Oracle® Linux

Administrator's Solutions Guide for Release 6

Oracle Legal Notices
Oracle Documentation License


March 2016

Table of Contents

1 The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
1.1 About the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
1.1.1 About UEK Release 1
1.1.2 About UEK Release 2
1.1.3 About UEK Release 3
1.1.4 About UEK Release 4
1.2 Obtaining and Installing the UEK Packages
1.3 For More Information About the UEK
2 Yum
2.1 About Yum
2.2 Yum Configuration
2.2.1 Configuring Use of a Proxy Server
2.2.2 Yum Repository Configuration
2.3 Downloading the Oracle Public Yum Repository Files
2.4 Using Yum from the Command Line
2.5 Yum Groups
2.6 Installing and Using the Yum Security Plugin
2.7 Switching CentOS or Scientific Linux Systems to Use the Oracle Public Yum Server
2.8 Creating and Using a Local ULN Mirror
2.9 Creating a Local Yum Repository Using an ISO Image
2.10 Setting up a Local Yum Server Using an ISO Image
2.11 For More Information About Yum
3 The Unbreakable Linux Network
3.1 About the Unbreakable Linux Network
3.2 About ULN Channels
3.3 About Software Errata
3.4 Registering as a ULN User
3.5 Registering an Oracle Linux 6 or Oracle Linux 7 System
3.6 Registering an Oracle Linux 4 or Oracle Linux 5 System
3.7 Configuring an Oracle Linux 5 System to Use yum with ULN
3.8 Disabling Package Updates
3.9 Subscribing Your System to ULN Channels
3.10 Browsing and Downloading Errata Packages
3.11 Downloading Available Errata for a System
3.12 Updating System Details
3.13 Deleting a System
3.14 About CSI Administration
3.14.1 Becoming a CSI Administrator
3.14.2 Listing Active CSIs and Transferring Their Registered Servers
3.14.3 Listing Expired CSIs and Transferring Their Registered Servers
3.14.4 Removing a CSI Administrator
3.15 Switching from RHN to ULN
3.16 For More Information About ULN
4 Ksplice Uptrack
4.1 About Ksplice Uptrack
4.1.1 Supported Kernels
4.2 Registering to Use Ksplice Uptrack
4.3 Installing Ksplice Uptrack
4.4 Configuring Ksplice Uptrack
4.5 Managing Ksplice Updates
4.6 Patching and Updating Your System
4.7 Removing the Ksplice Uptrack software
4.8 About Ksplice Offline Client
4.8.1 Modifying a Local Yum Server to Act as a Ksplice Mirror
4.8.2 Configuring Ksplice Offline Clients
4.9 For More Information About Ksplice Uptrack
5 The Btrfs File System
5.1 About the Btrfs File System
5.2 Creating a Btrfs File System
5.3 Modifying a Btrfs File System
5.4 Compressing and Defragmenting a Btrfs File System
5.5 Resizing a Btrfs File System
5.6 Creating Subvolumes and Snapshots
5.6.1 Cloning Virtual Machine Images and Linux Containers
5.7 Using the Send/Receive Feature
5.7.1 Using Send/Receive to Implement Incremental Backups
5.8 Using Quota Groups
5.9 Replacing Devices on a Live File System
5.10 Creating Snapshots of Files
5.11 Converting an Ext2, Ext3, or Ext4 File System to a Btrfs File System
5.11.1 Converting a Non-root File System
5.11.2 Converting the root File System
5.11.3 Mounting the Image of the Original File System
5.11.4 Deleting the Snapshot of the Original File System
5.11.5 Recovering an Original Non-root File System
5.12 Installing a Btrfs root File System
5.12.1 Setting up a New NFS Server
5.12.2 Configuring an Existing NFS Server
5.12.3 Setting up a New HTTP Server
5.12.4 Configuring an Existing HTTP Server
5.12.5 Setting up a Network Installation Server
5.12.6 Installing from a Network Installation Server
5.12.7 About the Installation root File System
5.12.8 Creating Snapshots of the root File System
5.12.9 Mounting Alternate Snapshots as the root File System
5.12.10 Deleting Snapshots of the root File System
5.13 For More Information About Btrfs
6 The XFS File System
6.1 About the XFS File System
6.1.1 About External XFS Journals
6.1.2 About XFS Write Barriers
6.1.3 About Lazy Counters
6.2 Installing the XFS Packages
6.3 Creating an XFS File System
6.4 Modifying an XFS File System
6.5 Growing an XFS File System
6.6 Freezing and Unfreezing an XFS File System
6.7 Setting Quotas on an XFS File System
6.7.1 Setting Project Quotas
6.8 Backing up and Restoring XFS File Systems
6.9 Defragmenting an XFS File System
6.10 Checking and Repairing an XFS File System
6.11 For More Information About XFS
7 Oracle Cluster File System Version 2
7.1 About OCFS2
7.2 Installing and Configuring OCFS2
7.2.1 Preparing a Cluster for OCFS2
7.2.2 Configuring the Firewall
7.2.3 Configuring the Cluster Software
7.2.4 Creating the Configuration File for the Cluster Stack
7.2.5 Configuring the Cluster Stack
7.2.6 Configuring the Kernel for Cluster Operation
7.2.7 Starting and Stopping the Cluster Stack
7.2.8 Creating OCFS2 volumes
7.2.9 Mounting OCFS2 Volumes
7.2.10 Querying and Changing Volume Parameters
7.3 Troubleshooting OCFS2
7.3.1 Recommended Tools for Debugging
7.3.2 Mounting the debugfs File System
7.3.3 Configuring OCFS2 Tracing
7.3.4 Debugging File System Locks
7.3.5 Configuring the Behavior of Fenced Nodes
7.4 Use Cases for OCFS2
7.4.1 Load Balancing
7.4.2 Oracle Real Application Cluster (RAC)
7.4.3 Oracle Databases
7.5 For More Information About OCFS2
8 Control Groups
8.1 About cgroups
8.2 Subsystems
8.2.1 blkio Parameters
8.2.2 cpu Parameters
8.2.3 cpuacct Parameters
8.2.4 cpuset Parameters
8.2.5 devices Parameters
8.2.6 freezer Parameter
8.2.7 memory Parameters
8.2.8 net_cls Parameter
8.3 Enabling the cgconfig Service
8.4 Enabling PAM to Work with cgroup Rules
8.5 Restarting the cgconfig Service
8.6 About the cgroups Configuration File
8.7 About the cgroup Rules Configuration File
8.8 Displaying and Setting Subsystem Parameters
8.9 Use Cases for cgroups
8.9.1 Pinning Processes to CPU Cores
8.9.2 Controlling CPU and Memory Usage
8.9.3 Restricting Access to Devices
8.9.4 Throttling I/O Bandwidth
8.10 For More Information About cgroups
9 Linux Containers
9.1 About Linux Containers
9.1.1 Supported Oracle Linux Container Versions
9.2 Configuring Operating System Containers
9.2.1 Installing and Configuring the Software
9.2.2 Setting up the File System for the Containers
9.2.3 Creating and Starting a Container
9.2.4 About the lxc-oracle Template Script
9.2.5 About Veth and Macvlan
9.2.6 Modifying a Container to Use Macvlan
9.3 Logging in to Containers
9.4 Creating Additional Containers
9.5 Monitoring and Shutting Down Containers
9.6 Starting a Command Inside a Running Container
9.7 Controlling Container Resources
9.8 Configuring ulimit Settings for an Oracle Linux Container
9.9 Configuring Kernel Parameter Settings for Oracle Linux Containers
9.10 Deleting Containers
9.11 Running Application Containers
9.12 For More Information About Linux Containers
10 Docker
10.1 About Docker
10.2 Installing and Configuring the Docker Engine
10.3 Upgrading to Docker Version 1.8.1 and Later
10.4 Upgrading to Docker Version 1.10 and Later
10.5 Restarting the Docker Engine
10.6 Enabling Non-root Users to Run Docker Commands
10.7 Configuring User Namespace Remapping
10.8 Pulling Oracle Linux Images from the Docker Hub Registry
10.8.1 Enabling or Disabling Docker Content Trust
10.9 Creating and Running Docker Containers
10.9.1 Configuring How Docker Restarts Containers
10.9.2 Controlling Capabilities and Making Host Devices Available to Containers
10.9.3 Accessing the Host's Process ID Namespace
10.9.4 Mounting a Host's root File System in Read-Only Mode
10.10 Creating a Docker Image from an Existing Container
10.11 Creating a Docker Image from a Dockerfile
10.12 About Docker Networking
10.12.1 About Multihost Networking
10.13 Communicating Between Docker Containers
10.13.1 Example of Linking Database and HTTP Server Containers
10.14 Accessing External Files from Docker Containers
10.15 Creating and Using Data Volume Containers
10.16 Moving Data Between Docker Containers and the Host
10.17 Using Labels to Define Metadata
10.18 Defining the Logging Driver
10.19 About Image Digests
10.20 Specifying Control Groups for Containers
10.21 Limiting CPU Usage by Containers
10.22 Making a Container Use the Host's UTS Namespace
10.23 Setting ulimit Values on Containers
10.24 Building Images with Resource Constraints
10.25 Committing, Exporting and Importing Images
10.26 For More Information About Docker
11 HugePages
11.1 About HugePages
11.2 Configuring HugePages for Oracle Database
11.3 For More Information About HugePages
12 Using kexec for Fast Rebooting
12.1 About kexec
12.2 Setting up Fast Reboots of the Current Kernel
12.3 Controlling Fast Reboots
12.4 For More Information About kexec
13 DTrace
13.1 About DTrace
13.2 Installing and Configuring DTrace
13.2.1 Changing the Mode of the DTrace Helper Device
13.2.2 Loading DTrace Kernel Modules
13.3 Differences Between DTrace on Oracle Linux and Oracle Solaris
13.4 Calling DTrace from the Command Line
13.5 About Programming for DTrace
13.6 Introducing the D Programming Language
13.6.1 Probe Clauses
13.6.2 Pragmas
13.6.3 Global Variables
13.6.4 Predicates
13.6.5 Scalar Arrays and Associative Arrays
13.6.6 Pointers and External Variables
13.6.7 Address Spaces
13.6.8 Thread-local Variables
13.6.9 Speculations
13.6.10 Aggregations
13.7 DTrace Command Examples
13.8 Tracing User-Space Applications
13.8.1 Examining the Stack Trace of a User-Space Application
13.9 For More Information About DTrace
14 Support Diagnostic Tools
14.1 About sosreport
14.1.1 Configuring and Using sosreport
14.2 About Kdump
14.2.1 Configuring and Using Kdump
14.2.2 Files Used by Kdump
14.3 About OSWatcher Black Box
14.3.1 Installing OSWbb
14.3.2 Running OSWbb
14.4 For More Information About the Diagnostic Tools