MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0 Outer Join Optimization

Outer joins include LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN.

MySQL implements an A LEFT JOIN B join_specification as follows:

The RIGHT JOIN implementation is analogous to that of LEFT JOIN with the table roles reversed. Right joins are converted to equivalent left joins, as described in Section, “Outer Join Simplification”.

For a LEFT JOIN, if the WHERE condition is always false for the generated NULL row, the LEFT JOIN is changed to an inner join. For example, the WHERE clause would be false in the following query if t2.column1 were NULL:

SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON (column1) WHERE t2.column2=5;

Therefore, it is safe to convert the query to an inner join:

SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t2.column2=5 AND t1.column1=t2.column1;

In MySQL 8.0.14 and later, trivial WHERE conditions arising from constant literal expressions are removed during preparation, rather than at a later stage in optimization, by which time joins have already been simplified. Earlier removal of trivial conditions allows the optimizer to convert outer joins to inner joins; this can result in improved plans for queries with outer joins containing trivial conditions in the WHERE clause, such as this one:

SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON condition_1 WHERE condition_2 OR 0 = 1

The optimizer now sees during preparation that 0 = 1 is always false, making OR 0 = 1 redundant, and removes it, leaving this:

SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON condition_1 where condition_2

Now the optimizer can rewrite the query as an inner join, like this:

SELECT * FROM t1 JOIN t2 WHERE condition_1 AND condition_2

Now the optimizer can use table t2 before table t1 if doing so would result in a better query plan. To provide a hint about the table join order, use optimizer hints; see Section 8.9.3, “Optimizer Hints”. Alternatively, use STRAIGHT_JOIN; see Section 13.2.10, “SELECT Statement”. However, STRAIGHT_JOIN may prevent indexes from being used because it disables semijoin transformations; see Section, “Optimizing IN and EXISTS Subquery Predicates with Semijoin Transformations”.