MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual

Including MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6

Abstract

This is the MySQL™ Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 5.7 through 5.7.22, as well as NDB Cluster releases based on version 7.5 of NDB through 5.7.20-ndb-7.5.9, respectively.

MySQL 5.7 features.  This manual describes features that are not included in every edition of MySQL 5.7; such features may not be included in the edition of MySQL 5.7 licensed to you. If you have any questions about the features included in your edition of MySQL 5.7, refer to your MySQL 5.7 license agreement or contact your Oracle sales representative.

For notes detailing the changes in each release, see the MySQL 5.7 Release Notes.

For legal information, see the Legal Notices.

For help with using MySQL, please visit either the MySQL Forums or MySQL Mailing Lists, where you can discuss your issues with other MySQL users.

For additional documentation on MySQL products, including translations of the documentation into other languages, and downloadable versions in variety of formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation Library.

Licensing information—MySQL 5.7.  This product may include third-party software, used under license. If you are using a Commercial release of MySQL 5.7, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Commercial release. If you are using a Community release of MySQL 5.7, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Community release.

Licensing information—NDB Cluster.  This product may include third-party software, used under license. If you are using a Commercial release of MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Commercial release. If you are using a Community release of MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Community release. If you are using MySQL NDB Cluster version 7.6, now in development, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Developer Preview release.

Document generated on: 2017-12-03 (revision: 54983)


Table of Contents

Preface and Legal Notices
1 General Information
1.1 About This Manual
1.2 Typographical and Syntax Conventions
1.3 Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.3.1 What is MySQL?
1.3.2 The Main Features of MySQL
1.3.3 History of MySQL
1.4 What Is New in MySQL 5.7
1.5 Server and Status Variables and Options Added, Deprecated, or Removed in MySQL 5.7
1.6 MySQL Information Sources
1.6.1 MySQL Websites
1.6.2 MySQL Mailing Lists
1.6.3 MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.6.4 MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.6.5 MySQL Enterprise
1.7 How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.8 MySQL Standards Compliance
1.8.1 MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.8.2 MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.8.3 How MySQL Deals with Constraints
1.9 Credits
1.9.1 Contributors to MySQL
1.9.2 Documenters and translators
1.9.3 Packages that support MySQL
1.9.4 Tools that were used to create MySQL
1.9.5 Supporters of MySQL
2 Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1 General Installation Guidance
2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install
2.1.2 How to Get MySQL
2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.4 Installation Layouts
2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2 Choosing an Installation Package
2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows
2.3.4 MySQL Notifier
2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive
2.3.6 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.7 Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.3.8 Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.3.9 Deploying MySQL on Windows and Other Non-Linux Platforms
2.4 Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.2 Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages
2.4.3 Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon
2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.2 Replacing a Third-Party Distribution of MySQL Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository
2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository
2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle
2.5.6 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle
2.5.7 Deploying MySQL on Linux with Docker
2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories
2.5.9 Installing MySQL on Linux with Juju
2.5.10 Managing MySQL Server with systemd
2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris
2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.9 Installing MySQL from Source
2.9.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.9.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.9.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.9.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.9.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory
2.10.2 Starting the Server
2.10.3 Testing the Server
2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
2.11 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.11.1 Upgrading MySQL
2.11.2 Downgrading MySQL
2.11.3 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.11.4 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12 Perl Installation Notes
2.12.1 Installing Perl on Unix
2.12.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.12.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3 Tutorial
3.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2 Entering Queries
3.3 Creating and Using a Database
3.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database
3.3.2 Creating a Table
3.3.3 Loading Data into a Table
3.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5 Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6 Examples of Common Queries
3.6.1 The Maximum Value for a Column
3.6.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.3 Maximum of Column per Group
3.6.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.5 Using User-Defined Variables
3.6.6 Using Foreign Keys
3.6.7 Searching on Two Keys
3.6.8 Calculating Visits Per Day
3.6.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT
3.7 Using MySQL with Apache
4 MySQL Programs
4.1 Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2 Using MySQL Programs
4.2.1 Invoking MySQL Programs
4.2.2 Connecting to the MySQL Server
4.2.3 Specifying Program Options
4.2.4 Using Options on the Command Line
4.2.5 Program Option Modifiers
4.2.6 Using Option Files
4.2.7 Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling
4.2.8 Using Options to Set Program Variables
4.2.9 Option Defaults, Options Expecting Values, and the = Sign
4.2.10 Setting Environment Variables
4.3 MySQL Server and Server-Startup Programs
4.3.1 mysqld — The MySQL Server
4.3.2 mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.3 mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.4 mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
4.4 MySQL Installation-Related Programs
4.4.1 comp_err — Compile MySQL Error Message File
4.4.2 mysql_install_db — Initialize MySQL Data Directory
4.4.3 mysql_plugin — Configure MySQL Server Plugins
4.4.4 mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security
4.4.5 mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files
4.4.6 mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables
4.4.7 mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables
4.5 MySQL Client Programs
4.5.1 mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
4.5.2 mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
4.5.3 mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance Program
4.5.4 mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
4.5.5 mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
4.5.6 mysqlpump — A Database Backup Program
4.5.7 mysqlsh — The MySQL Shell
4.5.8 mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
4.5.9 mysqlslap — Load Emulation Client
4.6 MySQL Administrative and Utility Programs
4.6.1 innochecksum — Offline InnoDB File Checksum Utility
4.6.2 myisam_ftdump — Display Full-Text Index information
4.6.3 myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
4.6.4 myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
4.6.5 myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
4.6.6 mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility
4.6.7 mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
4.6.8 mysqldumpslow — Summarize Slow Query Log Files
4.7 MySQL Program Development Utilities
4.7.1 mysql_config — Display Options for Compiling Clients
4.7.2 my_print_defaults — Display Options from Option Files
4.7.3 resolve_stack_dump — Resolve Numeric Stack Trace Dump to Symbols
4.8 Miscellaneous Programs
4.8.1 lz4_decompress — Decompress mysqlpump LZ4-Compressed Output
4.8.2 perror — Explain Error Codes
4.8.3 replace — A String-Replacement Utility
4.8.4 resolveip — Resolve Host name to IP Address or Vice Versa
4.8.5 zlib_decompress — Decompress mysqlpump ZLIB-Compressed Output
4.9 MySQL Program Environment Variables
5 MySQL Server Administration
5.1 The MySQL Server
5.1.1 Configuring the Server
5.1.2 Server Configuration Defaults
5.1.3 Server Option and Variable Reference
5.1.4 Server Command Options
5.1.5 Server System Variables
5.1.6 Using System Variables
5.1.7 Server Status Variables
5.1.8 Server SQL Modes
5.1.9 IPv6 Support
5.1.10 Server-Side Help
5.1.11 Server Response to Signals
5.1.12 The Server Shutdown Process
5.2 The MySQL Data Directory
5.3 The mysql System Database
5.4 MySQL Server Logs
5.4.1 Selecting General Query and Slow Query Log Output Destinations
5.4.2 The Error Log
5.4.3 The General Query Log
5.4.4 The Binary Log
5.4.5 The Slow Query Log
5.4.6 The DDL Log
5.4.7 Server Log Maintenance
5.5 MySQL Server Plugins
5.5.1 Installing and Uninstalling Plugins
5.5.2 Obtaining Server Plugin Information
5.5.3 MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool
5.5.4 The Rewriter Query Rewrite Plugin
5.5.5 Version Tokens
5.6 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine
5.6.1 Setting Up Multiple Data Directories
5.6.2 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Windows
5.6.3 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Unix
5.6.4 Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
5.7 Tracing mysqld Using DTrace
5.7.1 mysqld DTrace Probe Reference
6 Security
6.1 General Security Issues
6.1.1 Security Guidelines
6.1.2 Keeping Passwords Secure
6.1.3 Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
6.1.4 Security-Related mysqld Options and Variables
6.1.5 How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
6.1.6 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
6.1.7 Client Programming Security Guidelines
6.2 The MySQL Access Privilege System
6.2.1 Privileges Provided by MySQL
6.2.2 Grant Tables
6.2.3 Specifying Account Names
6.2.4 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
6.2.5 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
6.2.6 When Privilege Changes Take Effect
6.2.7 Troubleshooting Problems Connecting to MySQL
6.3 MySQL User Account Management
6.3.1 User Names and Passwords
6.3.2 Adding User Accounts
6.3.3 Removing User Accounts
6.3.4 Reserved User Accounts
6.3.5 Setting Account Resource Limits
6.3.6 Assigning Account Passwords
6.3.7 Password Management
6.3.8 Password Expiration and Sandbox Mode
6.3.9 Pluggable Authentication
6.3.10 Proxy Users
6.3.11 User Account Locking
6.3.12 SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing
6.4 Using Encrypted Connections
6.4.1 Configuring MySQL to Use Encrypted Connections
6.4.2 Command Options for Encrypted Connections
6.4.3 Creating SSL and RSA Certificates and Keys
6.4.4 OpenSSL Versus yaSSL
6.4.5 Building MySQL with Support for Encrypted Connections
6.4.6 Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers
6.4.7 Connecting to MySQL Remotely from Windows with SSH
6.5 Security Plugins
6.5.1 Authentication Plugins
6.5.2 The Connection-Control Plugins
6.5.3 The Password Validation Plugin
6.5.4 The MySQL Keyring
6.5.5 MySQL Enterprise Audit
6.5.6 MySQL Enterprise Firewall
7 Backup and Recovery
7.1 Backup and Recovery Types
7.2 Database Backup Methods
7.3 Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
7.3.1 Establishing a Backup Policy
7.3.2 Using Backups for Recovery
7.3.3 Backup Strategy Summary
7.4 Using mysqldump for Backups
7.4.1 Dumping Data in SQL Format with mysqldump
7.4.2 Reloading SQL-Format Backups
7.4.3 Dumping Data in Delimited-Text Format with mysqldump
7.4.4 Reloading Delimited-Text Format Backups
7.4.5 mysqldump Tips
7.5 Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log
7.5.1 Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Times
7.5.2 Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Positions
7.6 MyISAM Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
7.6.1 Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
7.6.2 How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
7.6.3 How to Repair MyISAM Tables
7.6.4 MyISAM Table Optimization
7.6.5 Setting Up a MyISAM Table Maintenance Schedule
8 Optimization
8.1 Optimization Overview
8.2 Optimizing SQL Statements
8.2.1 Optimizing SELECT Statements
8.2.2 Optimizing Subqueries, Derived Tables, and View References
8.2.3 Optimizing INFORMATION_SCHEMA Queries
8.2.4 Optimizing Data Change Statements
8.2.5 Optimizing Database Privileges
8.2.6 Other Optimization Tips
8.3 Optimization and Indexes
8.3.1 How MySQL Uses Indexes
8.3.2 Primary Key Optimization
8.3.3 Foreign Key Optimization
8.3.4 Column Indexes
8.3.5 Multiple-Column Indexes
8.3.6 Verifying Index Usage
8.3.7 InnoDB and MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
8.3.8 Comparison of B-Tree and Hash Indexes
8.3.9 Use of Index Extensions
8.3.10 Optimizer Use of Generated Column Indexes
8.4 Optimizing Database Structure
8.4.1 Optimizing Data Size
8.4.2 Optimizing MySQL Data Types
8.4.3 Optimizing for Many Tables
8.4.4 Internal Temporary Table Use in MySQL
8.5 Optimizing for InnoDB Tables
8.5.1 Optimizing Storage Layout for InnoDB Tables
8.5.2 Optimizing InnoDB Transaction Management
8.5.3 Optimizing InnoDB Read-Only Transactions
8.5.4 Optimizing InnoDB Redo Logging
8.5.5 Bulk Data Loading for InnoDB Tables
8.5.6 Optimizing InnoDB Queries
8.5.7 Optimizing InnoDB DDL Operations
8.5.8 Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O
8.5.9 Optimizing InnoDB Configuration Variables
8.5.10 Optimizing InnoDB for Systems with Many Tables
8.6 Optimizing for MyISAM Tables
8.6.1 Optimizing MyISAM Queries
8.6.2 Bulk Data Loading for MyISAM Tables
8.6.3 Optimizing REPAIR TABLE Statements
8.7 Optimizing for MEMORY Tables
8.8 Understanding the Query Execution Plan
8.8.1 Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
8.8.2 EXPLAIN Output Format
8.8.3 Extended EXPLAIN Output Format
8.8.4 Obtaining Execution Plan Information for a Named Connection
8.8.5 Estimating Query Performance
8.9 Controlling the Query Optimizer
8.9.1 Controlling Query Plan Evaluation
8.9.2 Optimizer Hints
8.9.3 Switchable Optimizations
8.9.4 Index Hints
8.9.5 The Optimizer Cost Model
8.10 Buffering and Caching
8.10.1 InnoDB Buffer Pool Optimization
8.10.2 The MyISAM Key Cache
8.10.3 The MySQL Query Cache
8.10.4 Caching of Prepared Statements and Stored Programs
8.11 Optimizing Locking Operations
8.11.1 Internal Locking Methods
8.11.2 Table Locking Issues
8.11.3 Concurrent Inserts
8.11.4 Metadata Locking
8.11.5 External Locking
8.12 Optimizing the MySQL Server
8.12.1 System Factors
8.12.2 Optimizing Disk I/O
8.12.3 Using Symbolic Links
8.12.4 Optimizing Memory Use
8.12.5 Optimizing Network Use
8.13 Measuring Performance (Benchmarking)
8.13.1 Measuring the Speed of Expressions and Functions
8.13.2 Using Your Own Benchmarks
8.13.3 Measuring Performance with performance_schema
8.14 Examining Thread Information
8.14.1 Thread Command Values
8.14.2 General Thread States
8.14.3 Query Cache Thread States
8.14.4 Replication Master Thread States
8.14.5 Replication Slave I/O Thread States
8.14.6 Replication Slave SQL Thread States
8.14.7 Replication Slave Connection Thread States
8.14.8 NDB Cluster Thread States
8.14.9 Event Scheduler Thread States
9 Language Structure
9.1 Literal Values
9.1.1 String Literals
9.1.2 Numeric Literals
9.1.3 Date and Time Literals
9.1.4 Hexadecimal Literals
9.1.5 Bit-Value Literals
9.1.6 Boolean Literals
9.1.7 NULL Values
9.2 Schema Object Names
9.2.1 Identifier Qualifiers
9.2.2 Identifier Case Sensitivity
9.2.3 Mapping of Identifiers to File Names
9.2.4 Function Name Parsing and Resolution
9.3 Keywords and Reserved Words
9.4 User-Defined Variables
9.5 Expression Syntax
9.6 Comment Syntax
10 Globalization
10.1 Character Set Support
10.1.1 Character Sets and Collations in General
10.1.2 Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
10.1.3 Specifying Character Sets and Collations
10.1.4 Connection Character Sets and Collations
10.1.5 Configuring Application Character Set and Collation
10.1.6 Error Message Character Set
10.1.7 Column Character Set Conversion
10.1.8 Collation Issues
10.1.9 Unicode Support
10.1.10 Supported Character Sets and Collations
10.2 Setting the Error Message Language
10.3 Adding a Character Set
10.3.1 Character Definition Arrays
10.3.2 String Collating Support for Complex Character Sets
10.3.3 Multi-Byte Character Support for Complex Character Sets
10.4 Adding a Collation to a Character Set
10.4.1 Collation Implementation Types
10.4.2 Choosing a Collation ID
10.4.3 Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set
10.4.4 Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set
10.5 Character Set Configuration
10.6 MySQL Server Time Zone Support
10.6.1 Staying Current with Time Zone Changes
10.6.2 Time Zone Leap Second Support
10.7 MySQL Server Locale Support
11 Data Types
11.1 Data Type Overview
11.1.1 Numeric Type Overview
11.1.2 Date and Time Type Overview
11.1.3 String Type Overview
11.2 Numeric Types
11.2.1 Integer Types (Exact Value) - INTEGER, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, MEDIUMINT, BIGINT
11.2.2 Fixed-Point Types (Exact Value) - DECIMAL, NUMERIC
11.2.3 Floating-Point Types (Approximate Value) - FLOAT, DOUBLE
11.2.4 Bit-Value Type - BIT
11.2.5 Numeric Type Attributes
11.2.6 Out-of-Range and Overflow Handling
11.3 Date and Time Types
11.3.1 The DATE, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP Types
11.3.2 The TIME Type
11.3.3 The YEAR Type
11.3.4 YEAR(2) Limitations and Migrating to YEAR(4)
11.3.5 Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME
11.3.6 Fractional Seconds in Time Values
11.3.7 Conversion Between Date and Time Types
11.3.8 Two-Digit Years in Dates
11.4 String Types
11.4.1 The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
11.4.2 The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
11.4.3 The BLOB and TEXT Types
11.4.4 The ENUM Type
11.4.5 The SET Type
11.5 Spatial Data Types
11.5.1 Spatial Data Types
11.5.2 The OpenGIS Geometry Model
11.5.3 Supported Spatial Data Formats
11.5.4 Geometry Well-Formedness and Validity
11.5.5 Creating Spatial Columns
11.5.6 Populating Spatial Columns
11.5.7 Fetching Spatial Data
11.5.8 Optimizing Spatial Analysis
11.5.9 Creating Spatial Indexes
11.5.10 Using Spatial Indexes
11.6 The JSON Data Type
11.7 Data Type Default Values
11.8 Data Type Storage Requirements
11.9 Choosing the Right Type for a Column
11.10 Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
12 Functions and Operators
12.1 Function and Operator Reference
12.2 Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
12.3 Operators
12.3.1 Operator Precedence
12.3.2 Comparison Functions and Operators
12.3.3 Logical Operators
12.3.4 Assignment Operators
12.4 Control Flow Functions
12.5 String Functions
12.5.1 String Comparison Functions
12.5.2 Regular Expressions
12.5.3 Character Set and Collation of Function Results
12.6 Numeric Functions and Operators
12.6.1 Arithmetic Operators
12.6.2 Mathematical Functions
12.7 Date and Time Functions
12.8 What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
12.9 Full-Text Search Functions
12.9.1 Natural Language Full-Text Searches
12.9.2 Boolean Full-Text Searches
12.9.3 Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
12.9.4 Full-Text Stopwords
12.9.5 Full-Text Restrictions
12.9.6 Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
12.9.7 Adding a Collation for Full-Text Indexing
12.9.8 ngram Full-Text Parser
12.9.9 MeCab Full-Text Parser Plugin
12.10 Cast Functions and Operators
12.11 XML Functions
12.12 Bit Functions and Operators
12.13 Encryption and Compression Functions
12.14 Information Functions
12.15 Spatial Analysis Functions
12.15.1 Spatial Function Reference
12.15.2 Argument Handling by Spatial Functions
12.15.3 Functions That Create Geometry Values from WKT Values
12.15.4 Functions That Create Geometry Values from WKB Values
12.15.5 MySQL-Specific Functions That Create Geometry Values
12.15.6 Geometry Format Conversion Functions
12.15.7 Geometry Property Functions
12.15.8 Spatial Operator Functions
12.15.9 Functions That Test Spatial Relations Between Geometry Objects
12.15.10 Spatial Geohash Functions
12.15.11 Spatial GeoJSON Functions
12.15.12 Spatial Convenience Functions
12.16 JSON Functions
12.16.1 JSON Function Reference
12.16.2 Functions That Create JSON Values
12.16.3 Functions That Search JSON Values
12.16.4 Functions That Modify JSON Values
12.16.5 Functions That Return JSON Value Attributes
12.16.6 JSON Path Syntax
12.17 Functions Used with Global Transaction IDs
12.18 MySQL Enterprise Encryption Functions
12.18.1 Enterprise Encryption Installation
12.18.2 Enterprise Encryption Usage and Examples
12.18.3 Enterprise Encryption Function Reference
12.18.4 Enterprise Encryption Function Descriptions
12.19 Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions
12.19.1 Aggregate (GROUP BY) Function Descriptions
12.19.2 GROUP BY Modifiers
12.19.3 MySQL Handling of GROUP BY
12.19.4 Detection of Functional Dependence
12.20 Miscellaneous Functions
12.21 Precision Math
12.21.1 Types of Numeric Values
12.21.2 DECIMAL Data Type Characteristics
12.21.3 Expression Handling
12.21.4 Rounding Behavior
12.21.5 Precision Math Examples
13 SQL Statement Syntax
13.1 Data Definition Statements
13.1.1 ALTER DATABASE Syntax
13.1.2 ALTER EVENT Syntax
13.1.3 ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.4 ALTER INSTANCE Syntax
13.1.5 ALTER LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.6 ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
13.1.7 ALTER SERVER Syntax
13.1.8 ALTER TABLE Syntax
13.1.9 ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.10 ALTER VIEW Syntax
13.1.11 CREATE DATABASE Syntax
13.1.12 CREATE EVENT Syntax
13.1.13 CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.14 CREATE INDEX Syntax
13.1.15 CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.16 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.17 CREATE SERVER Syntax
13.1.18 CREATE TABLE Syntax
13.1.19 CREATE TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.20 CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.21 CREATE VIEW Syntax
13.1.22 DROP DATABASE Syntax
13.1.23 DROP EVENT Syntax
13.1.24 DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.25 DROP INDEX Syntax
13.1.26 DROP LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.27 DROP PROCEDURE and DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.28 DROP SERVER Syntax
13.1.29 DROP TABLE Syntax
13.1.30 DROP TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.31 DROP TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.32 DROP VIEW Syntax
13.1.33 RENAME TABLE Syntax
13.1.34 TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
13.2 Data Manipulation Statements
13.2.1 CALL Syntax
13.2.2 DELETE Syntax
13.2.3 DO Syntax
13.2.4 HANDLER Syntax
13.2.5 INSERT Syntax
13.2.6 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
13.2.7 LOAD XML Syntax
13.2.8 REPLACE Syntax
13.2.9 SELECT Syntax
13.2.10 Subquery Syntax
13.2.11 UPDATE Syntax
13.3 Transactional and Locking Statements
13.3.1 START TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK Syntax
13.3.2 Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
13.3.3 Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
13.3.4 SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT, and RELEASE SAVEPOINT Syntax
13.3.5 LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax
13.3.6 SET TRANSACTION Syntax
13.3.7 XA Transactions
13.4 Replication Statements
13.4.1 SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
13.4.2 SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
13.4.3 SQL Statements for Controlling Group Replication
13.5 Prepared SQL Statement Syntax
13.5.1 PREPARE Syntax
13.5.2 EXECUTE Syntax
13.5.3 DEALLOCATE PREPARE Syntax
13.6 Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.1 BEGIN ... END Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.2 Statement Label Syntax
13.6.3 DECLARE Syntax
13.6.4 Variables in Stored Programs
13.6.5 Flow Control Statements
13.6.6 Cursors
13.6.7 Condition Handling
13.7 Database Administration Statements
13.7.1 Account Management Statements
13.7.2 Table Maintenance Statements
13.7.3 Plugin and User-Defined Function Statements
13.7.4 SET Syntax
13.7.5 SHOW Syntax
13.7.6 Other Administrative Statements
13.8 Utility Statements
13.8.1 DESCRIBE Syntax
13.8.2 EXPLAIN Syntax
13.8.3 HELP Syntax
13.8.4 USE Syntax
14 The InnoDB Storage Engine
14.1 Introduction to InnoDB
14.1.1 Benefits of Using InnoDB Tables
14.1.2 Best Practices for InnoDB Tables
14.1.3 Checking InnoDB Availability
14.1.4 Testing and Benchmarking with InnoDB
14.1.5 Turning Off InnoDB
14.2 InnoDB and the ACID Model
14.3 InnoDB Multi-Versioning
14.4 InnoDB Architecture
14.4.1 Buffer Pool
14.4.2 Change Buffer
14.4.3 Adaptive Hash Index
14.4.4 Redo Log Buffer
14.4.5 System Tablespace
14.4.6 InnoDB Data Dictionary
14.4.7 Doublewrite Buffer
14.4.8 Undo Logs
14.4.9 File-Per-Table Tablespaces
14.4.10 General Tablespaces
14.4.11 Undo Tablespace
14.4.12 Temporary Tablespace
14.4.13 Redo Log
14.5 InnoDB Locking and Transaction Model
14.5.1 InnoDB Locking
14.5.2 InnoDB Transaction Model
14.5.3 Locks Set by Different SQL Statements in InnoDB
14.5.4 Phantom Rows
14.5.5 Deadlocks in InnoDB
14.6 InnoDB Configuration
14.6.1 InnoDB Startup Configuration
14.6.2 Configuring InnoDB for Read-Only Operation
14.6.3 InnoDB Buffer Pool Configuration
14.6.4 Configuring the Memory Allocator for InnoDB
14.6.5 Configuring InnoDB Change Buffering
14.6.6 Configuring Thread Concurrency for InnoDB
14.6.7 Configuring the Number of Background InnoDB I/O Threads
14.6.8 Using Asynchronous I/O on Linux
14.6.9 Configuring the InnoDB Master Thread I/O Rate
14.6.10 Configuring Spin Lock Polling
14.6.11 Configuring InnoDB Purge Scheduling
14.6.12 Configuring Optimizer Statistics for InnoDB
14.6.13 Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages
14.7 InnoDB Tablespaces
14.7.1 Resizing the InnoDB System Tablespace
14.7.2 Changing the Number or Size of InnoDB Redo Log Files
14.7.3 Using Raw Disk Partitions for the System Tablespace
14.7.4 InnoDB File-Per-Table Tablespaces
14.7.5 Creating File-Per-Table Tablespaces Outside the Data Directory
14.7.6 Copying File-Per-Table Tablespaces to Another Instance
14.7.7 Configuring Undo Tablespaces
14.7.8 Truncating Undo Tablespaces
14.7.9 InnoDB General Tablespaces
14.7.10 InnoDB Tablespace Encryption
14.8 InnoDB Tables and Indexes
14.8.1 InnoDB Tables
14.8.2 InnoDB Indexes
14.9 InnoDB Table and Page Compression
14.9.1 InnoDB Table Compression
14.9.2 InnoDB Page Compression
14.10 InnoDB File-Format Management
14.10.1 Enabling File Formats
14.10.2 Verifying File Format Compatibility
14.10.3 Identifying the File Format in Use
14.10.4 Modifying the File Format
14.11 InnoDB Row Storage and Row Formats
14.11.1 Overview of InnoDB Row Storage
14.11.2 Specifying the Row Format for a Table
14.11.3 DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats
14.11.4 COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row Formats
14.12 InnoDB Disk I/O and File Space Management
14.12.1 InnoDB Disk I/O
14.12.2 File Space Management
14.12.3 InnoDB Checkpoints
14.12.4 Defragmenting a Table
14.12.5 Reclaiming Disk Space with TRUNCATE TABLE
14.13 InnoDB and Online DDL
14.13.1 Online DDL Overview
14.13.2 Online DDL Performance, Concurrency, and Space Requirements
14.13.3 Online DDL SQL Syntax
14.13.4 Simplifying DDL Statements with Online DDL
14.13.5 Online DDL Implementation Details
14.13.6 Online DDL and Crash Recovery
14.13.7 Online DDL for Partitioned Tables
14.13.8 Online DDL Limitations
14.14 InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
14.15 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
14.15.1 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables about Compression
14.15.2 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Transaction and Locking Information
14.15.3 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA System Tables
14.15.4 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA FULLTEXT Index Tables
14.15.5 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Buffer Pool Tables
14.15.6 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Metrics Table
14.15.7 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Temporary Table Information Table
14.15.8 Retrieving InnoDB Tablespace Metadata from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
14.16 InnoDB Integration with MySQL Performance Schema
14.16.1 Monitoring ALTER TABLE Progress for InnoDB Tables Using Performance Schema
14.16.2 Monitoring InnoDB Mutex Waits Using Performance Schema
14.17 InnoDB Monitors
14.17.1 InnoDB Monitor Types
14.17.2 Enabling InnoDB Monitors
14.17.3 InnoDB Standard Monitor and Lock Monitor Output
14.18 InnoDB Backup and Recovery
14.18.1 InnoDB Backup
14.18.2 InnoDB Recovery
14.19 InnoDB and MySQL Replication
14.20 InnoDB memcached Plugin
14.20.1 Benefits of the InnoDB memcached Plugin
14.20.2 InnoDB memcached Architecture
14.20.3 Setting Up the InnoDB memcached Plugin
14.20.4 Security Considerations for the InnoDB memcached Plugin
14.20.5 Writing Applications for the InnoDB memcached Plugin
14.20.6 The InnoDB memcached Plugin and Replication
14.20.7 InnoDB memcached Plugin Internals
14.20.8 Troubleshooting the InnoDB memcached Plugin
14.21 InnoDB Troubleshooting
14.21.1 Troubleshooting InnoDB I/O Problems
14.21.2 Forcing InnoDB Recovery
14.21.3 Troubleshooting InnoDB Data Dictionary Operations
14.21.4 InnoDB Error Handling
15 Alternative Storage Engines
15.1 Setting the Storage Engine
15.2 The MyISAM Storage Engine
15.2.1 MyISAM Startup Options
15.2.2 Space Needed for Keys
15.2.3 MyISAM Table Storage Formats
15.2.4 MyISAM Table Problems
15.3 The MEMORY Storage Engine
15.4 The CSV Storage Engine
15.4.1 Repairing and Checking CSV Tables
15.4.2 CSV Limitations
15.5 The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
15.6 The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
15.7 The MERGE Storage Engine
15.7.1 MERGE Table Advantages and Disadvantages
15.7.2 MERGE Table Problems
15.8 The FEDERATED Storage Engine
15.8.1 FEDERATED Storage Engine Overview
15.8.2 How to Create FEDERATED Tables
15.8.3 FEDERATED Storage Engine Notes and Tips
15.8.4 FEDERATED Storage Engine Resources
15.9 The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
15.10 Other Storage Engines
15.11 Overview of MySQL Storage Engine Architecture
15.11.1 Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture
15.11.2 The Common Database Server Layer
16 Replication
16.1 Configuring Replication
16.1.1 Binary Log File Position Based Replication Configuration Overview
16.1.2 Setting Up Binary Log File Position Based Replication
16.1.3 Replication with Global Transaction Identifiers
16.1.4 MySQL Multi-Source Replication
16.1.5 Changing Replication Modes on Online Servers
16.1.6 Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables
16.1.7 Common Replication Administration Tasks
16.2 Replication Implementation
16.2.1 Replication Formats
16.2.2 Replication Implementation Details
16.2.3 Replication Channels
16.2.4 Replication Relay and Status Logs
16.2.5 How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules
16.3 Replication Solutions
16.3.1 Using Replication for Backups
16.3.2 Handling an Unexpected Halt of a Replication Slave
16.3.3 Using Replication with Different Master and Slave Storage Engines
16.3.4 Using Replication for Scale-Out
16.3.5 Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves
16.3.6 Improving Replication Performance
16.3.7 Switching Masters During Failover
16.3.8 Setting Up Replication to Use Encrypted Connections
16.3.9 Semisynchronous Replication
16.3.10 Delayed Replication
16.4 Replication Notes and Tips
16.4.1 Replication Features and Issues
16.4.2 Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
16.4.3 Upgrading a Replication Setup
16.4.4 Troubleshooting Replication
16.4.5 How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
17 Group Replication
17.1 Group Replication Background
17.1.1 Replication Technologies
17.1.2 Group Replication Use Cases
17.1.3 Group Replication Details
17.2 Getting Started
17.2.1 Deploying Group Replication in Single-Primary Mode
17.3 Monitoring Group Replication
17.3.1 Replication_group_member_stats
17.3.2 Replication_group_members
17.3.3 Replication_connection_status
17.3.4 Replication_applier_status
17.3.5 Group Replication Server States
17.4 Group Replication Operations
17.4.1 Deploying in Multi-Primary or Single-Primary Mode
17.4.2 Tuning Recovery
17.4.3 Network Partitioning
17.4.4 Using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Group Replication
17.5 Group Replication Security
17.5.1 IP Address Whitelisting
17.5.2 Secure Socket Layer Support (SSL)
17.5.3 Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
17.6 Group Replication System Variables
17.7 Requirements and Limitations
17.7.1 Group Replication Requirements
17.7.2 Group Replication Limitations
17.8 Frequently Asked Questions
17.9 Group Replication Technical Details
17.9.1 Group Replication Plugin Architecture
17.9.2 The Group
17.9.3 Data Manipulation Statements
17.9.4 Data Definition Statements
17.9.5 Distributed Recovery
17.9.6 Observability
17.9.7 Group Replication Performance
18 MySQL Shell User Guide
18.1 MySQL Shell Features
18.2 Getting Started with MySQL Shell
18.2.1 MySQL Shell Connections
18.2.2 MySQL Shell Sessions
18.2.3 MySQL Shell Global Variables
18.3 MySQL Shell Code Execution
18.3.1 Interactive Code Execution
18.3.2 Batch Code Execution
18.3.3 Output Formats
18.3.4 Active Language
18.3.5 Batch Mode Made Interactive
18.4 Configuring MySQL Shell
18.4.1 MySQL Shell Commands
18.5 MySQL Shell Application Log
18.6 Customizing MySQL Shell
18.6.1 Working With Start-Up Scripts
18.6.2 Adding Module Search Paths
18.6.3 Overriding the Default Prompt
19 Using MySQL as a Document Store
19.1 Preproduction Status — Legal Notice
19.2 Key Concepts
19.3 Setting Up MySQL as a Document Store
19.3.1 Installing MySQL Shell
19.3.2 Starting MySQL Shell
19.4 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL Shell for JavaScript
19.4.1 Introduction
19.4.2 Import Database Sample
19.4.3 MySQL Shell
19.4.4 Documents and Collections
19.4.5 Relational Tables
19.4.6 Documents in Tables
19.5 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL Shell for Python
19.5.1 Introduction
19.5.2 Import Database Sample
19.5.3 MySQL Shell
19.5.4 Documents and Collections
19.5.5 Relational Tables
19.5.6 Documents in Tables
19.6 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL for Visual Studio
19.7 X Plugin
19.7.1 Using Secure Connections with X Plugin
19.7.2 X Plugin Options and Variables
19.7.3 Monitoring X Plugin
20 InnoDB Cluster
20.1 Introducing InnoDB Cluster
20.2 Creating an InnoDB Cluster
20.2.1 Deployment Scenarios
20.2.2 InnoDB Cluster Requirements
20.2.3 Methods of Installing
20.2.4 Sandbox Deployment of InnoDB Cluster
20.2.5 Production Deployment of InnoDB Cluster
20.2.6 Adopting a Group Replication Deployment
20.3 Using MySQL Router with InnoDB Cluster
20.4 Working with InnoDB Cluster
20.5 Known Limitations
21 MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6
21.1 NDB Cluster Overview
21.1.1 NDB Cluster Core Concepts
21.1.2 NDB Cluster Nodes, Node Groups, Replicas, and Partitions
21.1.3 NDB Cluster Hardware, Software, and Networking Requirements
21.1.4 What is New in NDB Cluster
21.1.5 MySQL Server Using InnoDB Compared with NDB Cluster
21.1.6 Known Limitations of NDB Cluster
21.2 NDB Cluster Installation
21.2.1 The NDB Cluster Auto-Installer
21.2.2 Installation of NDB Cluster 7.5 on Linux
21.2.3 Installing NDB Cluster on Windows
21.2.4 Initial Configuration of NDB Cluster
21.2.5 Initial Startup of NDB Cluster
21.2.6 NDB Cluster Example with Tables and Data
21.2.7 Safe Shutdown and Restart of NDB Cluster
21.2.8 Upgrading and Downgrading NDB Cluster
21.3 Configuration of NDB Cluster
21.3.1 Quick Test Setup of NDB Cluster
21.3.2 Overview of NDB Cluster Configuration Parameters, Options, and Variables
21.3.3 NDB Cluster Configuration Files
21.3.4 Using High-Speed Interconnects with NDB Cluster
21.4 NDB Cluster Programs
21.4.1 ndbd — The NDB Cluster Data Node Daemon
21.4.2 ndbinfo_select_all — Select From ndbinfo Tables
21.4.3 ndbmtd — The NDB Cluster Data Node Daemon (Multi-Threaded)
21.4.4 ndb_mgmd — The NDB Cluster Management Server Daemon
21.4.5 ndb_mgm — The NDB Cluster Management Client
21.4.6 ndb_blob_tool — Check and Repair BLOB and TEXT columns of NDB Cluster Tables
21.4.7 ndb_config — Extract NDB Cluster Configuration Information
21.4.8 ndb_cpcd — Automate Testing for NDB Development
21.4.9 ndb_delete_all — Delete All Rows from an NDB Table
21.4.10 ndb_desc — Describe NDB Tables
21.4.11 ndb_drop_index — Drop Index from an NDB Table
21.4.12 ndb_drop_table — Drop an NDB Table
21.4.13 ndb_error_reporter — NDB Error-Reporting Utility
21.4.14 ndb_import — Import CSV Data Into NDB
21.4.15 ndb_index_stat — NDB Index Statistics Utility
21.4.16 ndb_move_data — NDB Data Copy Utility
21.4.17 ndb_perror — Obtain NDB error message information
21.4.18 ndb_print_backup_file — Print NDB Backup File Contents
21.4.19 ndb_print_file — Print NDB Disk Data File Contents
21.4.20 ndb_print_frag_file — Print NDB Fragment List File Contents
21.4.21 ndb_print_schema_file — Print NDB Schema File Contents
21.4.22 ndb_print_sys_file — Print NDB System File Contents
21.4.23 ndb_redo_log_reader — Check and Print Content of Cluster Redo Log
21.4.24 ndb_restore — Restore an NDB Cluster Backup
21.4.25 ndb_select_all — Print Rows from an NDB Table
21.4.26 ndb_select_count — Print Row Counts for NDB Tables
21.4.27 ndb_setup.py — Start browser-based Auto-Installer for NDB Cluster
21.4.28 ndb_show_tables — Display List of NDB Tables
21.4.29 ndb_size.pl — NDBCLUSTER Size Requirement Estimator
21.4.30 ndb_top — View CPU usage information for NDB threads
21.4.31 ndb_waiter — Wait for NDB Cluster to Reach a Given Status
21.4.32 Options Common to NDB Cluster Programs — Options Common to NDB Cluster Programs
21.5 Management of NDB Cluster
21.5.1 Summary of NDB Cluster Start Phases
21.5.2 Commands in the NDB Cluster Management Client
21.5.3 Online Backup of NDB Cluster
21.5.4 MySQL Server Usage for NDB Cluster
21.5.5 Performing a Rolling Restart of an NDB Cluster
21.5.6 Event Reports Generated in NDB Cluster
21.5.7 NDB Cluster Log Messages
21.5.8 NDB Cluster Single User Mode
21.5.9 Quick Reference: NDB Cluster SQL Statements
21.5.10 ndbinfo: The NDB Cluster Information Database
21.5.11 INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables for NDB Cluster
21.5.12 NDB Cluster Security Issues
21.5.13 NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables
21.5.14 Adding NDB Cluster Data Nodes Online
21.5.15 Distributed MySQL Privileges for NDB Cluster
21.5.16 NDB API Statistics Counters and Variables
21.6 NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.1 NDB Cluster Replication: Abbreviations and Symbols
21.6.2 General Requirements for NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.3 Known Issues in NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.4 NDB Cluster Replication Schema and Tables
21.6.5 Preparing the NDB Cluster for Replication
21.6.6 Starting NDB Cluster Replication (Single Replication Channel)
21.6.7 Using Two Replication Channels for NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.8 Implementing Failover with NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.9 NDB Cluster Backups With NDB Cluster Replication
21.6.10 NDB Cluster Replication: Multi-Master and Circular Replication
21.6.11 NDB Cluster Replication Conflict Resolution
21.7 NDB Cluster Release Notes
22 Partitioning
22.1 Overview of Partitioning in MySQL
22.2 Partitioning Types
22.2.1 RANGE Partitioning
22.2.2 LIST Partitioning
22.2.3 COLUMNS Partitioning
22.2.4 HASH Partitioning
22.2.5 KEY Partitioning
22.2.6 Subpartitioning
22.2.7 How MySQL Partitioning Handles NULL
22.3 Partition Management
22.3.1 Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions
22.3.2 Management of HASH and KEY Partitions
22.3.3 Exchanging Partitions and Subpartitions with Tables
22.3.4 Maintenance of Partitions
22.3.5 Obtaining Information About Partitions
22.4 Partition Pruning
22.5 Partition Selection
22.6 Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning
22.6.1 Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys
22.6.2 Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines
22.6.3 Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions
22.6.4 Partitioning and Locking
23 Stored Programs and Views
23.1 Defining Stored Programs
23.2 Using Stored Routines (Procedures and Functions)
23.2.1 Stored Routine Syntax
23.2.2 Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges
23.2.3 Stored Routine Metadata
23.2.4 Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and LAST_INSERT_ID()
23.3 Using Triggers
23.3.1 Trigger Syntax and Examples
23.3.2 Trigger Metadata
23.4 Using the Event Scheduler
23.4.1 Event Scheduler Overview
23.4.2 Event Scheduler Configuration
23.4.3 Event Syntax
23.4.4 Event Metadata
23.4.5 Event Scheduler Status
23.4.6 The Event Scheduler and MySQL Privileges
23.5 Using Views
23.5.1 View Syntax
23.5.2 View Processing Algorithms
23.5.3 Updatable and Insertable Views
23.5.4 The View WITH CHECK OPTION Clause
23.5.5 View Metadata
23.6 Access Control for Stored Programs and Views
23.7 Binary Logging of Stored Programs
24 INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS Table
24.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATIONS Table
24.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATION_CHARACTER_SET_APPLICABILITY Table
24.4 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLUMNS Table
24.5 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLUMN_PRIVILEGES Table
24.6 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ENGINES Table
24.7 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA EVENTS Table
24.8 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table
24.9 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA GLOBAL_STATUS and SESSION_STATUS Tables
24.10 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA GLOBAL_VARIABLES and SESSION_VARIABLES Tables
24.11 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA KEY_COLUMN_USAGE Table
24.12 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ndb_transid_mysql_connection_map Table
24.13 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA OPTIMIZER_TRACE Table
24.14 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PARAMETERS Table
24.15 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PARTITIONS Table
24.16 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PLUGINS Table
24.17 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PROCESSLIST Table
24.18 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PROFILING Table
24.19 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS Table
24.20 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ROUTINES Table
24.21 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA SCHEMATA Table
24.22 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA SCHEMA_PRIVILEGES Table
24.23 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA STATISTICS Table
24.24 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLES Table
24.25 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLESPACES Table
24.26 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLE_CONSTRAINTS Table
24.27 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLE_PRIVILEGES Table
24.28 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TRIGGERS Table
24.29 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA USER_PRIVILEGES Table
24.30 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA VIEWS Table
24.31 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.31.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE Table
24.31.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE_LRU Table
24.31.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_POOL_STATS Table
24.31.4 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET Tables
24.31.5 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET Tables
24.31.6 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX and INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX_RESET Tables
24.31.7 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_BEING_DELETED Table
24.31.8 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_CONFIG Table
24.31.9 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_DEFAULT_STOPWORD Table
24.31.10 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_DELETED Table
24.31.11 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_INDEX_CACHE Table
24.31.12 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_INDEX_TABLE Table
24.31.13 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_LOCKS Table
24.31.14 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_LOCK_WAITS Table
24.31.15 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_METRICS Table
24.31.16 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_COLUMNS Table
24.31.17 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_DATAFILES Table
24.31.18 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_FIELDS Table
24.31.19 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN Table
24.31.20 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN_COLS Table
24.31.21 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_INDEXES Table
24.31.22 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_TABLES Table
24.31.23 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_TABLESPACES Table
24.31.24 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_TABLESTATS View
24.31.25 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_VIRTUAL Table
24.31.26 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO Table
24.31.27 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TRX Table
24.32 Thread Pool INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.32.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TP_THREAD_GROUP_STATE Table
24.32.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TP_THREAD_GROUP_STATS Table
24.32.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TP_THREAD_STATE Table
24.33 Connection-Control INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.33.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CONNECTION_CONTROL_FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS Table
24.34 Extensions to SHOW Statements
25 MySQL Performance Schema
25.1 Performance Schema Quick Start
25.2 Performance Schema Build Configuration
25.3 Performance Schema Startup Configuration
25.4 Performance Schema Runtime Configuration
25.4.1 Performance Schema Event Timing
25.4.2 Performance Schema Event Filtering
25.4.3 Event Pre-Filtering
25.4.4 Pre-Filtering by Instrument
25.4.5 Pre-Filtering by Object
25.4.6 Pre-Filtering by Thread
25.4.7 Pre-Filtering by Consumer
25.4.8 Example Consumer Configurations
25.4.9 Naming Instruments or Consumers for Filtering Operations
25.4.10 Determining What Is Instrumented
25.5 Performance Schema Queries
25.6 Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions
25.7 Performance Schema Status Monitoring
25.8 Performance Schema Atom and Molecule Events
25.9 Performance Schema Statement Digests
25.10 Performance Schema General Table Characteristics
25.11 Performance Schema Table Descriptions
25.11.1 Performance Schema Table Index
25.11.2 Performance Schema Setup Tables
25.11.3 Performance Schema Instance Tables
25.11.4 Performance Schema Wait Event Tables
25.11.5 Performance Schema Stage Event Tables
25.11.6 Performance Schema Statement Event Tables
25.11.7 Performance Schema Transaction Tables
25.11.8 Performance Schema Connection Tables
25.11.9 Performance Schema Connection Attribute Tables
25.11.10 Performance Schema User Variable Tables
25.11.11 Performance Schema Replication Tables
25.11.12 Performance Schema Lock Tables
25.11.13 Performance Schema System Variable Tables
25.11.14 Performance Schema Status Variable Tables
25.11.15 Performance Schema Summary Tables
25.11.16 Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables
25.12 Performance Schema Option and Variable Reference
25.13 Performance Schema Command Options
25.14 Performance Schema System Variables
25.15 Performance Schema Status Variables
25.16 The Performance Schema Memory-Allocation Model
25.17 Performance Schema and Plugins
25.18 Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems
25.18.1 Query Profiling Using Performance Schema
25.19 Migrating to Performance Schema System and Status Variable Tables
26 MySQL sys Schema
26.1 Prerequisites for Using the sys Schema
26.2 Using the sys Schema
26.3 sys Schema Progress Reporting
26.4 sys Schema Object Reference
26.4.1 sys Schema Object Index
26.4.2 sys Schema Tables and Triggers
26.4.3 sys Schema Views
26.4.4 sys Schema Stored Procedures
26.4.5 sys Schema Stored Functions
27 Connectors and APIs
27.1 MySQL Connector/C
27.2 MySQL Connector/C++
27.3 MySQL Connector/J
27.4 MySQL Connector/Net
27.5 MySQL Connector/ODBC
27.6 MySQL Connector/Python
27.7 libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
27.7.1 Compiling Programs with libmysqld
27.7.2 Restrictions When Using the Embedded MySQL Server
27.7.3 Options with the Embedded Server
27.7.4 Embedded Server Examples
27.8 MySQL C API
27.8.1 MySQL C API Implementations
27.8.2 Simultaneous MySQL Server and Connector/C Installations
27.8.3 Example C API Client Programs
27.8.4 Building and Running C API Client Programs
27.8.5 C API Data Structures
27.8.6 C API Function Overview
27.8.7 C API Function Descriptions
27.8.8 C API Prepared Statements
27.8.9 C API Prepared Statement Data Structures
27.8.10 C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
27.8.11 C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
27.8.12 C API Threaded Function Descriptions
27.8.13 C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions
27.8.14 C API Client Plugin Functions
27.8.15 C API Encrypted Connection Support
27.8.16 C API Multiple Statement Execution Support
27.8.17 C API Prepared Statement Handling of Date and Time Values
27.8.18 C API Prepared CALL Statement Support
27.8.19 C API Prepared Statement Problems
27.8.20 C API Automatic Reconnection Control
27.8.21 C API Common Issues
27.9 MySQL PHP API
27.10 MySQL Perl API
27.11 MySQL Python API
27.12 MySQL Ruby APIs
27.12.1 The MySQL/Ruby API
27.12.2 The Ruby/MySQL API
27.13 MySQL Tcl API
27.14 MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
28 Extending MySQL
28.1 MySQL Internals
28.1.1 MySQL Threads
28.1.2 The MySQL Test Suite
28.2 The MySQL Plugin API
28.2.1 Types of Plugins
28.2.2 Plugin API Characteristics
28.2.3 Plugin API Components
28.2.4 Writing Plugins
28.3 MySQL Services for Plugins
28.3.1 The Locking Service
28.3.2 The Keyring Service
28.4 Adding New Functions to MySQL
28.4.1 Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
28.4.2 Adding a New User-Defined Function
28.4.3 Adding a New Native Function
28.5 Debugging and Porting MySQL
28.5.1 Debugging a MySQL Server
28.5.2 Debugging a MySQL Client
28.5.3 The DBUG Package
29 MySQL Enterprise Edition
29.1 MySQL Enterprise Monitor Overview
29.2 MySQL Enterprise Backup Overview
29.3 MySQL Enterprise Security Overview
29.4 MySQL Enterprise Encryption Overview
29.5 MySQL Enterprise Audit Overview
29.6 MySQL Enterprise Firewall Overview
29.7 MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool Overview
30 MySQL Workbench
A MySQL 5.7 Frequently Asked Questions
A.1 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: General
A.2 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Storage Engines
A.3 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Server SQL Mode
A.4 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Stored Procedures and Functions
A.5 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Triggers
A.6 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Views
A.7 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: INFORMATION_SCHEMA
A.8 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Migration
A.9 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Security
A.10 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: NDB Cluster
A.11 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets
A.12 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Connectors & APIs
A.13 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Replication
A.14 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool
A.15 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: InnoDB Change Buffer
A.16 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: InnoDB Tablespace Encryption
A.17 MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Virtualization Support
B Errors, Error Codes, and Common Problems
B.1 Sources of Error Information
B.2 Types of Error Values
B.3 Server Error Codes and Messages
B.4 Client Error Codes and Messages
B.5 Problems and Common Errors
B.5.1 How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
B.5.2 Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
B.5.3 Administration-Related Issues
B.5.4 Query-Related Issues
B.5.5 Optimizer-Related Issues
B.5.6 Table Definition-Related Issues
B.5.7 Known Issues in MySQL
C Restrictions and Limits
C.1 Restrictions on Stored Programs
C.2 Restrictions on Condition Handling
C.3 Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
C.4 Restrictions on Subqueries
C.5 Restrictions on Views
C.6 Restrictions on XA Transactions
C.7 Restrictions on Character Sets
C.8 Restrictions on Performance Schema
C.9 Restrictions on Pluggable Authentication
C.10 Limits in MySQL
C.10.1 Limits on Joins
C.10.2 Limits on Number of Databases and Tables
C.10.3 Limits on Table Size
C.10.4 Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size
C.10.5 Limits Imposed by .frm File Structure
C.10.6 Windows Platform Limitations
D Indexes
General Index
C Function Index
Command Index
Function Index
INFORMATION_SCHEMA Index
Join Types Index
Operator Index
Option Index
Privileges Index
SQL Modes Index
Statement/Syntax Index
Status Variable Index
System Variable Index
Transaction Isolation Level Index
MySQL Glossary