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Oracle® Big Data Appliance Software User's Guide
Release 2 (2.2.1)

Part Number E41241-04
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2 Administering Oracle Big Data Appliance

This chapter provides information about the software and services installed on Oracle Big Data Appliance. It contains these sections:

2.1 Monitoring a Cluster Using Oracle Enterprise Manager

An Oracle Enterprise Manager plug-in enables you to use the same system monitoring tool for Oracle Big Data Appliance as you use for Oracle Exadata Database Machine or any other Oracle Database installation. With the plug-in, you can view the status of the installed software components in tabular or graphic presentations, and start and stop these software services. You can also monitor the health of the network and the rack components.

2.1.1 Using the Enterprise Manager Web Interface

After opening Oracle Enterprise Manager web interface, logging in, and selecting a target cluster, you can drill down into these primary areas:

  • InfiniBand network: Network topology and status for InfiniBand switches and ports. See Figure 2-1.

  • Hadoop cluster: Software services for HDFS, MapReduce, and ZooKeeper.

  • Oracle Big Data Appliance rack: Hardware status including server hosts, Oracle Integrated Lights Out Manager (Oracle ILOM) servers, power distribution units (PDUs), and the Ethernet switch.

Figure 2-1 shows some information provided about the InfiniBand switches.

Figure 2-1 InfiniBand Home in Oracle Enterprise Manager

Description of Figure 2-1 follows
Description of "Figure 2-1 InfiniBand Home in Oracle Enterprise Manager"

To monitor Oracle Big Data Appliance using Oracle Enterprise Manager: 

  1. Download and install the plug-in. See Oracle Enterprise Manager System Monitoring Plug-in Installation Guide for Oracle Big Data Appliance.

  2. Log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager as a privileged user.

  3. From the Targets menu, choose Big Data Appliance to view the Big Data page. You can see the overall status of the targets already discovered by Oracle Enterprise Manager.

  4. Select a target cluster to view its detail pages.

  5. Expand the target navigation tree to display the components. Information is available at all levels.

  6. Select a component in the tree to display its home page.

  7. To change the display, choose an item from the drop-down menu at the top left of the main display area.

2.1.2 Using the Enterprise Manager Command-Line Interface

The Enterprise Manager command-line interface (emcli) is installed on Oracle Big Data Appliance along with all the other software. It provides the same functionality as the web interface. You must provide credentials to connect to Oracle Management Server.

To get help, enter emcli help.

2.2 Managing CDH Operations Using Cloudera Manager

Cloudera Manager is installed on Oracle Big Data Appliance to help you with Cloudera's Distribution including Apache Hadoop (CDH) operations. Cloudera Manager provides a single administrative interface to all Oracle Big Data Appliance servers configured as part of the Hadoop cluster.

Cloudera Manager simplifies the performance of these administrative tasks:

  • Monitor jobs and services

  • Start and stop services

  • Manage security and Kerberos credentials

  • Monitor user activity

  • Monitor the health of the system

  • Monitor performance metrics

  • Track hardware use (disk, CPU, and RAM)

Cloudera Manager runs on the JobTracker node (node03) and is available on port 7180.

To use Cloudera Manager: 

  1. Open a browser and enter a URL like the following:

    http://bda1node03.example.com:7180
    

    In this example, bda1 is the name of the appliance, node03 is the name of the server, example.com is the domain, and 7180 is the default port number for Cloudera Manager.

  2. Log in with a user name and password for Cloudera Manager. Only a user with administrative privileges can change the settings. Other Cloudera Manager users can view the status of Oracle Big Data Appliance.

2.2.1 Monitoring the Status of Oracle Big Data Appliance

In Cloudera Manager, you can choose any of the following pages from the menu bar across the top of the display:

  • Services: Monitors the status and health of services running on Oracle Big Data Appliance. Click the name of a service to drill down to additional information.

  • Hosts: Monitors the health, disk usage, load, physical memory, swap space, and other statistics for all servers.

  • Activities: Monitors all MapReduce jobs running in the selected time period.

  • Logs: Collects historical information about the systems and services. You can search for a particular phrase for a selected server, service, and time period. You can also select the minimum severity level of the logged messages included in the search: TRACE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR, or FATAL.

  • Events: Records a change in state and other noteworthy occurrences. You can search for one or more keywords for a selected server, service, and time period. You can also select the event type: Audit Event, Activity Event, Health Check, or Log Message.

  • Charts: Displays metrics from the Cloudera Manager time-series data store. You can choose from a variety of chart types, such as line and bar.

  • Reports: Generates reports on demand for disk and MapReduce use.

  • Audits: Displays the audit history log for a selected time range. You can filter the results by user name, service, or other criteria, and download the log as a CSV file.

Figure 2-2 shows the opening display of Cloudera Manager, which is the Services page.

Figure 2-2 Cloudera Manager Services Page

Description of Figure 2-2 follows
Description of "Figure 2-2 Cloudera Manager Services Page"

2.2.2 Performing Administrative Tasks

As a Cloudera Manager administrator, you can change various properties for monitoring the health and use of Oracle Big Data Appliance, add users, and set up Kerberos security.

To access Cloudera Manager Administration: 

  1. Log in to Cloudera Manager with administrative privileges.

  2. Click the Administration (gear) icon at the top right of the page.

2.2.3 Managing Services With Cloudera Manager

Cloudera Manager provides the interface for managing these services:

  • HDFS

  • Hive

  • Hue

  • MapReduce

  • Oozie

  • ZooKeeper

You can use Cloudera Manager to change the configuration of these services, stop, and restart them.

Note:

Manual edits to Linux service scripts or Hadoop configuration files do not affect these services. You must manage and configure them using Cloudera Manager.

2.3 Using Hadoop Monitoring Utilities

Users can monitor MapReduce jobs without providing a Cloudera Manager user name and password.

2.3.1 Monitoring the JobTracker

Hadoop Map/Reduce Administration monitors the JobTracker, which runs on port 50030 of the JobTracker node (node03) on Oracle Big Data Appliance.

To monitor the JobTracker: 

  • Open a browser and enter a URL like the following:

    http://bda1node03.example.com:50030
    

    In this example, bda1 is the name of the appliance, node03 is the name of the server, and 50030 is the default port number for Hadoop Map/Reduce Administration.

Figure 2-3 shows part of a Hadoop Map/Reduce Administration display.

Figure 2-3 Hadoop Map/Reduce Administration

Description of Figure 2-3 follows
Description of "Figure 2-3 Hadoop Map/Reduce Administration"

2.3.2 Monitoring the TaskTracker

The Task Tracker Status interface monitors the TaskTracker on a single node. It is available on port 50060 of all noncritical nodes (node04 to node18) in Oracle Big Data Appliance. On six-node clusters, the TaskTracker also runs on node01 and node02.

To monitor a TaskTracker: 

  • Open a browser and enter the URL for a particular node like the following:

    http://bda1node13.example.com:50060
    

    In this example, bda1 is the name of the rack, node13 is the name of the server, and 50060 is the default port number for the Task Tracker Status interface.

Figure 2-4 shows the Task Tracker Status interface.

Figure 2-4 Task Tracker Status Interface

Description of Figure 2-4 follows
Description of "Figure 2-4 Task Tracker Status Interface"

2.4 Using Hue to Interact With Hadoop

Hue runs in a browser and provides an easy-to-use interface to several applications to support interaction with Hadoop and HDFS. You can use Hue to perform any of the following tasks:

  • Query Hive data stores

  • Create, load, and delete Hive tables

  • Work with HDFS files and directories

  • Create, submit, and monitor MapReduce jobs

  • Monitor MapReduce jobs

  • Create, edit, and submit workflows using the Oozie dashboard

  • Manage users and groups

Hue runs on port 8888 of the JobTracker node (node03).

To use Hue: 

  1. Open Hue in a browser using an address like the one in this example:

    http://bda1node03.example.com:8888

    In this example, bda1 is the cluster name, node03 is the server name, and example.com is the domain.

  2. Log in with your Hue credentials.

    Oracle Big Data Appliance is not configured initially with any Hue user accounts. The first user who connects to Hue can log in with any user name and password, and automatically becomes an administrator. This user can create other user and administrator accounts.

  3. Use the icons across the top to open a utility.

Figure 2-5 shows the Beeswax Query Editor for entering Hive queries.

Figure 2-5 Beeswax Query Editor

Description of Figure 2-5 follows
Description of "Figure 2-5 Beeswax Query Editor"

See Also:

Hue Installation Guide for information about using Hue, which is already installed and configured on Oracle Big Data Appliance, at

http://www.cloudera.com/content/cloudera-content/cloudera-docs/CDH4/latest/Hue-2-User-Guide/Hue-2-User-Guide.html

2.5 About the Oracle Big Data Appliance Software

The following sections identify the software installed on Oracle Big Data Appliance and where it runs in the rack. Some components operate with Oracle Database 11.2.0.2 and later releases.

2.5.1 Software Components

These software components are installed on all 18 servers in Oracle Big Data Appliance Rack. Oracle Linux, required drivers, firmware, and hardware verification utilities are factory installed. All other software is installed on site using the Mammoth Utility. The optional software components may not be configured in your installation.

Note:

You do not need to install additional software on Oracle Big Data Appliance. Doing so may result in a loss of warranty and support. See the Oracle Big Data Appliance Owner's Guide.

Base image software: 

Mammoth installation: 

  • Cloudera's Distribution including Apache Hadoop Release 4 Update 3 (4.3)

  • Cloudera Manager Enterprise 4.6.3

  • Oracle Database Instant Client 11.2.0.3

  • Oracle NoSQL Database Community Edition or Enterprise Edition 11g Release 2.0 (optional)

  • Oracle Big Data Connectors 2.2 (optional):

    • Oracle SQL Connector for Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

    • Oracle Loader for Hadoop

    • Oracle Data Integrator Agent 11.1.1.6.0

    • Oracle R Connector for Hadoop

See Also:

Oracle Big Data Appliance Owner's Guide for information about the Mammoth Utility

Figure 2-6 shows the relationships among the major components.

Figure 2-6 Major Software Components of Oracle Big Data Appliance

Description of Figure 2-6 follows
Description of "Figure 2-6 Major Software Components of Oracle Big Data Appliance"

2.5.2 Logical Disk Layout

Each server has 12 disks. The critical operating system is stored on disks 1 and 2.

Table 2-1 describes how the disks are partitioned.

Table 2-1 Logical Disk Layout

Disk Description

1 to 2

150 gigabytes (GB) physical and logical partition, mirrored to create two copies, with the Linux operating system, all installed software, NameNode data, and MySQL Database data. The NameNode and MySQL Database data are replicated on two servers for a total of four copies.

2.8 terabytes (TB) HDFS data partition

3 to 12

Single HDFS or Oracle NoSQL Database data partition


2.6 About the CDH Software Services

This section contains the following topics:

2.6.1 Monitoring the CDH Services

You can use Cloudera Manager to monitor the CDH services on Oracle Big Data Appliance.

To monitor the services: 

  1. In Cloudera Manager, click the Services tab at the top of the page to display the Services page.

  2. Click the name of a service to see its detail pages. The service opens on the Status page.

  3. Click the link to the page that you want to view: Status, Instances, Commands, Configuration, or Audits.

2.6.2 Where Do the CDH Services Run?

All services are installed on all nodes in a CDH cluster, but individual services run only on designated nodes. There are slight variations in the location of the services depending on the configuration of the cluster.

2.6.2.1 Service Locations on a Single Rack

Table 2-2 identifies the services in CDH clusters configured within a single rack, including starter racks and clusters with six nodes. Node01 is the first server in the cluster (server 1, 7, or 10), and nodexx is the last server in the cluster (server 6, 9, 12, or 18).

Table 2-2 Service Locations for One or More CDH Clusters in a Single Rack

Node01 Node02 Node03 Node04 Node05 to nn

Balancer

       
     

Hive, Hue, Oozie

 

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

   

Cloudera Manager Server

   

DataNode

DataNode

DataNode

DataNode

DataNode

Failover Controller

Failover Controller

Failover Controller

Failover Controller

 

JournalNode

JournalNode

JournalNode

   
 

MySQL Backup

MySQL Primary

   

NameNode 1

NameNode 2

     
     

Oracle Data Integrator Agent

 

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet Master

       
   

JobTracker 1

JobTracker 2

 

Task TrackerFoot 1 

Task TrackerFootref 1

TaskTracker

TaskTracker

TaskTracker

ZooKeeper Server

ZooKeeper Server

ZooKeeper Server

   

Footnote 1 Starter racks and six-node clusters only

2.6.2.2 Service Locations in Multirack Clusters

When multiple racks are configured as a single CDH cluster, some critical services are moved to the first server of the second rack.

Critical services on the first server of the second rack: 

  • Balancer

  • Failover Controller

  • Journal Node

  • NameNode 1

  • ZooKeeper Server

The DataNode, Cloudera Manager agent, and Puppet services also run on this server.

Table 2-3 identify the location of services on the first rack of a multirack cluster.

Table 2-3 Service Locations in the First Rack of a Multirack CDH Cluster

Node01 Node02 Node03 Node04 Node05 to nnFoot 1 

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

Cloudera Manager Agent

   

Cloudera Manager Server

   

DataNode

DataNode

DataNode

DataNode

DataNode

 

Failover Controller

Failover Controller

Failover Controller

 
     

Hive, Hue, Oozie

 
 

JournalNode

JournalNode

   
 

MySQL Backup

MySQL Primary

   
 

NameNode 2

     
     

Oracle Data Integrator agent

 

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet

Puppet Master

       
   

JobTracker 1

JobTracker 2

 

TaskTracker

 

TaskTracker

TaskTracker

TaskTracker

 

ZooKeeper Server

ZooKeeper Server

   

Footnote 1 nn includes the servers in additional racks.

2.6.3 Automatic Failover of the NameNode

The NameNode is the most critical process because it keeps track of the location of all data. Without a healthy NameNode, the entire cluster fails. Apache Hadoop v0.20.2 and earlier are vulnerable to failure because they have a single name node.

Cloudera's Distribution including Apache Hadoop Version 4 (CDH4) reduces this vulnerability by maintaining redundant NameNodes. The data is replicated during normal operation as follows:

  • CDH maintains redundant NameNodes on the first two nodes. One of the NameNodes is in active mode, and the other NameNode is in hot standby mode. If the active NameNode fails, then the role of active NameNode automatically fails over to the standby NameNode.

  • The NameNode data is written to a mirrored partition so that the loss of a single disk can be tolerated. This mirroring is done at the factory as part of the operating system installation.

  • The active NameNode records all changes to the file system metadata in at least two JournalNode processes, which the standby NameNode reads. There are three JournalNodes, which run on the first three nodes of each cluster.

  • The changes recorded in the journals are periodically consolidated into a single fsimage file in a process called checkpointing.

Note:

Oracle Big Data Appliance 2.0 and later releases do not support the use of an external NFS filer for backups and do not use NameNode federation.

Figure 2-7 shows the relationships among the processes that support automatic failover of the NameNode.

Figure 2-7 Automatic Failover of the NameNode on Oracle Big Data Appliance

Description of Figure 2-7 follows
Description of "Figure 2-7 Automatic Failover of the NameNode on Oracle Big Data Appliance"

2.6.4 Automatic Failover of the JobTracker

The JobTracker distributes MapReduce tasks across the cluster. Like the NameNode, the JobTracker is a critical point of failure for the node. If the JobTracker fails, then all jobs stop running.

Oracle Big Data Appliance 2.2 and later releases support JobTracker High Available in CDH4 to reduce this vulnerability.

CDH maintains redundant JobTracker services on node03 and -04. One of the services is in active mode, and the other service is in hot standby mode. Failover controllers on the two nodes monitor the health of the services. If the active service fails, then the role of active JobTracker automatically fails over to the standby service.

Figure 2-7 shows the relationships among the processes that support automatic failover of the NameNode.

Figure 2-8 Automatic Failover of the JobTracker on Oracle Big Data Appliance

Description of Figure 2-8 follows
Description of "Figure 2-8 Automatic Failover of the JobTracker on Oracle Big Data Appliance"

2.6.5 Unconfigured Software

The RPM installation files for the following tools are available on Oracle Big Data Appliance. Do not download them from the Cloudera website. However, you must install and configure them.

  • Flume

  • HBase

  • Mahout

  • Sqoop

  • Whirr

You can find the RPM files on the first server of each cluster in /opt/oracle/BDAMammoth/bdarepo/RPMS/noarch.

See Also:

CDH4 Installation and Configuration Guide for configuration procedures at

http://www.cloudera.com/content/cloudera-content/cloudera-docs/CDH4/latest/CDH4-Installation-Guide/CDH4-Installation-Guide.html

2.6.6 Map and Reduce Resource Configuration

Each node in a cluster has a maximum number of map and reduce tasks that are allowed to run simultaneously. Table 2-4 shows the default configuration of resources for the MapReduce service on Oracle Big Data Appliance X3-2.

Table 2-4 Maximum Map and Reduce Tasks on Oracle Big Data Appliance X3-2

Node 6-Node Cluster Larger ClustersFoot 1 

Node01 and Node02

14 map

8 reduce

None

Node03 and Node04

10 map

6 reduce

10 map

6 reduce

Node05 to Nodenn

20 map

13 reduce

20 map

13 reduce


Footnote 1 9 or more nodes

Table 2-5 shows the default configuration of resources for the MapReduce service on Oracle Big Data Appliance Sun Fire X4270 M2-based racks.

Table 2-5 Maximum Map and Reduce Tasks on Sun Fire X4270 M2-Based Racks

Node 6-Node Cluster Larger ClustersFoot 1 

Node01 and Node02

10 map

6 reduce

None

Node03 and Node04

7 map

4 reduce

7 map

4 reduce

Node05 to Nodenn

15 map

10 reduce

15 map

10 reduce


Footnote 1 9 or more nodes

2.7 Configuring HBase

HBase is an open-source, column-oriented database provided with CDH. HBase is not configured automatically on Oracle Big Data Appliance. You must set up and configure HBase before you can access it from an HBase client on another system.

To create an HBase service: 

  1. Open Cloudera Manager in a browser, using a URL like the following:

    http://bda1node03.example.com:7180
    

    In this example, bda1 is the name of the appliance, node03 is the name of the server, example.com is the domain, and 7180 is the default port number for Cloudera Manager.

  2. On the All Services page, click Add a Service.

  3. Select HBase from the list of services, and then click Continue.

  4. Select zookeeper, and then click Continue.

  5. Click Continue on the host assignments page.

  6. Click Accept on the review page.

HBase is now ready for you to configure.

To configure HBase on Oracle Big Data Appliance: 

  1. On the All Services page of Cloudera Manager, click hbase1.

  2. On the hbase1 page, click Configuration.

  3. In the Category pane on the left, select Advanced under Service-Wide.

  4. In the right pane, locate the HBase Service Configuration Safety Valve for hbase-site.xml property and click the Value cell.

  5. Enter the following XML property descriptions:

    <property>
       <name>hbase.master.ipc.address</name>
       <value>0.0.0.0</value>
    </property>
    <property>
       <name>hbase.regionserver.ipc.address</name>
       <value>0.0.0.0</value>
    </property>
    
  6. Click the Save Changes button.

  7. From the Actions menu, select either Start or Restart, depending on the current status of the HBase server.

  8. Log out of Cloudera Manager.

2.8 Effects of Hardware on Software Availability

The effects of a server failure vary depending on the server's function within the CDH cluster. Oracle Big Data Appliance servers are more robust than commodity hardware, so you should experience fewer hardware failures. This section highlights the most important services that run on the various servers of the primary rack. For a full list, see "Where Do the CDH Services Run?."

Note:

In a multirack cluster, some critical services run on the first server of the second rack. See "Service Locations in Multirack Clusters."

2.8.1 Critical and Noncritical Nodes

Critical nodes are required for the cluster to operate normally and provide all services to users. In contrast, the cluster continues to operate with no loss of service when a noncritical node fails.

On single-rack clusters, the critical services are installed initially on the first four nodes of the cluster. The remaining nodes (node05 up to node18) only run noncritical services. If a hardware failure occurs on one of the critical nodes, then the services can be moved to another, noncritical server. For example, if node02 fails, then you might move its critical services node05. Table 2-2 identifies the initial location of services for clusters that are configured on a single rack.

In a multirack cluster, some critical services run on the first server of the second rack. See "Where Do the CDH Services Run?."

Moving a critical node requires that all clients be reconfigured with the address of the new node. The other alternative is to wait for the failed server to be repaired. You must weigh the loss of services against the inconvenience of reconfiguring the clients.

Table 2-6 Critical Service Locations

Node Name Initial Node Position Critical Functions

First NameNode

Node01

ZooKeeperFoot 1 , first NameNodeFootref 1, failover controllerFootref 1, balancerFootref 1, puppet master

Second NameNode

Node02

ZooKeeper, second NameNode, failover controller, MySQL backup server

First JobTracker Node

Node03

ZooKeeper, first JobTracker, failover controller, Cloudera Manager server, MySQL primary server

Second JobTracker Node

Node04

Second JobTracker, failover controller, Oracle Data Integrator agent, Hue, Hive, Oozie


Footnote 1 In multirack clusters, this service is initially installed on the first server of the second rack.

2.8.2 First Namenode

One instance of the NameNode initially runs on node01. If this node fails or goes offline (such as a reboot), then the second NameNode (node02) automatically takes over to maintain the normal activities of the cluster.

Alternatively, if the second NameNode is already active, it continues without a backup. With only one NameNode, the cluster is vulnerable to failure. The cluster has lost the redundancy needed for automatic failover.

The puppet master also runs on this node. The Mammoth utilities use Puppet, and so you cannot install or reinstall the software if, for example, you must replace a disk drive elsewhere in the rack.

Note:

In multirack clusters, the NameNode service is installed on the first server of the second rack.

2.8.3 Second NameNode

One instance of the NameNode initially runs on node02. If this node fails, then the function of the NameNode either fails over to the first NameNode (node01) or continues there without a backup. However, the cluster has lost the redundancy needed for automatic failover if the first NameNode also fails.

The MySQL backup database also runs on this node. MySQL Server continues to run, although there is no backup of the master database.

2.8.4 First JobTracker

One instance of the JobTracker initially runs on node03. If this node fails or goes offline (such as a reboot), then the second JobTracker (node04) automatically takes over to distribute MapReduce tasks to specific nodes across the cluster.

Alternatively, if the second JobTracker is already active, it continues without a backup. With only one JobTracker, the cluster is vulnerable to failure. The cluster has lost the redundancy needed for automatic failover.

These services are also disrupted:

  • Cloudera Manager: This tool provides central management for the entire CDH cluster. Without this tool, you can still monitor activities using the utilities described in "Using Hadoop Monitoring Utilities".

  • MySQL Master Database: Cloudera Manager, Oracle Data Integrator, Hive, and Oozie use MySQL Database. The data is replicated automatically, but you cannot access it when the master database server is down.

2.8.5 Second JobTracker

One instance of the JobTracker initially runs on node04. If this node fails, then the function of the JobTracker either fails over to the first JobTracker (node03) or continues there without a backup. However, the cluster has lost the redundancy needed for automatic failover if the first JobTracker also fails.

These services are also disrupted:

  • Oracle Data Integrator: This service supports Oracle Data Integrator Application Adapter for Hadoop. You cannot use this connector when the JobTracker node is down.

  • Hive: Hive provides a SQL-like interface to data that is stored in HDFS. Most of the Oracle Big Data Connectors can access Hive tables, which are not available if this node fails.

  • Hue: This administrative tool is not available when the JobTracker node is down.

  • Oozie: This workflow and coordination service runs on the JobTracker node, and is unavailable when the node is down.

2.8.6 Noncritical Nodes

The noncritical nodes (node05 to node18) are optional in that Oracle Big Data Appliance continues to operate with no loss of service if a failure occurs. The NameNode automatically replicates the lost data to maintain three copies at all times. MapReduce jobs execute on copies of the data stored elsewhere in the cluster. The only loss is in computational power, because there are fewer servers on which to distribute the work.

2.9 Collecting Diagnostic Information for Oracle Customer Support

If you need help from Oracle Support to troubleshoot CDH issues, then you should first collect diagnostic information using the bdadiag utility with the cm option.

To collect diagnostic information: 

  1. Log in to an Oracle Big Data Appliance server as root.

  2. Run bdadiag with at least the cm option. You can include additional options on the command line as appropriate. See the Oracle Big Data Appliance Owner's Guide for a complete description of the bdadiag syntax.

    # bdadiag cm
    

    The command output identifies the name and the location of the diagnostic file.

  3. Go to My Oracle Support at http://support.oracle.com.

  4. Open a Service Request (SR) if you have not already done so.

  5. Upload the bz2 file into the SR. If the file is too large, then upload it to sftp.oracle.com, as described in the next procedure.

To upload the diagnostics to ftp.oracle.com: 

  1. Open an SFTP client and connect to sftp.oracle.com. Specify port 2021 and remote directory /support/incoming/target, where target is the folder name given to you by Oracle Support.

    See Example 2-1 if you are using a command-line SFTP client.

  2. Log in with your Oracle Single Sign-on account and password.

  3. Upload the diagnostic file to the new directory.

  4. Update the SR with the full path and the file name.

Example 2-1 shows the commands to upload the diagnostics using the SFTP command interface.

Example 2-1 Uploading Diagnostics Using FTP

$ sftp -o port=2021 my.user.name@oracle.com@sftp.oracle.com
Connecting to sftp.oracle.com...
     .
     .
     .
Enter password for my.user.name@oracle.com
Password: password
sftp> cd support/incoming/SR123456
sftp> put /tmp/bdadiag_bda1node01_1216FM5497_2013_07_18_07_33.tar.bz2
Uploading bdadiag_bda1node01_1216FM5497_2013_07_18_07_33.tar.bz2 to //support/incoming/create_table.sql
bdadiag_bda1node01_1216FM5497_2013_07_18_07_33.tar.bz2 to support/incoming/create_table.sql                  100%  311     0.3KB/s   00:00
sftp> exit
$

See Also:

My Oracle Support Note 549180.1 at

http://support.oracle.com

2.10 Security on Oracle Big Data Appliance

You can take precautions to prevent unauthorized use of the software and data on Oracle Big Data Appliance.

This section contains these topics:

2.10.1 About Predefined Users and Groups

Every open-source package installed on Oracle Big Data Appliance creates one or more users and groups. Most of these users do not have login privileges, shells, or home directories. They are used by daemons and are not intended as an interface for individual users. For example, Hadoop operates as the hdfs user, MapReduce operates as mapred, and Hive operates as hive.

You can use the oracle identity to run Hadoop and Hive jobs immediately after the Oracle Big Data Appliance software is installed. This user account has login privileges, a shell, and a home directory.

Oracle NoSQL Database and Oracle Data Integrator run as the oracle user. Its primary group is oinstall.

Note:

Do not delete or modify the users created during installation, because they are required for the software to operate.

Table 2-7 identifies the operating system users and groups that are created automatically during installation of Oracle Big Data Appliance software for use by CDH components and other software packages.

Table 2-7 Operating System Users and Groups

User Name Group Used By Login Rights

flume

flume

Flume parent and nodes

No

hbase

hbase

HBase processes

No

hdfs

hadoop

NameNode, DataNode

No

hive

hive

Hive metastore and server processes

No

hue

hue

Hue processes

No

mapred

hadoop

JobTracker, TaskTracker, Hive Thrift daemon

Yes

mysql

mysql

MySQL server

Yes

oozie

oozie

Oozie server

No

oracle

dba, oinstall

Oracle NoSQL Database, Oracle Loader for Hadoop, Oracle Data Integrator, and the Oracle DBA

Yes

puppet

puppet

Puppet parent (puppet nodes run as root)

No

sqoop

sqoop

Sqoop metastore

No

svctag

 

Auto Service Request

No

zookeeper

zookeeper

ZooKeeper processes

No


2.10.2 Port Numbers Used on Oracle Big Data Appliance

Table 2-8 identifies the port numbers that might be used in addition to those used by CDH.

To view the ports used on a particular server: 

  1. In Cloudera Manager, click the Hosts tab at the top of the page to display the Hosts page.

  2. In the Name column, click a server link to see its detail page.

  3. Scroll down to the Ports section.

Table 2-8 Oracle Big Data Appliance Port Numbers

Service Port

Automated Service Monitor (ASM)

30920

HBase master service (node01)

60010

MySQL Database

3306

Oracle Data Integrator Agent

20910

Oracle NoSQL Database administration

5001

Oracle NoSQL Database processes

5010 to 5020

Oracle NoSQL Database registration

5000

Port map

111

Puppet master service

8140

Puppet node service

8139

rpc.statd

668

ssh

22

xinetd (service tag)

6481


2.10.3 About CDH Security Using Kerberos

Apache Hadoop is not an inherently secure system. It is protected only by network security. After a connection is established, a client has full access to the system.

Cloudera's Distribution including Apache Hadoop (CDH) supports Kerberos network authentication protocol to prevent malicious impersonation. You must install and configure Kerberos and set up a Kerberos Key Distribution Center and realm. Then you configure various components of CDH to use Kerberos.

CDH provides these securities when configured to use Kerberos:

  • The CDH master nodes, NameNode, and JobTracker resolve the group name so that users cannot manipulate their group memberships.

  • Map tasks run under the identity of the user who submitted the job.

  • Authorization mechanisms in HDFS and MapReduce help control user access to data.

See Also:

http://oracle.cloudera.com for these manuals:
  • CDH4 Security Guide

  • Configuring Hadoop Security with Cloudera Manager

  • Configuring TLS Security for Cloudera Manager

2.10.4 About Puppet Security

The puppet node service (puppetd) runs continuously as root on all servers. It listens on port 8139 for "kick" requests, which trigger it to request updates from the puppet master. It does not receive updates on this port.

The puppet master service (puppetmasterd) runs continuously as the puppet user on the first server of the primary Oracle Big Data Appliance rack. It listens on port 8140 for requests to push updates to puppet nodes.

The puppet nodes generate and send certificates to the puppet master to register initially during installation of the software. For updates to the software, the puppet master signals ("kicks") the puppet nodes, which then request all configuration changes from the puppet master node that they are registered with.

The puppet master sends updates only to puppet nodes that have known, valid certificates. Puppet nodes only accept updates from the puppet master host name they initially registered with. Because Oracle Big Data Appliance uses an internal network for communication within the rack, the puppet master host name resolves using /etc/hosts to an internal, private IP address.