Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

What Is a Servlet?

Sharing Information

Using Scope Objects

Controlling Concurrent Access to Shared Resources

Creating and Initializing a Servlet

Writing Service Methods

Getting Information from Requests

Constructing Responses

Filtering Requests and Responses

Programming Filters

Programming Customized Requests and Responses

Specifying Filter Mappings

To Specify Filter Mappings Using NetBeans IDE

Invoking Other Web Resources

Including Other Resources in the Response

Transferring Control to Another Web Component

Accessing the Web Context

Maintaining Client State

Accessing a Session

Associating Objects with a Session

Session Management

To Set the Timeout Period Using NetBeans IDE

Session Tracking

Finalizing a Servlet

Tracking Service Requests

Notifying Methods to Shut Down

Creating Polite Long-Running Methods

The mood Example Application

Components of the mood Example Application

Running the mood Example

To Run the mood Example Using NetBeans IDE

To Run the mood Example Using Ant

Further Information about Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Servlet Lifecycle

The lifecycle of a servlet is controlled by the container in which the servlet has been deployed. When a request is mapped to a servlet, the container performs the following steps.

  1. If an instance of the servlet does not exist, the web container

    1. Loads the servlet class.

    2. Creates an instance of the servlet class.

    3. Initializes the servlet instance by calling the init method. Initialization is covered in Creating and Initializing a Servlet.

  2. Invokes the service method, passing request and response objects. Service methods are discussed in Writing Service Methods.

If it needs to remove the servlet, the container finalizes the servlet by calling the servlet’s destroy method. For more information, see Finalizing a Servlet.

Handling Servlet Lifecycle Events

You can monitor and react to events in a servlet’s lifecycle by defining listener objects whose methods get invoked when lifecycle events occur. To use these listener objects, you must define and specify the listener class.

Defining the Listener Class

You define a listener class as an implementation of a listener interface. Table 15-1 lists the events that can be monitored and the corresponding interface that must be implemented. When a listener method is invoked, it is passed an event that contains information appropriate to the event. For example, the methods in the HttpSessionListener interface are passed an HttpSessionEvent, which contains an HttpSession.

Table 15-1 Servlet Lifecycle Events



Listener Interface and Event Class

Web context

Initialization and destruction

javax.servlet.ServletContextListener and ServletContextEvent

Web context

Attribute added, removed, or replaced

javax.servlet.ServletContextAttributeListener and ServletContextAttributeEvent


Creation, invalidation, activation, passivation, and timeout

javax.servlet.http.HttpSessionListener, javax.servlet.http.HttpSessionActivationListener, and HttpSessionEvent


Attribute added, removed, or replaced

javax.servlet.http.HttpSessionAttributeListener and HttpSessionBindingEvent


A servlet request has started being processed by web components

javax.servlet.ServletRequestListener and ServletRequestEvent


Attribute added, removed, or replaced

javax.servlet.ServletRequestAttributeListener and ServletRequestAttributeEvent

Use the @WebListener annotation to define a listener to get events for various operations on the particular web application context. Classes annotated with @WebListener must implement one of the following interfaces:


For example, the following code snippet defines a listener that implements two of these interfaces:

import javax.servlet.ServletContextAttributeListener;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextListener;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebListener;

public class SimpleServletListener implements ServletContextListener,
        ServletContextAttributeListener {

Handling Servlet Errors

Any number of exceptions can occur when a servlet executes. When an exception occurs, the web container generates a default page containing the following message:

A Servlet Exception Has Occurred

But you can also specify that the container should return a specific error page for a given exception.