MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6 Key Cache Block Size

It is possible to specify the size of the block buffers for an individual key cache using the key_cache_block_size variable. This permits tuning of the performance of I/O operations for index files.

The best performance for I/O operations is achieved when the size of read buffers is equal to the size of the native operating system I/O buffers. But setting the size of key nodes equal to the size of the I/O buffer does not always ensure the best overall performance. When reading the big leaf nodes, the server pulls in a lot of unnecessary data, effectively preventing reading other leaf nodes.

To control the size of blocks in the .MYI index file of MyISAM tables, use the --myisam-block-size option at server startup.