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Linker and Libraries Guide     Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library
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Part I Using the Link-Editor and Runtime Linker

1.  Introduction to the Oracle Solaris Link Editors

2.  Link-Editor

Invoking the Link-Editor

Direct Invocation

Using a Compiler Driver

Cross Link-Editing

Specifying the Link-Editor Options

Input File Processing

Archive Processing

Shared Object Processing

Linking With Additional Libraries

Library Naming Conventions

Linking With a Mix of Shared Objects and Archives

Position of an Archive on the Command Line

Directories Searched by the Link-Editor

Directories Searched by the Runtime Linker

Initialization and Termination Sections

Symbol Processing

Symbol Resolution

Simple Resolutions

Complex Resolutions

Fatal Resolutions

Undefined Symbols

Generating an Executable Output File

Generating a Shared Object Output File

Weak Symbols

Tentative Symbol Order Within the Output File

Defining Additional Symbols

Defining Additional Symbols with the -u option

Defining Symbol References

Defining Absolute Symbols

Defining Tentative Symbols

Augmenting a Symbol Definition

Reducing Symbol Scope

Symbol Elimination

External Bindings

String Table Compression

Generating the Output File

Identifying Capability Requirements

Identifying a Platform Capability

Identifying a Machine Capability

Identifying Hardware Capabilities

Identifying Software Capabilities

Creating a Family of Symbol Capabilities Functions

Creating a Family of Symbol Capabilities Data Items

Converting Object Capabilities to Symbol Capabilities

Exercising a Capability Family

Relocation Processing

Displacement Relocations

Stub Objects

Debugging Aids

3.  Runtime Linker

4.  Shared Objects

5.  Interfaces and Versioning

6.  Establishing Dependencies with Dynamic String Tokens

Part II Quick Reference

7.  Link-Editor Quick Reference

8.  Versioning Quick Reference

Part III Advanced Topics

9.  Direct Bindings

10.  Mapfiles

11.  Extensibility Mechanisms

Part IV ELF Application Binary Interface

12.  Object File Format

13.  Program Loading and Dynamic Linking

14.  Thread-Local Storage

Part V Appendices

A.  Linker and Libraries Updates and New Features

B.  System V Release 4 (Version 1) Mapfiles


Specifying the Link-Editor Options

Most options to the link-editor can be passed through the compiler driver command line. For the most part, the compiler and the link-editor options do not conflict. Where a conflict arises, the compiler drivers usually provide a command line syntax that you can use to pass specific options to the link-editor. You can also provide options to the link-editor by setting the LD_OPTIONS environment variable.

$ LD_OPTIONS="-R /home/me/libs -L /home/me/libs" cc -o prog main.c -lfoo

The -R and -L options are interpreted by the link-editor. These options precede any command line options that are received from the compiler driver.

The link-editor parses the entire option list for any invalid options or any options with invalid associated arguments. When either of these cases are found, a suitable error message is generated. If the error is deemed fatal, the link-edit terminates. In the following example, the illegal option -X, and the illegal argument to the -z option, are caught by the link-editor's checking.

$ ld -X -z sillydefs main.o
ld: illegal option -- X
ld: fatal: option -z has illegal argument `sillydefs'

If an option that requires an associated argument is specified twice, the link-editor produces a suitable warning and continue with the link-edit.

$ ld -e foo .... -e bar main.o
ld: warning: option -e appears more than once, first setting taken

The link-editor also checks the option list for any fatal inconsistencies.

$ ld -dy -a main.o
ld: fatal: option -dy and -a are incompatible

After processing all options, if no fatal error conditions have been detected, the link-editor proceeds to process the input files.

See Chapter 7, Link-Editor Quick Reference for the most commonly used link-editor options, and ld(1) for a complete description of all link-editor options.