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|Oracle Solaris 11.1 Administration: ZFS File Systems Oracle Solaris 11.1 Information Library|
This section summarizes new features in the ZFS file system.
Oracle Solaris 11.1: The zpool status command has been enhanced to provide more detailed information about device failures. The zpool status output in this example identifies a pool device (c0t5000C500335F907Fd0) that is UNAVAIL due to persistent errors and it should be replaced.
# zpool status -v pond pool: pond state: DEGRADED status: One or more devices are unavailable in response to persistent errors. Sufficient replicas exist for the pool to continue functioning in a degraded state. action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors using 'zpool clear' or 'fmadm repaired', or replace the device with 'zpool replace'. scan: scrub repaired 0 in 0h0m with 0 errors on Wed Jun 20 15:38:08 2012 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM pond DEGRADED 0 0 0 mirror-0 DEGRADED 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F95E3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F907Fd0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335BD117d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335DC60Fd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 device details: c0t5000C500335F907Fd0 UNAVAIL cannot open status: ZFS detected errors on this device. The device was missing. see: http://support.oracle.com/msg/ZFS-8000-LR for recovery errors: No known data errors
Oracle Solaris 11.1: Sharing ZFS file systems has improved with the following primary enhancements:
The share syntax is simplified. You can share a file system by setting the new share.nfs or share.smb property
Better inheritance of share properties to descendent file systems
The file sharing improvements are associated with pool version 34.
For more information, see Sharing and Unsharing ZFS File Systems.
Oracle Solaris 11.1: Installing Oracle Solaris 11.1 automatically creates a rpool/VARSHARE file system that is mounted at /var/share. The purpose of this file system is to share file systems across boot environments so that the amount of space that is needed in the /var directory for all BEs is reduced. For example:
# ls /var/share audit cores crash mail
Symbolic links are automatically created from /var to the /var/share components listed above for compatibility purposes. This file system generally requires no administration except to ensure that /var components do not fill the root file system.
If an Oracle Solaris 11 system is updated to the Oracle Solaris 11.1 release, it might take some time to migrate data from the original /var directory to the /var/share directory.
Oracle Solaris 11.1: This release installs an EFI (GPT) disk label on a ZFS root pool disk for an x86 based system, in most cases. For example:
# zpool status rpool pool: rpool state: ONLINE scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM rpool ONLINE 0 0 0 c2t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors
These features are not yet supported on a SPARC system
In most cases, an x86 based system is installed with an EFI (GPT) labeled disk
The zpool command has been enhanced to support an EFI (GPT) disk label so that if you need to recreate a root pool after the system is installed, you can do so with the zpool create -B command. This new command option creates the required partitions and boot information that is needed for booting. For more information about creating a root pool after installation, see How to Create a BE in Another Root Pool (SPARC or x86/VTOC).
If you need to replace a disk in a root pool with an EFI (GPT) label, you will need to run this command after the zpool replace operation.
# bootadm install-bootloader
Oracle Solaris installations are no longer limited to the first 2 TiB of the disk on an x86 based system.
Oracle Solaris 11: The zfs and zpool command have a help subcommand that you can use to provide more information about the zfs and zpool subcommands and their supported options. For example:
# zfs help The following commands are supported: allow clone create destroy diff get groupspace help hold holds inherit list mount promote receive release rename rollback send set share snapshot unallow unmount unshare upgrade userspace For more info, run: zfs help <command> # zfs help create usage: create [-p] [-o property=value] ... <filesystem> create [-ps] [-b blocksize] [-o property=value] ... -V <size> <volume>
# zpool help The following commands are supported: add attach clear create destroy detach export get help history import iostat list offline online remove replace scrub set split status upgrade For more info, run: zpool help <command> # zpool help attach usage: attach [-f] <pool> <device> <new-device>
Oracle Solaris 11: This release includes the following ZFS snapshot enhancements:
The zfs snapshot command has a snap alias that provides abbreviated syntax for this command. For example:
# zfs snap -r users/home@snap1
The zfs diff command provides an enumeration option, -e, to identify all the files that were added or modified between the two snapshots. The generated output identifies all files added, but does not provide possible deletions. For example:
# zfs diff -e tank/cindy@yesterday tank/cindy@now + /tank/cindy/ + /tank/cindy/file.1
You can also use the -o option to identify selected fields to be displayed. For example:
# zfs diff -e -o size -o name tank/cindy@yesterday tank/cindy@now + 7 /tank/cindy/ + 206695 /tank/cindy/file.1
For more information about creating ZFS snapshots, see Chapter 6, Working With Oracle Solaris ZFS Snapshots and Clones.
Oracle Solaris 11: The zfs.1m manual page has been revised so that core ZFS file system features remain in the zfs.1m page, but delegated administration, encryption, and share syntax and examples are covered in the following pages:
Oracle Solaris 11: The aclmode property modifies Access Control List (ACL) behavior whenever ACL permissions on a file are modified during a chmod operation. The aclmode property has been reintroduced with the following property values:
discard – A file system with an aclmode property of discard deletes all ACL entries that do not represent the mode of the file. This is the default value.
mask – A file system with an aclmode property of mask reduces user or group permissions. The permissions are reduced, such that they are no greater than the group permission bits, unless it is a user entry that has the same UID as the owner of the file or directory. In this case, the ACL permissions are reduced so that they are no greater than owner permission bits. The mask value also preserves the ACL across mode changes, provided an explicit ACL set operation has not been performed.
passthrough – A file system with an aclmode property of passthrough indicates that no changes are made to the ACL other than generating the necessary ACL entries to represent the new mode of the file or directory.
For more information, see Example 7-14.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this Solaris release, use the zpool status -l command to display physical disk location information for pool devices that is available from the /dev/chassis directory. This directory contains chassis, receptacle, and occupant values for the devices on your system.
In addition, you can use the fmadm add-alias command to include a disk alias name that helps you identify the physical location of disks in your environment. For example:
# fmadm add-alias SUN-Storage-J4400.0912QAJ001 SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22
% zpool status -l export pool: export state: ONLINE scan: resilvered 492G in 8h22m with 0 errors on Wed Aug 1 17:22:11 2012 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM export ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__2/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__3/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__4/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__5/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-2 ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__6/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__7/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-3 ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__8/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__9/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-4 ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__10/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__11/disk ONLINE 0 0 0 spares /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__0/disk AVAIL /dev/chassis/SUN-Storage-J4400.rack22/SCSI_Device__1/disk AVAIL errors: No known data errors
The zpool iostat command has also been updated to provide physical location information for a pool's devices.
In addition, the diskinfo, format, and prtconf commands also provide physical disk location information. For more information, see diskinfo(1M).
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can migrate data from an old file system to a new file system while simultaneously allowing access and modification of the new file system during the migration process.
Setting the shadow property on a new ZFS file system triggers the migration of the older data. The shadow property can be set to migrate data from the local system or a remote system with either of the following values:
For more information, see Migrating ZFS File Systems.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can encrypt a ZFS file system.
For example, the tank/cindy file system is created with the encryption property enabled. The default encryption policy is to prompt for a passphrase, which must be a minimum of 8 characters in length.
# zfs create -o encryption=on tank/cindy Enter passphrase for 'tank/cindy': xxx Enter again: xxx
An encryption policy is set when a ZFS file system is created. A file system's encryption policy is inherited by descendent file systems and cannot be removed.
For more information, see Encrypting ZFS File Systems.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can set file system properties that are sent and received in a snapshot stream. These enhancements provide flexibility in applying file system properties in a send stream to the receiving file system or in determining whether the local file system properties, such as the mountpoint property value, should be ignored when received.
For more information, see Applying Different Property Values to a ZFS Snapshot Stream.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can determine ZFS snapshot differences by using the zfs diff command.
For example, assume that the following two snapshots are created:
$ ls /tank/cindy fileA $ zfs snapshot tank/cindy@0913 $ ls /tank/cindy fileA fileB $ zfs snapshot tank/cindy@0914
For example, to identify the differences between two snapshots, use syntax similar to the following:
$ zfs diff tank/cindy@0913 tank/cindy@0914 M /tank/cindy/ + /tank/cindy/fileB
In the output, the M indicates that the directory has been modified. The + indicates that fileB exists in the later snapshot.
For more information, see Identifying ZFS Snapshot Differences (zfs diff).
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, the following new ZFS storage pool features are provided:
You can import a pool with a missing log by using the zpool import -m command. For more information, see Importing a Pool With a Missing Log Device.
You can import a pool in read-only mode. This feature is primarily for pool recovery. If a damaged pool cannot be accessed because the underlying devices are damaged, you can import the pool read-only to recover the data. For more information, see Importing a Pool in Read-Only Mode.
A RAID-Z (raidz1, raidz2, or raidz3) storage pool that is created in this release will have some latency-sensitive metadata automatically mirrored to improve read I/O throughput performance. For existing RAID-Z pools that are upgraded to at least pool version 29, some metadata will be mirrored for all newly written data.
Mirrored metadata in a RAID-Z pool does not provide additional protection against hardware failures, similar to what a mirrored storage pool provides. Additional space is consumed by mirrored metadata, but the RAID-Z protection remains the same as in previous releases. This enhancement is for performance purposes only.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can determine a ZFS file system's synchronous behavior by using the sync property.
The default synchronous behavior is to write all synchronous file system transactions to the intent log and to flush all devices to ensure that the data is stable. Disabling the default synchronous behavior is not recommended. Applications that depend on synchronous support might be affected, and data loss could occur.
The sync property can be set before or after the file system is created. In either case, the property value takes effect immediately. For example:
# zfs set sync=always tank/neil
The zil_disable parameter is no longer available in Oracle Solaris releases that include the sync property.
For more information, see Table 5-1.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can use the -T option to provide an interval and count value for the zpool list and zpool status commands to display additional information.
In addition, more pool scrub and resilver information is provided by the zpool status command as follows:
Resilver in-progress report. For example:
scan: resilver in progress since Thu Jun 7 14:41:11 2012 3.83G scanned out of 73.3G at 106M/s, 0h11m to go 3.80G resilvered, 5.22% done
Scrub in-progress report. For example:
scan: scrub in progress since Thu Jun 7 14:59:25 2012 1.95G scanned out of 73.3G at 118M/s, 0h10m to go 0 repaired, 2.66% done
Resilver completion message. For example:
resilvered 73.3G in 0h13m with 0 errors on Thu Jun 7 14:54:16 2012
Scrub completion message. For example:
scan: scrub repaired 512B in 1h2m with 0 errors on Thu Jun 7 15:10:32 2012
Ongoing scrub cancellation message. For example:
scan: scrub canceled on Thu Jun 7 15:19:20 MDT 2012
Scrub and resilver completion messages persist across system reboots
The following syntax uses the interval and count option to display ongoing pool resilvering information. You can use the -T d value to display the information in standard date format or -T u to display the information in an internal format.
# zpool status -T d tank 3 2 Thu Jun 14 14:08:21 MDT 2012 pool: tank state: DEGRADED status: One or more devices is currently being resilvered. The pool will continue to function in a degraded state. action: Wait for the resilver to complete. Run 'zpool status -v' to see device specific details. scan: resilver in progress since Thu Jun 14 14:08:05 2012 2.96G scanned out of 4.19G at 189M/s, 0h0m to go 1.48G resilvered, 70.60% done config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM tank DEGRADED 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F95E3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F907Fd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 DEGRADED 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335BD117d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335DC60Fd0 DEGRADED 0 0 0 (resilvering) errors: No known data errors
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, the following ACL enhancements are provided:
Trivial ACLs do not require deny Access control entries (ACEs) except for unusual permissions. For example, a mode of 0644, 0755, or 0664 does not require deny ACEs, but a mode, such as 0705, 0060, and so on, does require deny ACEs.
The old behavior includes deny ACEs in a trivial ACL like 644. For example:
# ls -v file.1 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 206663 Jun 14 11:52 file.1 0:owner@:execute:deny 1:owner@:read_data/write_data/append_data/write_xattr/write_attributes /write_acl/write_owner:allow 2:group@:write_data/append_data/execute:deny 3:group@:read_data:allow 4:everyone@:write_data/append_data/write_xattr/execute/write_attributes /write_acl/write_owner:deny 5:everyone@:read_data/read_xattr/read_attributes/read_acl/synchronize :allow
The new behavior for a trivial ACL like 644 does not include the deny ACEs. For example:
# ls -v file.1 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 206663 Jun 22 14:30 file.1 0:owner@:read_data/write_data/append_data/read_xattr/write_xattr /read_attributes/write_attributes/read_acl/write_acl/write_owner /synchronize:allow 1:group@:read_data/read_xattr/read_attributes/read_acl/synchronize:allow 2:everyone@:read_data/read_xattr/read_attributes/read_acl/synchronize :allow
ACLs are no longer split into multiple ACEs during inheritance to try to preserve the original unmodified permission. Instead, the permissions are modified as necessary to enforce the file creation mode.
The aclinherit property behavior includes a reduction in permissions when the property is set to restricted, which means that ACLs are no longer split into multiple ACEs during inheritance.
A new permission mode calculation rule specifies that if an ACL has a user ACE that is also the file owner, then those permissions are included in the permission mode computation. The same rule applies if a group ACE is the group owner of the file.
For more information, see Chapter 7, Using ACLs and Attributes to Protect Oracle Solaris ZFS Files.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can use the zpool split command to split a mirrored storage pool, which detaches a disk or disks in the original mirrored pool to create another identical pool.
For more information, see Creating a New Pool By Splitting a Mirrored ZFS Storage Pool.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, the iSCSI target daemon is replaced by using the Common Multiprotocol SCSI Target (COMSTAR) target daemon. This change also means that the shareiscsi property that was used to share a ZFS volume as an iSCSI LUN is no longer available. Use the stmfadm command to configure and share a ZFS volume as an iSCSI LUN.
For more information, see Using a ZFS Volume as an iSCSI LUN.
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, each ZFS storage pool has an associated process, zpool-poolname. The threads in this process are the pool's I/O processing threads to handle I/O tasks, such as compression and checksum validation, that are associated with the pool. The purpose of this process is to provide visibility into each storage pool's CPU utilization.
Information about these running processes can be reviewed by using the ps and prstat commands. These processes are only available in the global zone. For more information, see SDC(7).
Oracle Solaris 11: In this release, you can use the deduplication (dedup) property to remove redundant data from your ZFS file systems. If a file system has the dedup property enabled, duplicate data blocks are removed synchronously. The result is that only unique data is stored, and common components are shared between files.
You can enable this property as follows:
# zfs set dedup=on tank/home
Although deduplication is set as a file system property, the scope is pool-wide. For example, you can identify the deduplication ratio as follows:
# zpool list tank NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT tank 556G 4.19G 552G 0% 1.00x ONLINE -
The zpool list output has been updated to support the deduplication property.
For more information about setting the deduplication property, see The dedup Property.
Do not enable the dedup property on file systems that reside on production systems until you review the following considerations:
Determine if your data would benefit from deduplication space savings
Determine whether your system has enough physical memory to support deduplication
Potential system performance impacts
For more information about these considerations, see The dedup Property.