The Java® Language Specification

Java SE 8 Edition

James Gosling

Bill Joy

Guy Steele

Gilad Bracha

Alex Buckley

2014-03-03

Legal Notice

Table of Contents

Preface to the Java SE 8 Edition
1. Introduction
1.1. Organization of the Specification
1.2. Example Programs
1.3. Notation
1.4. Relationship to Predefined Classes and Interfaces
1.5. Feedback
1.6. References
2. Grammars
2.1. Context-Free Grammars
2.2. The Lexical Grammar
2.3. The Syntactic Grammar
2.4. Grammar Notation
3. Lexical Structure
3.1. Unicode
3.2. Lexical Translations
3.3. Unicode Escapes
3.4. Line Terminators
3.5. Input Elements and Tokens
3.6. White Space
3.7. Comments
3.8. Identifiers
3.9. Keywords
3.10. Literals
3.10.1. Integer Literals
3.10.2. Floating-Point Literals
3.10.3. Boolean Literals
3.10.4. Character Literals
3.10.5. String Literals
3.10.6. Escape Sequences for Character and String Literals
3.10.7. The Null Literal
3.11. Separators
3.12. Operators
4. Types, Values, and Variables
4.1. The Kinds of Types and Values
4.2. Primitive Types and Values
4.2.1. Integral Types and Values
4.2.2. Integer Operations
4.2.3. Floating-Point Types, Formats, and Values
4.2.4. Floating-Point Operations
4.2.5. The boolean Type and boolean Values
4.3. Reference Types and Values
4.3.1. Objects
4.3.2. The Class Object
4.3.3. The Class String
4.3.4. When Reference Types Are the Same
4.4. Type Variables
4.5. Parameterized Types
4.5.1. Type Arguments of Parameterized Types
4.5.2. Members and Constructors of Parameterized Types
4.6. Type Erasure
4.7. Reifiable Types
4.8. Raw Types
4.9. Intersection Types
4.10. Subtyping
4.10.1. Subtyping among Primitive Types
4.10.2. Subtyping among Class and Interface Types
4.10.3. Subtyping among Array Types
4.10.4. Least Upper Bound
4.11. Where Types Are Used
4.12. Variables
4.12.1. Variables of Primitive Type
4.12.2. Variables of Reference Type
4.12.3. Kinds of Variables
4.12.4. final Variables
4.12.5. Initial Values of Variables
4.12.6. Types, Classes, and Interfaces
5. Conversions and Contexts
5.1. Kinds of Conversion
5.1.1. Identity Conversion
5.1.2. Widening Primitive Conversion
5.1.3. Narrowing Primitive Conversion
5.1.4. Widening and Narrowing Primitive Conversion
5.1.5. Widening Reference Conversion
5.1.6. Narrowing Reference Conversion
5.1.7. Boxing Conversion
5.1.8. Unboxing Conversion
5.1.9. Unchecked Conversion
5.1.10. Capture Conversion
5.1.11. String Conversion
5.1.12. Forbidden Conversions
5.1.13. Value Set Conversion
5.2. Assignment Contexts
5.3. Invocation Contexts
5.4. String Contexts
5.5. Casting Contexts
5.5.1. Reference Type Casting
5.5.2. Checked Casts and Unchecked Casts
5.5.3. Checked Casts at Run Time
5.6. Numeric Contexts
5.6.1. Unary Numeric Promotion
5.6.2. Binary Numeric Promotion
6. Names
6.1. Declarations
6.2. Names and Identifiers
6.3. Scope of a Declaration
6.4. Shadowing and Obscuring
6.4.1. Shadowing
6.4.2. Obscuring
6.5. Determining the Meaning of a Name
6.5.1. Syntactic Classification of a Name According to Context
6.5.2. Reclassification of Contextually Ambiguous Names
6.5.3. Meaning of Package Names
6.5.3.1. Simple Package Names
6.5.3.2. Qualified Package Names
6.5.4. Meaning of PackageOrTypeNames
6.5.4.1. Simple PackageOrTypeNames
6.5.4.2. Qualified PackageOrTypeNames
6.5.5. Meaning of Type Names
6.5.5.1. Simple Type Names
6.5.5.2. Qualified Type Names
6.5.6. Meaning of Expression Names
6.5.6.1. Simple Expression Names
6.5.6.2. Qualified Expression Names
6.5.7. Meaning of Method Names
6.5.7.1. Simple Method Names
6.6. Access Control
6.6.1. Determining Accessibility
6.6.2. Details on protected Access
6.6.2.1. Access to a protected Member
6.6.2.2. Qualified Access to a protected Constructor
6.7. Fully Qualified Names and Canonical Names
7. Packages
7.1. Package Members
7.2. Host Support for Packages
7.3. Compilation Units
7.4. Package Declarations
7.4.1. Named Packages
7.4.2. Unnamed Packages
7.4.3. Observability of a Package
7.5. Import Declarations
7.5.1. Single-Type-Import Declarations
7.5.2. Type-Import-on-Demand Declarations
7.5.3. Single-Static-Import Declarations
7.5.4. Static-Import-on-Demand Declarations
7.6. Top Level Type Declarations
8. Classes
8.1. Class Declarations
8.1.1. Class Modifiers
8.1.1.1. abstract Classes
8.1.1.2. final Classes
8.1.1.3. strictfp Classes
8.1.2. Generic Classes and Type Parameters
8.1.3. Inner Classes and Enclosing Instances
8.1.4. Superclasses and Subclasses
8.1.5. Superinterfaces
8.1.6. Class Body and Member Declarations
8.2. Class Members
8.3. Field Declarations
8.3.1. Field Modifiers
8.3.1.1. static Fields
8.3.1.2. final Fields
8.3.1.3. transient Fields
8.3.1.4. volatile Fields
8.3.2. Field Initialization
8.3.3. Forward References During Field Initialization
8.4. Method Declarations
8.4.1. Formal Parameters
8.4.2. Method Signature
8.4.3. Method Modifiers
8.4.3.1. abstract Methods
8.4.3.2. static Methods
8.4.3.3. final Methods
8.4.3.4. native Methods
8.4.3.5. strictfp Methods
8.4.3.6. synchronized Methods
8.4.4. Generic Methods
8.4.5. Method Result
8.4.6. Method Throws
8.4.7. Method Body
8.4.8. Inheritance, Overriding, and Hiding
8.4.8.1. Overriding (by Instance Methods)
8.4.8.2. Hiding (by Class Methods)
8.4.8.3. Requirements in Overriding and Hiding
8.4.8.4. Inheriting Methods with Override-Equivalent Signatures
8.4.9. Overloading
8.5. Member Type Declarations
8.5.1. Static Member Type Declarations
8.6. Instance Initializers
8.7. Static Initializers
8.8. Constructor Declarations
8.8.1. Formal Parameters
8.8.2. Constructor Signature
8.8.3. Constructor Modifiers
8.8.4. Generic Constructors
8.8.5. Constructor Throws
8.8.6. The Type of a Constructor
8.8.7. Constructor Body
8.8.7.1. Explicit Constructor Invocations
8.8.8. Constructor Overloading
8.8.9. Default Constructor
8.8.10. Preventing Instantiation of a Class
8.9. Enum Types
8.9.1. Enum Constants
8.9.2. Enum Body Declarations
8.9.3. Enum Members
9. Interfaces
9.1. Interface Declarations
9.1.1. Interface Modifiers
9.1.1.1. abstract Interfaces
9.1.1.2. strictfp Interfaces
9.1.2. Generic Interfaces and Type Parameters
9.1.3. Superinterfaces and Subinterfaces
9.1.4. Interface Body and Member Declarations
9.2. Interface Members
9.3. Field (Constant) Declarations
9.3.1. Initialization of Fields in Interfaces
9.4. Method Declarations
9.4.1. Inheritance and Overriding
9.4.1.1. Overriding (by Instance Methods)
9.4.1.2. Requirements in Overriding
9.4.1.3. Inheriting Methods with Override-Equivalent Signatures
9.4.2. Overloading
9.4.3. Interface Method Body
9.5. Member Type Declarations
9.6. Annotation Types
9.6.1. Annotation Type Elements
9.6.2. Defaults for Annotation Type Elements
9.6.3. Repeatable Annotation Types
9.6.4. Predefined Annotation Types
9.6.4.1. @Target
9.6.4.2. @Retention
9.6.4.3. @Inherited
9.6.4.4. @Override
9.6.4.5. @SuppressWarnings
9.6.4.6. @Deprecated
9.6.4.7. @SafeVarargs
9.6.4.8. @Repeatable
9.6.4.9. @FunctionalInterface
9.7. Annotations
9.7.1. Normal Annotations
9.7.2. Marker Annotations
9.7.3. Single-Element Annotations
9.7.4. Where Annotations May Appear
9.7.5. Multiple Annotations Of The Same Type
9.8. Functional Interfaces
9.9. Function Types
10. Arrays
10.1. Array Types
10.2. Array Variables
10.3. Array Creation
10.4. Array Access
10.5. Array Store Exception
10.6. Array Initializers
10.7. Array Members
10.8. Class Objects for Arrays
10.9. An Array of Characters is Not a String
11. Exceptions
11.1. The Kinds and Causes of Exceptions
11.1.1. The Kinds of Exceptions
11.1.2. The Causes of Exceptions
11.1.3. Asynchronous Exceptions
11.2. Compile-Time Checking of Exceptions
11.2.1. Exception Analysis of Expressions
11.2.2. Exception Analysis of Statements
11.2.3. Exception Checking
11.3. Run-Time Handling of an Exception
12. Execution
12.1. Java Virtual Machine Startup
12.1.1. Load the Class Test
12.1.2. Link Test: Verify, Prepare, (Optionally) Resolve
12.1.3. Initialize Test: Execute Initializers
12.1.4. Invoke Test.main
12.2. Loading of Classes and Interfaces
12.2.1. The Loading Process
12.3. Linking of Classes and Interfaces
12.3.1. Verification of the Binary Representation
12.3.2. Preparation of a Class or Interface Type
12.3.3. Resolution of Symbolic References
12.4. Initialization of Classes and Interfaces
12.4.1. When Initialization Occurs
12.4.2. Detailed Initialization Procedure
12.5. Creation of New Class Instances
12.6. Finalization of Class Instances
12.6.1. Implementing Finalization
12.6.2. Interaction with the Memory Model
12.7. Unloading of Classes and Interfaces
12.8. Program Exit
13. Binary Compatibility
13.1. The Form of a Binary
13.2. What Binary Compatibility Is and Is Not
13.3. Evolution of Packages
13.4. Evolution of Classes
13.4.1. abstract Classes
13.4.2. final Classes
13.4.3. public Classes
13.4.4. Superclasses and Superinterfaces
13.4.5. Class Type Parameters
13.4.6. Class Body and Member Declarations
13.4.7. Access to Members and Constructors
13.4.8. Field Declarations
13.4.9. final Fields and static Constant Variables
13.4.10. static Fields
13.4.11. transient Fields
13.4.12. Method and Constructor Declarations
13.4.13. Method and Constructor Type Parameters
13.4.14. Method and Constructor Formal Parameters
13.4.15. Method Result Type
13.4.16. abstract Methods
13.4.17. final Methods
13.4.18. native Methods
13.4.19. static Methods
13.4.20. synchronized Methods
13.4.21. Method and Constructor Throws
13.4.22. Method and Constructor Body
13.4.23. Method and Constructor Overloading
13.4.24. Method Overriding
13.4.25. Static Initializers
13.4.26. Evolution of Enums
13.5. Evolution of Interfaces
13.5.1. public Interfaces
13.5.2. Superinterfaces
13.5.3. Interface Members
13.5.4. Interface Type Parameters
13.5.5. Field Declarations
13.5.6. Interface Method Declarations
13.5.7. Evolution of Annotation Types
14. Blocks and Statements
14.1. Normal and Abrupt Completion of Statements
14.2. Blocks
14.3. Local Class Declarations
14.4. Local Variable Declaration Statements
14.4.1. Local Variable Declarators and Types
14.4.2. Execution of Local Variable Declarations
14.5. Statements
14.6. The Empty Statement
14.7. Labeled Statements
14.8. Expression Statements
14.9. The if Statement
14.9.1. The if-then Statement
14.9.2. The if-then-else Statement
14.10. The assert Statement
14.11. The switch Statement
14.12. The while Statement
14.12.1. Abrupt Completion of while Statement
14.13. The do Statement
14.13.1. Abrupt Completion of do Statement
14.14. The for Statement
14.14.1. The basic for Statement
14.14.1.1. Initialization of for Statement
14.14.1.2. Iteration of for Statement
14.14.1.3. Abrupt Completion of for Statement
14.14.2. The enhanced for statement
14.15. The break Statement
14.16. The continue Statement
14.17. The return Statement
14.18. The throw Statement
14.19. The synchronized Statement
14.20. The try statement
14.20.1. Execution of try-catch
14.20.2. Execution of try-finally and try-catch-finally
14.20.3. try-with-resources
14.20.3.1. Basic try-with-resources
14.20.3.2. Extended try-with-resources
14.21. Unreachable Statements
15. Expressions
15.1. Evaluation, Denotation, and Result
15.2. Forms of Expressions
15.3. Type of an Expression
15.4. FP-strict Expressions
15.5. Expressions and Run-Time Checks
15.6. Normal and Abrupt Completion of Evaluation
15.7. Evaluation Order
15.7.1. Evaluate Left-Hand Operand First
15.7.2. Evaluate Operands before Operation
15.7.3. Evaluation Respects Parentheses and Precedence
15.7.4. Argument Lists are Evaluated Left-to-Right
15.7.5. Evaluation Order for Other Expressions
15.8. Primary Expressions
15.8.1. Lexical Literals
15.8.2. Class Literals
15.8.3. this
15.8.4. Qualified this
15.8.5. Parenthesized Expressions
15.9. Class Instance Creation Expressions
15.9.1. Determining the Class being Instantiated
15.9.2. Determining Enclosing Instances
15.9.3. Choosing the Constructor and its Arguments
15.9.4. Run-Time Evaluation of Class Instance Creation Expressions
15.9.5. Anonymous Class Declarations
15.9.5.1. Anonymous Constructors
15.10. Array Creation and Access Expressions
15.10.1. Array Creation Expressions
15.10.2. Run-Time Evaluation of Array Creation Expressions
15.10.3. Array Access Expressions
15.10.4. Run-Time Evaluation of Array Access Expressions
15.11. Field Access Expressions
15.11.1. Field Access Using a Primary
15.11.2. Accessing Superclass Members using super
15.12. Method Invocation Expressions
15.12.1. Compile-Time Step 1: Determine Class or Interface to Search
15.12.2. Compile-Time Step 2: Determine Method Signature
15.12.2.1. Identify Potentially Applicable Methods
15.12.2.2. Phase 1: Identify Matching Arity Methods Applicable by Strict Invocation
15.12.2.3. Phase 2: Identify Matching Arity Methods Applicable by Loose Invocation
15.12.2.4. Phase 3: Identify Methods Applicable by Variable Arity Invocation
15.12.2.5. Choosing the Most Specific Method
15.12.2.6. Method Invocation Type
15.12.3. Compile-Time Step 3: Is the Chosen Method Appropriate?
15.12.4. Run-Time Evaluation of Method Invocation
15.12.4.1. Compute Target Reference (If Necessary)
15.12.4.2. Evaluate Arguments
15.12.4.3. Check Accessibility of Type and Method
15.12.4.4. Locate Method to Invoke
15.12.4.5. Create Frame, Synchronize, Transfer Control
15.13. Method Reference Expressions
15.13.1. Compile-Time Declaration of a Method Reference
15.13.2. Type of a Method Reference
15.13.3. Run-time Evaluation of Method References
15.14. Postfix Expressions
15.14.1. Expression Names
15.14.2. Postfix Increment Operator ++
15.14.3. Postfix Decrement Operator --
15.15. Unary Operators
15.15.1. Prefix Increment Operator ++
15.15.2. Prefix Decrement Operator --
15.15.3. Unary Plus Operator +
15.15.4. Unary Minus Operator -
15.15.5. Bitwise Complement Operator ~
15.15.6. Logical Complement Operator !
15.16. Cast Expressions
15.17. Multiplicative Operators
15.17.1. Multiplication Operator *
15.17.2. Division Operator /
15.17.3. Remainder Operator %
15.18. Additive Operators
15.18.1. String Concatenation Operator +
15.18.2. Additive Operators (+ and -) for Numeric Types
15.19. Shift Operators
15.20. Relational Operators
15.20.1. Numerical Comparison Operators <, <=, >, and >=
15.20.2. Type Comparison Operator instanceof
15.21. Equality Operators
15.21.1. Numerical Equality Operators == and !=
15.21.2. Boolean Equality Operators == and !=
15.21.3. Reference Equality Operators == and !=
15.22. Bitwise and Logical Operators
15.22.1. Integer Bitwise Operators &, ^, and |
15.22.2. Boolean Logical Operators &, ^, and |
15.23. Conditional-And Operator &&
15.24. Conditional-Or Operator ||
15.25. Conditional Operator ? :
15.25.1. Boolean Conditional Expressions
15.25.2. Numeric Conditional Expressions
15.25.3. Reference Conditional Expressions
15.26. Assignment Operators
15.26.1. Simple Assignment Operator =
15.26.2. Compound Assignment Operators
15.27. Lambda Expressions
15.27.1. Lambda Parameters
15.27.2. Lambda Body
15.27.3. Type of a Lambda Expression
15.27.4. Run-time Evaluation of Lambda Expressions
15.28. Constant Expressions
16. Definite Assignment
16.1. Definite Assignment and Expressions
16.1.1. Boolean Constant Expressions
16.1.2. Conditional-And Operator &&
16.1.3. Conditional-Or Operator ||
16.1.4. Logical Complement Operator !
16.1.5. Conditional Operator ? :
16.1.6. Conditional Operator ? :
16.1.7. Other Expressions of Type boolean
16.1.8. Assignment Expressions
16.1.9. Operators ++ and --
16.1.10. Other Expressions
16.2. Definite Assignment and Statements
16.2.1. Empty Statements
16.2.2. Blocks
16.2.3. Local Class Declaration Statements
16.2.4. Local Variable Declaration Statements
16.2.5. Labeled Statements
16.2.6. Expression Statements
16.2.7. if Statements
16.2.8. assert Statements
16.2.9. switch Statements
16.2.10. while Statements
16.2.11. do Statements
16.2.12. for Statements
16.2.12.1. Initialization Part of for Statement
16.2.12.2. Incrementation Part of for Statement
16.2.13. break, continue, return, and throw Statements
16.2.14. synchronized Statements
16.2.15. try Statements
16.3. Definite Assignment and Parameters
16.4. Definite Assignment and Array Initializers
16.5. Definite Assignment and Enum Constants
16.6. Definite Assignment and Anonymous Classes
16.7. Definite Assignment and Member Types
16.8. Definite Assignment and Static Initializers
16.9. Definite Assignment, Constructors, and Instance Initializers
17. Threads and Locks
17.1. Synchronization
17.2. Wait Sets and Notification
17.2.1. Wait
17.2.2. Notification
17.2.3. Interruptions
17.2.4. Interactions of Waits, Notification, and Interruption
17.3. Sleep and Yield
17.4. Memory Model
17.4.1. Shared Variables
17.4.2. Actions
17.4.3. Programs and Program Order
17.4.4. Synchronization Order
17.4.5. Happens-before Order
17.4.6. Executions
17.4.7. Well-Formed Executions
17.4.8. Executions and Causality Requirements
17.4.9. Observable Behavior and Nonterminating Executions
17.5. final Field Semantics
17.5.1. Semantics of final Fields
17.5.2. Reading final Fields During Construction
17.5.3. Subsequent Modification of final Fields
17.5.4. Write-protected Fields
17.6. Word Tearing
17.7. Non-atomic Treatment of double and long
18. Type Inference
18.1. Concepts and Notation
18.1.1. Inference Variables
18.1.2. Constraint Formulas
18.1.3. Bounds
18.2. Reduction
18.2.1. Expression Compatibility Constraints
18.2.2. Type Compatibility Constraints
18.2.3. Subtyping Constraints
18.2.4. Type Equality Constraints
18.2.5. Checked Exception Constraints
18.3. Incorporation
18.3.1. Complementary Pairs of Bounds
18.3.2. Bounds Involving Capture Conversion
18.4. Resolution
18.5. Uses of Inference
18.5.1. Invocation Applicability Inference
18.5.2. Invocation Type Inference
18.5.3. Functional Interface Parameterization Inference
18.5.4. More Specific Method Inference
19. Syntax
Index
A. Limited License Grant

List of Examples

3.10.5-1. String Literals
4.2.2-1. Integer Operations
4.2.4-1. Floating-point Operations
4.3.1-1. Object Creation
4.3.1-2. Primitive and Reference Identity
4.4-1. Members of a Type Variable
4.5.1-1. Unbounded Wildcards
4.5.1-2. Bounded Wildcards
4.8-1. Raw Types
4.8-2. Raw Types and Inheritance
4.11-1. Usage of a Type
4.12.3-1. Different Kinds of Variables
4.12.4-1. Final Variables
4.12.5-1. Initial Values of Variables
4.12.6-1. Type of a Variable versus Class of an Object
5.0-1. Conversions at Compile Time and Run Time
5.0-2. Conversions In Various Contexts
5.1.2-1. Widening Primitive Conversion
5.1.3-1. Narrowing Primitive Conversion
5.1.3-2. Narrowing Primitive Conversions that lose information
5.2-1. Assignment Conversion for Primitive Types
5.2-2. Assignment Conversion for Reference Types
5.2-3. Assignment Conversion for Array Types
5.5.1-1. Casting Conversion for Reference Types
5.5.1-2. Casting Conversion for Array Types
5.5.3-1. Incompatible Types at Run Time
5.6.1-1. Unary Numeric Promotion
5.6.2-1. Binary Numeric Promotion
6.1-1. Unique Package Names
6.1-2. Descriptive Class Names
6.1-3. Conventional Type Variable Names
6.3-1. Scope of Type Declarations
6.3-2. Scope of Local Variable Declarations
6.4-1. Attempted Shadowing Of A Local Variable
6.4.1-1. Shadowing of a Field Declaration by a Local Variable Declaration
6.4.1-2. Shadowing of a Type Declaration by Another Type Declaration
6.5.2-1. Reclassification of Contextually Ambiguous Names
6.5.5.2-1. Qualified Type Names
6.5.6.1-1. Simple Expression Names
6.5.6.2-1. Qualified Expression Names
6.5.6.2-2. Qualifying an Expression with a Type Name
6.5.7.1-1. Simple Method Names and Visibility
6.6-1. Access Control
6.6-2. Access to public Fields, Methods, and Constructors
6.6-3. Access to public and Non-public Classes
6.6-4. Access to Package-Access Fields, Methods, and Constructors
6.6-5. Access to private Fields, Methods, and Constructors
6.6.2-1. Access to protected Fields, Methods, and Constructors
6.7-1. Fully Qualified Names
6.7-2. Fully Qualified Names v. Canonical Name
7.4.2-1.
7.5.1-1. Single-Type-Import
7.5.1-2. Duplicate Type Declarations
7.5.1-3. No Import of a Subpackage
7.5.1-4. Importing a Type Name that is also a Package Name
7.5.2-1. Type-Import-on-Demand
7.6-1. Conflicting Top Level Type Declarations
7.6-2. Scope of Top Level Types
7.6-3. Fully Qualified Names
8.1.1.1-1. Abstract Class Declaration
8.1.1.1-2. Abstract Class Declaration that Prohibits Subclasses
8.1.2-1. Mutually Recursive Type Variable Bounds
8.1.2-2. Nested Generic Classes
8.1.3-1. Inner Class Declarations and Static Members
8.1.3-2. Inner Class Declarations
8.1.4-1. Direct Superclasses and Subclasses
8.1.4-2. Superclasses and Subclasses
8.1.4-3. Class Depends on Itself
8.1.5-1. Illegal Superinterfaces
8.1.5-2. Superinterfaces
8.1.5-3. Illegal Multiple Inheritance of an Interface
8.1.5-3. Implementing Methods of a Superinterface
8.2-1. Use of Class Members
8.2-2. Inheritance of Class Members with Package Access
8.2-3. Inheritance of public and protected Class Members
8.2-4. Inheritance of private Class Members
8.2-5. Accessing Members of Inaccessible Classes
8.3-1. Multiply Inherited Fields
8.3-2. Re-inheritance of Fields
8.3.1.1-1. static Fields
8.3.1.1-2. Hiding of Class Variables
8.3.1.1-3. Hiding of Instance Variables
8.3.1.3-1. Persistence of transient Fields
8.3.1.4-1. volatile Fields
8.3.2-1. Field Initialization
8.3.2-2. Forward Reference to a Class Variable
8.3.3-1. Restrictions on Field Initialization
8.4.2-1. Override-Equivalent Signatures
8.4.3.1-1. Abstract/Abstract Method Overriding
8.4.3.1-2. Abstract/Non-Abstract Overriding
8.4.3.6-1. synchronized Monitors
8.4.3.6-2. synchronized Methods
8.4.6-1. Type Variables as Thrown Exception Types
8.4.8.1-1. Overriding
8.4.8.1-2. Overriding
8.4.8.2-1. Invocation of Hidden Class Methods
8.4.8.3-1. Covariant Return Types
8.4.8.3-2. Unchecked Warning from Return Type
8.4.8.3-3. Incorrect Overriding because of throws
8.4.8.3-4. Erasure Affects Overriding
8.4.9-1. Overloading
8.4.9-2. Overloading, Overriding, and Hiding
8.8-1. Constructor Declarations
8.8.7-1. Constructor Bodies
8.8.7.1-1. Restrictions on Explicit Constructor Invocation Statements
8.8.7.1-2. Qualified Superclass Constructor Invocation
8.8.9-1. Default Constructors
8.8.9-2. Accessibility of Constructors v. Classes
8.8.10-1. Preventing Instantiation via Constructor Accessibility
8.9.2-1. Enum Body Declarations
8.9.2-2. Restriction On Enum Constant Self-Reference
8.9.3-1. Iterating Over Enum Constants With An Enhanced for Loop
8.9.3-2. Switching Over Enum Constants
8.9.3-3. Enum Constants with Class Bodies
8.9.3-4. Multiple Enum Types
9.3-1. Ambiguous Inherited Fields
9.3-2. Multiply Inherited Fields
9.3.1-1. Forward Reference to a Field
9.4.2-1. Overloading an abstract Method Declaration
9.6.1-1. Annotation Type Declaration
9.6.1-2. Marker Annotation Type Declaration
9.6.1-3. Single-Element Annotation Type Declarations
9.6.2-1. Annotation Type Declaration With Default Values
9.6.3-1. Ill-formed Containing Annotation Type
9.6.3-2. Restricting Where Annotations May Repeat
9.6.3-3. A Repeatable Containing Annotation Type
9.7.1-1. Normal Annotations
9.7.2-1. Marker Annotations
9.7.3-1. Single-Element Annotations
9.8-1. Functional Interfaces
9.8-2. Functional Interfaces and Erasure
9.8-3. Generic Functional Interfaces
9.9-1. Function Types
9.9-2. Generic Function Types
10.2-1. Declarations of Array Variables
10.4-1. Array Access
10.5-1. ArrayStoreException
10.6-1. Array Initializers
10.7-1. Arrays Are Cloneable
10.7-2. Shared Subarrays After A Clone
10.8-1. Class Object Of Array
10.8-2. Array Class Objects Are Shared
11.2.3-1. Catching Checked Exceptions
11.3-1. Throwing and Catching Exceptions
12.4.1-1. Superclasses Are Initialized Before Subclasses
12.4.1-2. Only The Class That Declares static Field Is Initialized
12.4.1-3. Interface Initialization Does Not Initialize Superinterfaces
12.5-1. Evaluation of Instance Creation
12.5-2. Dynamic Dispatch During Instance Creation
13.4.4-1. Changing A Superclass
13.4.6-1. Changing A Class Body
13.4.6-2. Changing A Superclass
13.4.7-1. Changing Accessibility
13.4.8-1. Adding A Field Declaration
13.4.9-1. Changing A Variable To Be final
13.4.9-2. Conditional Compilation
13.4.16-1. Changing A Method To Be abstract
13.4.17-1. Changing A Method To Be final
13.4.23-1. Adding An Overloaded Method
13.5.3-1. Deleting An Interface Member
13.5.6-1. Adding A Default Method
14.3-1. Local Class Declarations
14.7-1. Labels and Identifiers
14.11-1. Fall-Through in the switch Statement
14.13-1. The do Statement
14.14-1. Enhanced for And Arrays
14.14-2. Enhanced for And Unboxing Conversion
14.15-1. The break Statement
14.16-1. The continue Statement
14.19-1. The synchronized Statement
14.20.1-1. Catching An Exception
14.20.2-1. Handling An Uncaught Exception With finally
15.7.1-1. Left-Hand Operand Is Evaluated First
15.7.1-2. Implicit Left-Hand Operand In Operator Of Compound Assigment
15.7.1-3. Abrupt Completion of Evaluation of the Left-Hand Operand
15.7.2-1. Evaluation of Operands Before Operation
15.7.4-1. Evaluation Order At Method Invocation
15.7.4-2. Abrupt Completion of Argument Expression
15.8.3-1. The this Expression
15.9.4-1. Evaluation Order and Out-Of-Memory Detection
15.10.2-1. Array Creation Evaluation
15.10.2-2. Multi-Dimensional Array Creation
15.10.2-3. OutOfMemoryError and Dimension Expression Evaluation
15.10.4-1. Array Reference Is Evaluated First
15.10.4-2. Abrupt Completion of Array Reference Evaluation
15.10.4-3. null Array Reference
15.11.1-1. Static Binding for Field Access
15.11.1-2. Receiver Variable Is Irrelevant For static Field Access
15.11.2-1. The super Expression
15.12.2-1. Method Applicability
15.12.2-2. Return Type Not Considered During Method Selection
15.12.2-3. Choosing The Most Specific Method
15.12.4.1-1. Target References and static Methods
15.12.4.1-2. Evaluation Order During Method Invocation
15.12.4.4-1. Overriding and Method Invocation
15.12.4.4-2. Method Invocation Using super
15.12.4.5-1. Invoked Method Signature Has Different Erasure Than Compile-Time Method Signature
15.17.3-1. Integer Remainder Operator
15.17.3-2. Floating-Point Remainder Operator
15.18.1-1. String Concatenation
15.18.1-2. String Concatenation and Conditionals
15.20.2-1. The instanceof Operator
15.26.1-1. Simple Assignment To An Array Component
15.26.2-1. Compound Assignment To An Array Component
15.26.2-2. Value Of Left-Hand Side Of Compound Assignment Is Saved Before Evaluation Of Right-Hand Side
15.28-1. Constant Expressions
16-1. Definite Assignment Considers Structure of Statements and Expressions
16-2. Definite Assignment Does Not Consider Values of Expressions
16-3. Definite Unassignment
17.4-1. Incorrectly Synchronized Programs May Exhibit Surprising Behavior
17.4.5-1. Happens-before Consistency
17.4.8-1. Happens-before Consistency Is Not Sufficient
17.5-1. final Fields In The Java Memory Model
17.5-2. final Fields For Security
17.5.3-1. Aggressive Optimization of final Fields
17.6-1. Detection of Word Tearing