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Oracle Solaris Administration: IP Services     Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library
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Part I TCP/IP Administration

1.  Planning the Network Deployment

2.  Considerations When Using IPv6 Addresses

3.  Configuring an IPv4 Network

4.  Enabling IPv6 on the Network

5.  Administering a TCP/IP Network

6.  Configuring IP Tunnels

7.  Troubleshooting Network Problems

8.  IPv4 Reference

9.  IPv6 Reference


10.  About DHCP (Overview)

11.  Administering the ISC DHCP Service

12.  Configuring and Administering the DHCP Client

13.  DHCP Commands and Files (Reference)

Part III IP Security

14.  IP Security Architecture (Overview)

Introduction to IPsec

IPsec RFCs

IPsec Terminology

IPsec Packet Flow

IPsec Security Associations

Key Management in IPsec

IPsec Protection Mechanisms

Authentication Header

Encapsulating Security Payload

Security Considerations When Using AH and ESP

Authentication and Encryption Algorithms in IPsec

Authentication Algorithms in IPsec

Encryption Algorithms in IPsec

IPsec Protection Policies

Transport and Tunnel Modes in IPsec

Virtual Private Networks and IPsec

IPsec and NAT Traversal

IPsec and SCTP

IPsec and Oracle Solaris Zones

IPsec and Logical Domains

IPsec Utilities and Files

15.  Configuring IPsec (Tasks)

16.  IP Security Architecture (Reference)

17.  Internet Key Exchange (Overview)

18.  Configuring IKE (Tasks)

19.  Internet Key Exchange (Reference)

20.  IP Filter in Oracle Solaris (Overview)

21.  IP Filter (Tasks)

Part IV Networking Performance

22.  Integrated Load Balancer Overview

23.  Configuration of Integrated Load Balancer (Tasks)

24.  Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (Overview)

25.  VRRP Configuration (Tasks)

26.  Implementing Congestion Control

Part V IP Quality of Service (IPQoS)

27.  Introducing IPQoS (Overview)

28.  Planning for an IPQoS-Enabled Network (Tasks)

29.  Creating the IPQoS Configuration File (Tasks)

30.  Starting and Maintaining IPQoS (Tasks)

31.  Using Flow Accounting and Statistics Gathering (Tasks)

32.  IPQoS in Detail (Reference)



Introduction to IPsec

IPsec protects IP packets by authenticating the packets, by encrypting the packets, or by doing both. IPsec is performed inside the IP module. Therefore, an Internet application can take advantage of IPsec while not having to configure itself to use IPsec. When used properly, IPsec is an effective tool in securing network traffic.

IPsec protection involves the following main components:

IPsec applies the security mechanisms to IP datagrams that travel to the IP destination address. The receiver uses information in its SADB to verify that the arriving packets are legitimate and to decrypt them. Applications can invoke IPsec to apply security mechanisms to IP datagrams on a per-socket level as well.

If a socket on a port is connected, and IPsec policy is later applied to that port, then traffic that uses that socket is not protected by IPsec. Of course, a socket that is opened on a port after IPsec policy is applied to the port is protected by IPsec policy.

IPsec RFCs

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has published a number of Requests for Comment (RFCs) that describe the security architecture for the IP layer. All RFCs are copyrighted by the Internet Society. For a link to the RFCs, see The following list of RFCs covers the more general IP security references:

IPsec Terminology

The IPsec RFCs define a number of terms that are useful to recognize when implementing IPsec on your systems. The following table lists IPsec terms, provides their commonly used acronyms, and defines each term. For a list of terminology used in key negotiation, see Table 17-1.

Table 14-1 IPsec Terms, Acronyms, and Uses

IPsec Term
Security association
The cryptographic parameters and the IP security protocol that are applied to a specific flow of network traffic. The SA is defined by a triplet: a security protocol, a unique security parameter index (SPI), and an IP destination.
Security associations database
Database that contains all active security associations.
Security parameter index
The indexing value for a security association. An SPI is a 32-bit value that distinguishes among SAs that have the same IP destination and security protocol.
Security policy database
Database that determines if outbound packets and inbound packets have the specified level of protection.
Key exchange
The process of generating keys by using asymmetric cryptographic algorithms. The two main methods are RSA and Diffie-Hellman.
A key exchange algorithm that allows key generation and key authentication. Often called authenticated key exchange.
A key exchange algorithm that allows key generation and key distribution. The protocol is named for its three creators, Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman.
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
The common framework for establishing the format of SA attributes, and for negotiating, modifying, and deleting SAs. ISAKMP is the IETF standard for handling an IKE exchange.