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Oracle® Streams Concepts and Administration
10g Release 1 (10.1)

Part Number B10727-01
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Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration describes the features and functionality of Streams. This document contains conceptual information about Streams, along with information about managing a Streams environment. In addition, this document contains detailed examples that configure a Streams capture and apply environment and a rule-based application.

This preface contains these topics:


Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration is intended for database administrators who create and maintain Streams environments. These administrators perform one or more of the following tasks:

To use this document, you need to be familiar with relational database concepts, SQL, distributed database administration, Advanced Queuing concepts, PL/SQL, and the operating systems under which you run a Streams environment.


This document contains:

Part I, "Streams Concepts"

Contains chapters that describe conceptual information relating to Streams.

Chapter 1, "Introduction to Streams"

Introduces the major features of Streams and how they can be used.

Chapter 2, "Streams Capture Process"

Contains conceptual information about the Streams capture process. Includes information about logical change records (LCRs), datatypes and types of changes captured, and supplemental logging, along with information about capture process architecture.

Chapter 3, "Streams Staging and Propagation"

Contains conceptual information about staging and propagation in a Streams environment. Includes information about the differences between captured and user-enqueued events, propagation, the differences between transactional and non-transactional queues, and using SYS.AnyData queues. Also includes information about queue and propagation architecture.

Chapter 4, "Streams Apply Process"

Contains conceptual information about the Streams apply process. Includes information about event processing with an apply process, considerations for apply changes to tables, conditions for applying DDL changes, and controlling a trigger's firing property, along with information about the oldest SCN for an apply process and apply process architecture.

Chapter 5, "Rules"

Contains conceptual information about rules. Includes information about rule components, rule sets, and privileges related to rules.

Chapter 6, "How Rules Are Used In Streams"

Contains conceptual information about how rules are used in Streams. Includes information about table rules, subset rules, schema rules, and global rules. Also includes information about rule-based transformations.

Chapter 7, "Streams High Availability Environments"

Contains conceptual information about using Streams for high availability environments.

Part II, "Streams Administration"

Contains chapters that describe managing a capture process, staging, propagation, an apply process, rules, rule-based transformations, logical change records (LCRs), and Streams tags.

Chapter 8, "Preparing a Streams Environment"

Contains information about preparing for a Streams environment. Includes instructions for configuring a Streams administrator, setting initialization parameters that are important to Streams, preparing for a capture process, and configuring networking connectivity.

Chapter 9, "Managing a Capture Process"

Contains information about managing a capture process. Includes instructions for creating, starting, stopping, and altering a capture process, as well as other information related to capture process administration.

Chapter 10, "Managing Staging and Propagation"

Contains information about managing staging and propagation of events in a Streams environment. Includes instructions for creating a SYS.AnyData queue, and instructions for enabling, disabling, and altering a propagation, as well as other information related to staging, propagation, and messaging.

Chapter 11, "Managing an Apply Process"

Contains information about managing an apply process. Includes instructions for creating, starting, stopping, and altering an apply process, as well as instructions about using apply process handlers, configuring conflict resolution, and managing an exception queue.

Chapter 12, "Managing Rules and Rule-Based Transformations"

Contains information about managing rules and rule-based transformations. Includes instructions for managing rules and rule sets, as well as information about granting and revoking privileges related to rules. In addition, this chapter includes instructions for creating, altering, and removing rule-based transformations.

Chapter 13, "Other Streams Management Tasks"

Contains information about managing logical change records (LCRs) and Streams tags. Includes instructions for constructing and enqueuing LCRs, and instructions for setting and removing tag values for a session or an apply process.

Chapter 14, "Monitoring a Streams Environment"

Contains information about using data dictionary views and scripts to monitor a Streams environment. Includes information about monitoring capture processes, queues, propagations, apply processes, rules, rule-based transformations, and tags.

Chapter 15, "Troubleshooting a Streams Environment"

Contains information about possible problems in a Streams environment and how to resolve them. Includes information about troubleshooting a capture process, propagation, apply process, messaging client, and the rules used by these Streams clients, as well as information about checking trace files and the alert log for problems.

Part III, "Example Environments and Applications"

Contains chapters that illustrate example environments.

Chapter 16, "Single Database Capture and Apply Example"

Contains a step by step example that configures a single database capture and apply example using Streams. Specifically, this chapter illustrates an example of a single database that captures changes to a table, uses a DML handler during apply to re-enqueue the captured changes into a queue, and then applies a subset of the changes to a different table.

Chapter 17, "Rule-Based Application Example"

Contains step by step examples that illustrate a rule-based application that uses the Oracle rules engine.

Part IV, "Appendixes"

Contains one appendix that describes the XML schema for logical change records (LCRs).

Appendix A, "XML Schema for LCRs"

Contains the definition of the XML schema for LCRs.

Appendix B, "Online Database Upgrade and Maintenance With Streams"

Contains information about performing certain maintenance operations on an Oracle database with little or no down time. These maintenance operations include upgrading to a new version of the Oracle Database, migrating an Oracle Database to a different operating system or character set, upgrading user-created applications, and applying Oracle Database patches.

Related Documentation

For more information, see these Oracle resources:

You may find more information about a particular topic in the other documents in the Oracle documentation set.

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Many of the examples in this book use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

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If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the documentation section of the OTN Web site at

In addition, you can find resources related to Oracle Streams at


This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:

Conventions in Text

We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example


Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both.

When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table.


Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis.

Oracle Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk.

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width) font

Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, datatypes, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles.

You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.


lowercase monospace (fixed-width) font

Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executables, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names, and connect identifiers, as well as user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

Enter sqlplus to open SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the datafiles and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods.

lowercase italic monospace (fixed-width) font

Lowercase italic monospace font represents placeholders or variables.

You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run Uold_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading.

Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example:

SELECT username FROM dba_users WHERE username = 'MIGRATE';

The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
[ ]

Brackets enclose one or more optional items. Do not enter the brackets.

DECIMAL (digits [ , precision ])
{ }

Braces enclose two or more items, one of which is required. Do not enter the braces.


A vertical bar represents a choice of two or more options within brackets or braces. Enter one of the options. Do not enter the vertical bar.


Horizontal ellipsis points indicate either:

  • That we have omitted parts of the code that are not directly related to the example
  • That you can repeat a portion of the code

CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery;

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM 

Vertical ellipsis points indicate that we have omitted several lines of code not directly related to the example.

9 rows selected.

Other notation

You must enter symbols other than brackets, braces, vertical bars, and ellipsis points as shown.

acctbal NUMBER(11,2);
acct    CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3;

Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values.

CONNECT SYSTEM/system_password
DB_NAME = database_name


Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. However, because these terms are not case sensitive, you can enter them in lowercase.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM 
DROP TABLE hr.employees;

Lowercase typeface indicates programmatic elements that you supply. For example, lowercase indicates names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM 
sqlplus hr/hr

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Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

JAWS, a Windows screen reader, may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, JAWS may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation

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