags are IP, DNS, EMAIL, URI, DN, and RID (See example below).
X.509 distinguished name for the certificate subject. It typically has the form of: C=country, O=organization, OU=organizational unit, CN=common name. Valid tags are: C, O, OU, and CN.
Encoding output format. pem for PEM Base64 or ber for ASN.1 BER. If -f is not specified, pem is assumed.
Key size. It can be 512, 1024, 2048, 3072, or 4096.
Some hardware does not support all key sizes. For example, the Sun Cryptographic Accelerator 4000's keystore (when using the -T option, below), supports only up to 2048-bit keys for RSA and 1024-bit keys for DSA.
Key type. It can be rsa-sha1, rsa-md5, or dsa-sha1.
PKCS#11 token identifier for hardware key storage. This specifies a hardware device instance in conformance to the PKCS#11 standard. A PKCS#11 library must be specified in /etc/inet/ike/config. (See ike.config(4).)
A token identifier is a 32-character space-filled string. If the token given is less than 32 characters long, it will be automatically padded with spaces.
If there is more than one PKCS#11 library on a system, keep in mind that only one can be specified at a time in /etc/inet/ike/config. There can be multiple tokens (each with individual key storage) for a single PKCS#11 library instance.
This command can save private keys of a public-private key pair into a file. Any exposure of a private key may lead to compromise if the key is somehow obtained by an adversary.
The PKCS#11 hardware object functionality can address some of the shortcomings of on-disk private keys. Because IKE is a system service, user intervention at boot is not desireable. The token's PIN, however, is still needed. The PINfor the PKCS#11 token, therefore, is stored where normally the on-disk cryptographic keys would reside. This design decision is deemed acceptable because, with a hardware key store, possession of the key is still unavailable, only use of the key is an issue if the host is compromised. Beyond the PIN, the security of ikecert then reduces to the security of the PKCS#11 implementation. The PKCS#11 implementation should be scrutinized also.
Refer to the afterword by Matt Blaze in Bruce Schneier's Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C for additional information.
The following is an example of a self-signed certificate:
example# ikecert certlocal -ks -m 512 -t rsa-md5 -D "C=US, O=SUN" -A IP=188.8.131.52 Generating, please wait... Certificate generated. Certificate added to database. -----BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE----- MIIBRDCB76ADAgECAgEBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAMBsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMQww CgYDVQQKEwNTVU4wHhcNMDEwMzE0MDEzMDM1WhcNMDUwMzE0MDEzMDM1WjAbMQsw CQYDVQQGEwJVUzEMMAoGA1UEChMDU1VOMFowDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADSQAwRgJB APDhqpKgjgRoRUr6twTMTtSuNsReEnFoReVer!ztpXpQK6ybYlRH18JIqU/uCV/r 26R/cVXTy5qc5NbMwA40KzcCASOjIDAeMAsGA1UdDwQEAwIFoDAPBgNVHREECDAG hwQBAgMEMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAA0EApTRD23KzN95GMvPD71hwwClukslKLVg8 f1xm9ZsHLPJLRxHFwsqqjAad4j4wwwriiUmGAHLTGB0lJMl8xsgxag== -----END X509 CERTIFICATE-----
Generating a CA request appears the same as the self-signed certificate. The only differences between the two is the option -c instead of -s, and the certificate data is a CA request.
example# ikecert certlocal -kc -m 512 -t rsa-md5 \ -D "C=US, O=SUN" -A IP=184.108.40.206
The following example illustrates the specification of a token using the -T option.
example# # ikecert certlocal -kc -m 1024 -t rsa-md5 -T vca0-keystore \ -D "C=US, O=SUN" -A IP=220.127.116.11
The following exit values are returned:
An error occurred. Writes an appropriate error message to standard error.
Private keys. A private key must have a matching public-key certificate with the same filename in /etc/inet/ike/publickeys/.
Public-key certificates. The names are only important with regard to matching private key names.
Public key certificate revocation lists.
Consulted for the pathname of a PKCS#11 library.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
Schneier, Bruce. Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY. 1996.
RSA Labs, PKCS#11 v2.11: Cryptographic Token Interface Standards, November 2001.