Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

What Is a Servlet?

Servlet Lifecycle

Handling Servlet Lifecycle Events

Defining the Listener Class

Handling Servlet Errors

Sharing Information

Using Scope Objects

Controlling Concurrent Access to Shared Resources

Creating and Initializing a Servlet

Writing Service Methods

Getting Information from Requests

Constructing Responses

Filtering Requests and Responses

Programming Filters

Programming Customized Requests and Responses

Specifying Filter Mappings

To Specify Filter Mappings Using NetBeans IDE

Invoking Other Web Resources

Including Other Resources in the Response

Transferring Control to Another Web Component

Accessing the Web Context

Finalizing a Servlet

Tracking Service Requests

Notifying Methods to Shut Down

Creating Polite Long-Running Methods

The mood Example Application

Components of the mood Example Application

Running the mood Example

To Run the mood Example Using NetBeans IDE

To Run the mood Example Using Ant

Further Information about Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Maintaining Client State

Many applications require that a series of requests from a client be associated with one another. For example, a web application can save the state of a user’s shopping cart across requests. Web-based applications are responsible for maintaining such state, called a session, because HTTP is stateless. To support applications that need to maintain state, Java Servlet technology provides an API for managing sessions and allows several mechanisms for implementing sessions.

Accessing a Session

Sessions are represented by an HttpSession object. You access a session by calling the getSession method of a request object. This method returns the current session associated with this request; or, if the request does not have a session, this method creates one.

Associating Objects with a Session

You can associate object-valued attributes with a session by name. Such attributes are accessible by any web component that belongs to the same web context and is handling a request that is part of the same session.

Recall that your application can notify web context and session listener objects of servlet lifecycle events (Handling Servlet Lifecycle Events). You can also notify objects of certain events related to their association with a session such as the following:

  • When the object is added to or removed from a session. To receive this notification, your object must implement the javax.servlet.http.HttpSessionBindingListener interface.

  • When the session to which the object is attached will be passivated or activated. A session will be passivated or activated when it is moved between virtual machines or saved to and restored from persistent storage. To receive this notification, your object must implement the javax.servlet.http.HttpSessionActivationListener interface.

Session Management

Because an HTTP client has no way to signal that it no longer needs a session, each session has an associated timeout so that its resources can be reclaimed. The timeout period can be accessed by using a session’s getMaxInactiveInterval and setMaxInactiveInterval methods.

  • To ensure that an active session is not timed out, you should periodically access the session by using service methods because this resets the session’s time-to-live counter.

  • When a particular client interaction is finished, you use the session’s invalidate method to invalidate a session on the server side and remove any session data.

To Set the Timeout Period Using NetBeans IDE

To set the timeout period in the deployment descriptor using NetBeans IDE, follow these steps.

  1. Open the project if you haven’t already.
  2. Expand the project’s node in the Projects pane.
  3. Expand the Web Pages node and then the WEB-INF node.
  4. Double-click web.xml.
  5. Click General at the top of the editor.
  6. In the Session Timeout field, type an integer value.

    The integer value represents the number of minutes of inactivity that must pass before the session times out.

Session Tracking

To associate a session with a user, a web container can use several methods, all of which involve passing an identifier between the client and the server. The identifier can be maintained on the client as a cookie, or the web component can include the identifier in every URL that is returned to the client.

If your application uses session objects, you must ensure that session tracking is enabled by having the application rewrite URLs whenever the client turns off cookies. You do this by calling the response’s encodeURL(URL) method on all URLs returned by a servlet. This method includes the session ID in the URL only if cookies are disabled; otherwise, the method returns the URL unchanged.