MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0

10.5 Configuring Application Character Set and Collation

For applications that store data using the default MySQL character set and collation (utf8mb4, utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci), no special configuration should be needed. If applications require data storage using a different character set or collation, you can configure character set information several ways:

When different applications require different character settings, the per-database technique provides a good deal of flexibility. If most or all applications use the same character set, specifying character settings at server startup or configuration time may be most convenient.

For the per-database or server-startup techniques, the settings control the character set for data storage. Applications must also tell the server which character set to use for client/server communications, as described in the following instructions.

The examples shown here assume use of the latin1 character set and latin1_swedish_ci collation in particular contexts as an alternative to the defaults of utf8mb4 and utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci.

Regardless of how you configure the MySQL character set for application use, you must also consider the environment within which those applications execute. For example, if you intend to send statements using UTF-8 text taken from a file that you create in an editor, you should edit the file with the locale of your environment set to UTF-8 so that the file encoding is correct and so that the operating system handles it correctly. If you use the mysql client from within a terminal window, the window must be configured to use UTF-8 or characters may not display properly. For a script that executes in a Web environment, the script must handle character encoding properly for its interaction with the MySQL server, and it must generate pages that correctly indicate the encoding so that browsers know how to display the content of the pages. For example, you can include this <meta> tag within your <head> element:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />