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Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1 Security Guide
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Document Information


1.  Administering System Security

About System Security in GlassFish Server


Authentication Types

JSR 196 Server Authentication Modules


Master Password and Keystores

Understanding Master Password Synchronization

Using the Default Master Password

Saving the Master Password to a File

Using the Master Password When Creating a Domain

Administration Password

Encoded Passwords

Web Browsers and Password Storage

Password Aliases

Single Sign-on



Java Authorization Contract for Containers

Working With the server.policy Policy File

Contents of server.policy

Changing the Default Permissions



Certificates and SSL


Certificate Chains

Certificate Files

Secure Sockets Layer


Name-based Virtual Hosts

Custom Authentication of Client Certificate in SSL Mutual Authentication

Understanding the AppservCertificateLoginModule Class

Example AppservCertificateLoginModule Code

Setting the JAAS Context

Tools for Managing System Security

Administering Passwords

To Change the Master Password

Additional Considerations for the start-instance and start-cluster Subcommands

Using start-instance and start-cluster With a Password File

To Change an Administration Password

To Set a Password From a File

Administering Password Aliases

To Create a Password Alias

To List Password Aliases

To Delete a Password Alias

To Update a Password Alias

Administering Audit Modules

To Create an Audit Module

To List Audit Modules

To Delete an Audit Module

Administering JSSE Certificates

To Generate a Certificate by Using keytool

To Sign a Certificate by Using keytool

To Delete a Certificate by Using keytool

Administering JACC Providers

Administering JACC Providers From the Administration Console

Administering JACC Providers from the Command Line

2.  Administering User Security

3.  Administering Message Security

4.  Administering Security in Cluster Mode

5.  Managing Administrative Security

6.  Running in a Secure Environment

7.  Integrating Oracle Access Manager


About System Security in GlassFish Server

Security is about protecting data, that is, how to prevent unauthorized access or damage to data that is in storage or in transit. The GlassFish Server is built on the Java security model, which uses a sandbox where applications can run safely, without potential risk to systems or users. System security affects all the applications in the GlassFish Server environment.

System security features include the following:


Authentication is the way in which an entity (a user, an application, or a component) determines that another entity is who it claims to be. An entity uses security credentials to authenticate itself. The credentials might be a user name and password, a digital certificate, or something else. Usually, servers or applications require clients to authenticate themselves. Additionally, clients might require servers to authenticate themselves. When authentication is bidirectional, it is called mutual authentication.

When an entity tries to access a protected resource, GlassFish Server uses the authentication mechanism configured for that resource to determine whether to grant access. For example, a user can enter a user name and password in a web browser, and if the application verifies those credentials, the user is authenticated. The user is associated with this authenticated security identity for the remainder of the session.

Authentication Types

Within its deployment descriptors, an application specifies the type of authentication that it uses. GlassFish Server supports the following types of authentication:


Uses the server's built-in login dialog box. The communication protocol is HTTP (SSL optional). There is no user-credentialed encryption unless using SSL. This type is not considered to be a secure method of user authentication unless used in conjunction with some external secure system such as SSL.


The application provides its own custom login and error pages. The communication protocol is HTTP (SSL optional). There is no user-credentialed encryption unless using SSL.


The server authenticates the client using a public key certificate. The communication protocol is HTTPS (HTTP over SSL). User-credentialed encryption is SSL.


The server authenticates a user based on a user name and a password. Unlike BASIC authentication, the password is never sent over the network. The use of SSL with HTTP Digest is optional.

JSR 196 Server Authentication Modules

GlassFish Server implements the Servlet Container Profile of JSR 196 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers specification.

JSR 196 defines a standard service-provider interface (SPI) for integrating authentication mechanism implementations in message processing runtimes. JSR 196 extends the concepts of the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) to enable pluggability of message authentication modules in message processing runtimes. The standard defines profiles that establish contracts for the use of the SPI in specific contexts.

JSR 196 allows you to develop plug-ins at different layers. You can define plug-ins that change the way new authentication mechanism are configured, such as, AuthConfigProvider and AuthConfigFactory. You can also define new authentication mechanisms, such as ServerAuthModule and ClientAuthModule.

The OAM Security Provider for GlassFish, described in Chapter 7, Integrating Oracle Access Manager, is a JSR 196 Server Authentication Module (SAM) that provides authentication, authorization (optional), and single sign-on across Java EE Web applications that are deployed on GlassFish Server.


Passwords are your first line of defense against unauthorized access to the components and data of GlassFish Server. For Information about how to use passwords for GlassFish Server, see Administering Passwords.

Master Password and Keystores

The master password is not tied to a user account and it is not used for authentication. Instead, GlassFish Server uses the master password only to encrypt the keystore and truststore for the DAS and instances.

When you create a new GlassFish Server domain, a new self-signed certificate is generated and stored in the domain keystore and truststore. The DAS needs the master password to open these stores at startup. Similarly, the associated server instances need the master password to open their copy of these stores at startup.

If you use a utility such as keytool to modify the keystore or truststore, you must provide the master password in that case as well.

The master password is a shared password and must be the same for the DAS and all instances in the domain in order to manage the instances from the DAS. However, because GlassFish Server never transmits the master password over the network, it is up to you to keep the master password in sync between the DAS and instances.

If you change the master password, you can choose to enter the master password manually when required, or save it in a file.

Understanding Master Password Synchronization

The master password is used encrypt the keystore and truststore for the DAS and instances. The DAS needs the master password to open these stores at startup. Similarly, the associated server instances need the master password to open their copy of these stores at startup.

GlassFish Server keeps the keystore and truststore for the DAS and instances in sync, which guarantees that all copies of the stores are encrypted with the same master password at any given time.

However, GlassFish Server does not synchronize the master password itself, and it is possible that the DAS and instances might attempt to use different master passwords.

Consider the following potential scenario:

  1. You create a domain and instances, using the default master password (changeit). As a result, the DAS and instances have keystores and truststores encrypted using changeit.

  2. You use the change-master-password subcommand on the DAS to change the master password to ichangedit. As a result, the DAS and instance keystores and truststores are encrypted using ichangedit.

  3. Access to the keystore and truststore from an instance now requires the master password ichangedit. You are responsible for changing the master password as needed.

If you do not use a master password file, you assume the responsibility for using the change-master-password subcommand on the DAS and instances to keep the master passwords in sync. Be aware that not using a master password file has additional considerations for the start-instance and start-cluster subcommands, as described in Additional Considerations for the start-instance and start-cluster Subcommands.

If you do use a master password file, you assume the responsibility for using the change-master-password subcommand on the DAS and instances to keep the master password file in sync.

Using the Default Master Password

GlassFish Server uses the known phrase "changeit" as the default master password. This master password is not stored in a file. The default password is a convenience feature and provides no additional security because it is assumed to be widely known.

All GlassFish Server subcommands work as expected with the default master password and there are no synchronization issues.

Saving the Master Password to a File

The change-master-password --savemasterpassword option indicates whether the master password should be written to the file system in the master-password file for the DAS or a node. The default is false.

For a domain, the master password is kept in domains/domain-name/master-password.

For a node, the master-password file is kept in nodes/node-name/agent/master-password. You can set a master password at the node level and all instances created on that node will use that master-password file. To do this, use the --nodedir option and provide a node name.

You might want to save the master password to the file so that the start-domain subcommand can start the server without having to prompt the user. There are additional considerations for using a master password with the start-instance and start-cluster subcommands, as described in Additional Considerations for the start-instance and start-cluster Subcommands.

The master-password file is encoded, not encrypted. You must use filesystem permissions to protect the file.

Using the Master Password When Creating a Domain

The create-domain --usemasterpassword option specifies whether the keystore is encrypted with a master password that is built into the system, or by a user-defined master password.

Administration Password

An administration password, also known as the admin password, is used to invoke the Administration Console and the asadmin utility. As with the default admin username, the default admin password is usually set during installation but it can be changed. For instructions, see To Change an Administration Password.

Encoded Passwords

Files that contain encoded passwords need to be protected using file system permissions. These files include the following:

For instructions, see To Set a Password From a File.

Web Browsers and Password Storage

Most web browsers can save login credentials entered through HTML forms. This function can be configured by the user and also by applications that employ user credentials. If the function is enabled, then credentials entered by the user are stored on their local computer and retrieved by the browser on future visits to the same application. This function is convenient for users, but can also be a security risk. The stored credentials can be captured by an attacker who gains access to the computer, either locally or through some remote compromise. Further, methods have existed whereby a malicious web site can retrieve the stored credentials for other applications, by exploiting browser vulnerabilities or through application-level cross-domain attacks.

To prevent your web browser from saving login credentials for the GlassFish Server Administration Console, choose “No” or “Never for this page” when prompted by the browser during login.

Password Aliases

To avoid storing passwords in the domain configuration file in clear text, you can create an alias for a password. This process is also known as encrypting a password. For more information, see Administering Password Aliases.

Single Sign-on

With single sign-on, a user who logs in to one application becomes implicitly logged in to other applications that require the same authentication information. Single sign-on is based on groups. Single sign-on applies to web applications configured for the same realm and virtual server. The realm is defined by the realm-name element in the web.xml file.

On GlassFish Server, single sign-on behavior can be inherited from the HTTP Service, enabled, or disabled. By default, it is inherited from the HTTP Service. If enabled, single sign-on is enabled for web applications on this virtual server that are configured for the same realm. If disabled, single sign-on is disabled for this virtual server, and users must authenticate separately to every application on the virtual server.


Authorization, also known as access control, is the means by which users are granted permission to access data or perform operations. After a user is authenticated, the user's level of authorization determines what operations the owner can perform. A user's authorization is based on the user's role.


A role defines which applications and what parts of each application users can access and what those users or groups can do with the applications. For example, in a personnel application, all employees might be able to see phone numbers and email addresses, but only managers have access to salary information. This application would define at least two roles: employee and manager. Only users in the manager role are allowed to view salary information.

A role is different from a group in that a role defines a function in an application, while a group is a set of users who are related in some way. For example, the personnel application specify groups such as full-time, part-time, and on-leave. Users in these groups are all employees (the employee role). In addition, each user has its own designation that defines an additional level of employment.

Roles are defined in the deployment descriptor for the application. The application developer or deployer maps roles to one or more groups in the deployment descriptor for each application. When the application is being packaged and deployed, the application specifies mappings between users, groups, and roles, as illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 1-1 Role Mapping

image:Figure shows how users are assigned to groups, how users and groups are assigned to roles, and how applications use groups and roles.

Java Authorization Contract for Containers

Java Authorization Contract for Containers (JACC) is the part of the Java EE specification that defines an interface for pluggable authorization providers. This enables you to set up third-party plug-in modules to perform authorization. By default, the GlassFish Server provides a simple, file-based authorization engine that complies with the JACC specification.

This release includes Administration Console support and CLI subcommands to create (create-jacc-provider), delete (delete-jacc-provider), and list (list-jacc-providers) JACC providers. Administering JACC Providers for additional information.

You can also specify additional third-party JACC providers.

Working With the server.policy Policy File

Each GlassFish Server domain has its own global Java SE policy file, located in domain-dir/config. The file is named server.policy.

This section covers the following topics:

Contents of server.policy

A sample server.policy file is as follows. Comments in the file describe why various permissions are granted. These permissions are described in more detail in the next section.

Note - This server.policy file is presented for example purposes only and is subject to change.

// classes in lib get all permissions by default
grant codeBase "file:${com.sun.aas.installRoot}/lib/-" {

// Core server classes get all permissions by default
grant codeBase "file:${com.sun.aas.installRoot}/modules/-" {

// Felix classes get all permissions by default
grant codeBase "file:${com.sun.aas.installRoot}/osgi/felix/bin/-" {

// iMQ classes get all permissions by default
grant codeBase "file:${com.sun.aas.imqLib}/-" {

// Derby driver classes get all permissions by default
grant codeBase "file:${com.sun.aas.derbyRoot}/lib/-" {

// permission for JDK's tools.jar to enable webservice annotation processing
// at runtime by wsgen tool: 
//       permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "createClassLoader";
// permission for JDK's tools.jar to sign JARs at runtime for 
// Java Web Start support:
//       permissions;
// on the advice of the JDK tools folks.  Should be refined later.
grant codeBase "file:${com.sun.aas.javaRoot}/lib/tools.jar" {

//Loading MBeans from anywhere, to take care of side effects of 6235678.
grant {
    permission "register" ;
//Loading MBeans from anywhere, to take care of side effects of 6235678.

// Basic set of required permissions granted to all remaining code
// The permission FilePermission "<<ALL FILES>>", "read,write"
// allows all applications to read and write any file in the filesystem.
// It should be changed based on real deployment needs. If you know your
// applications just need to read/write a few directories consider removing
// this permission and adding grants indicating those specific directories.
// against the codebase of your application(s).
grant {
    //Workaround for bugs #6484935, 6513799
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "getProtectionDomain";
    permission "access";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read,write";

    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission  "loadLibrary.*";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission  "queuePrintJob";
    permission    "*", "connect";
    permission       "<<ALL FILES>>", "read,write";

        // work-around for pointbase bug 4864405      
        permission "${}${/}-", "delete";

    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read";

    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission    "modifyThreadGroup";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission    "getClassLoader";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission    "setContextClassLoader";
               "[com.sun.messaging.jms.*:*]", "*"; 

// Following grant block is only required by Connectors. If Connectors
// are not in use the recommendation is to remove this grant.
grant {
               " * \"*\"","read";

// Following grant block is only required for Reflection. If Reflection
// is not in use the recommendation is to remove this section.
grant {
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessDeclaredMembers";

// Permissions to invoke CORBA objects in server
grant {
    permission "*", "*";
Changing the Default Permissions

The GlassFish Server internal server code is granted all permissions. These grants are covered by the AllPermission grant blocks to various parts of the server infrastructure code. Do not modify these entries.

Application permissions are granted in the default grant block. These permissions apply to all code not part of the internal server code listed previously.

The last section, beginning with the comment “Basic set of required permissions...” provides the basic set of permissions granted to all remaining code.

Depending on your GlassFish Server implementation, deleting or modifying these permissions might be appropriate.

Specifically, the following permission allows all applications to read and write all properties and read and write all files on the filesystem.

permission java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read,write";
 permission       "<<ALL FILES\>>", "read,write";

While this grant provides optimum flexibility, it is inherently unsecure. For enhanced security, change this permission based on your real deployment needs.

For example, consider removing this permission and assign default read and write permissions only to the application's install directory (context-root). (This example uses com.sun.aas.instanceRoot, which specifies the top level directory for a server instance.)

grant codeBase "file:${com.sun.aas.instanceRoot}/applications/MyApp/-"
permission "file:${com.sun.aas.instanceRoot}
/applications/MyApp/-", "read,write";

For any application that needs to read and write additional directories, you would then have to explicitly allow such permissions by adding specific grants. In general, you should add extra permissions only to the applications or modules that require them, not to all applications deployed to a domain.

Additional permissions (see the embedded comments in server.policy) are granted specifically for using connectors and reflection. If connectors or reflection are not used in a particular domain, you should remove these permissions, because they are otherwise unnecessary.


Auditing is the means used to capture security-related events for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of security measures. GlassFish Server uses audit modules to capture audit trails of all authentication and authorization decisions. GlassFish Server provides a default audit module, as well as the ability to plug in custom audit modules. The scope of the audit module is the entire server, which means that all the applications on the server will use the same audit module.

For administration instructions, see Administering Audit Modules.


A firewall controls the flow of data between two or more networks, and manages the links between the networks. A firewall can consist of both hardware and software elements. The following guidelines pertain primarily to GlassFish Server:

Certificates and SSL

The following topics are addressed here:

For administration instructions, see Administering JSSE Certificates.


Certificates, also called digital certificates, are electronic files that uniquely identify people and resources on the Internet. Certificates also enable secure, confidential communication between two entities. There are different kinds of certificates:

Certificates are based on public key cryptography, which uses pairs of digital keys (very long numbers) to encrypt, or encode, information so the information can be read only by its intended recipient. The recipient then decrypts (decodes) the information to read it. A key pair contains a public key and a private key. The owner distributes the public key and makes it available to anyone. But the owner never distributes the private key, which is always kept secret. Because the keys are mathematically related, data encrypted with one key can only be decrypted with the other key in the pair.

Certificates are issued by a trusted third party called a Certification Authority (CA). The CA is analogous to a passport office: it validates the certificate holder's identity and signs the certificate so that it cannot be forged or tampered with. After a CA has signed a certificate, the holder can present it as proof of identity and to establish encrypted, confidential communications. Most importantly, a certificate binds the owner's public key to the owner's identity.

In addition to the public key, a certificate typically includes information such as the following:

Certificates are governed by the technical specifications of the X.509 format. To verify the identity of a user in the certificate realm, the authentication service verifies an X.509 certificate, using the common name field of the X.509 certificate as the principal name.

Certificate Chains

A certificate chain is a series of certificates issued by successive CA certificates, eventually ending in a root CA certificate.

Web browsers are preconfigured with a set of root CA certificates that the browser automatically trusts. Any certificates from elsewhere must come with a certificate chain to verify their validity.

When a certificate is first generated, it is a self-signed certificate. A self-signed certificate is one for which the issuer (signer) is the same as the subject (the entity whose public key is being authenticated by the certificate). When the owner sends a certificate signing request (CSR) to a CA, then imports the response, the self-signed certificate is replaced by a chain of certificates. At the bottom of the chain is the certificate (reply) issued by the CA authenticating the subject's public key. The next certificate in the chain is one that authenticates the CA's public key. Usually, this is a self-signed certificate (that is, a certificate from the CA authenticating its own public key) and the last certificate in the chain.

In other cases, the CA can return a chain of certificates. In this situation, the bottom certificate in the chain is the same (a certificate signed by the CA, authenticating the public key of the key entry), but the second certificate in the chain is a certificate signed by a different CA, authenticating the public key of the CA to which you sent the CSR. Then, the next certificate in the chain is a certificate authenticating the second CA's key, and so on, until a self-signed root certificate is reached. Each certificate in the chain (after the first) thus authenticates the public key of the signer of the previous certificate in the chain.

Certificate Files

During GlassFish Server installation, a certificate is generated in Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE) format suitable for internal testing. (The certificate is self-signed.) By default, GlassFish Server stores its certificate information in certificate databases in the domain-dir/config directory:

Keystore file

The keystore.jks file contains GlassFish Server certificate, including its private key. The keystore file is protected with a password.

Each keystore entry has a unique alias. After installation, the GlassFish Server keystore has a single entry with an alias of s1as.

Truststore file

The cacerts.jks file contains the GlassFish Server trusted certificates, including public keys for other entities. For a trusted certificate, the server has confirmed that the public key in the certificate belongs to the certificate's owner. Trusted certificates generally include those of CAs.

By default, GlassFish Server is configured with a keystore and truststore that will work with the example applications and for development purposes.

Secure Sockets Layer

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is the most popular standard for securing Internet communications and transactions. Secure web applications use HTTPS (HTTP over SSL). The HTTPS protocol uses certificates to ensure confidential and secure communications between server and clients. In an SSL connection, both the client and the server encrypt data before sending it. Data is decrypted upon receipt.

When a Web browser (client) wants to connect to a secure site, an SSL handshake happens, like this:

  1. The browser sends a message over the network requesting a secure session (typically, by requesting a URL that begins with https instead of http).

  2. The server responds by sending its certificate (including its public key).

  3. The browser verifies that the server's certificate is valid and is signed by a CA whose certificate is in the browser's database (and who is trusted). It also verifies that the CA certificate has not expired.

  4. If the certificate is valid, the browser generates a one time, unique session key and encrypts it with the server's public key. The browser then sends the encrypted session key to the server so that they both have a copy.

  5. The server decrypts the message using its private key and recovers the session key.

After the handshake, the client has verified the identity of the Web site, and only the client and the Web server have a copy of the session key. From this point forward, the client and the server use the session key to encrypt all their communications with each other. Thus, their communications are ensured to be secure.

The newest version of the SSL standard is called Transport Layer Security (TLS). The GlassFish Server supports the SSL 3.0 and the TLS 1.0 encryption protocols.

To use SSL, GlassFish Server must have a certificate for each external interface or IP address that accepts secure connections. The HTTPS service of most web servers will not run unless a certificate has been installed. For instructions on applying SSL to HTTP listeners, see To Configure an HTTP Listener for SSL in Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1 Administration Guide.


A cipher is a cryptographic algorithm used for encryption or decryption. SSL and TLS protocols support a variety of ciphers used to authenticate the server and client to each other, transmit certificates, and establish session keys.

Some ciphers are stronger and more secure than others. Clients and servers can support different cipher suites. During a secure connection, the client and the server agree to use the strongest cipher that they both have enabled for communication, so it is usually sufficient to enable all ciphers.

Name-based Virtual Hosts

Using name-based virtual hosts for a secure application can be problematic. This is a design limitation of the SSL protocol itself. The SSL handshake, where the client browser accepts the server certificate, must occur before the HTTP request is accessed. As a result, the request information containing the virtual host name cannot be determined prior to authentication, and it is therefore not possible to assign multiple certificates to a single IP address.

If all virtual hosts on a single IP address need to authenticate against the same certificate, the addition of multiple virtual hosts probably will not interfere with normal SSL operations on the server. Be aware, however, that most browsers will compare the server's domain name against the domain name listed in the certificate, if any (applicable primarily to official, CA-signed certificates). If the domain names do not match, these browsers display a warning. In general, only address-based virtual hosts are commonly used with SSL in a production environment.

Custom Authentication of Client Certificate in SSL Mutual Authentication

Release 3.1 of GlassFish Server extends the Certificate realm to allow custom authentication and group assignment based on the client certificate received as part of SSL mutual (two-way) authentication.

As in previous releases, you can create only one certificate realm. However, you can now use a convenient abstract base class to configure a JAAS LoginModule for the Certificate realm. Specifically, your LoginModule can now extend When you do this, you need to implement only the authenticateUser method and call the commitUserAuthentication method to signify success.

This section describes the following topics:

Understanding the AppservCertificateLoginModule Class

The AppservCertificateLoginModule class provides some convenience methods for accessing the certificates, the application name and so forth, and for adding the group principals to the subject. The convenience methods include the following:


Returns the name of the application to be authenticated. This may be useful when a single LoginModule has to handle multiple applications that use certificates.


Returns the certificate chain as an array of certificates.


Returns the Distinguished principal from the first certificate in the chain.


Returns the subject that is being authenticated.

commitUserAuthentication(final String[] groups)

This method sets the authentication status to success if the groups parameter is non-null. Note that this method is called after the authentication has succeeded. If authentication failed, do not call this method.

See the Javadoc at AppservCertificateLoginModule for complete information.

Note - You do not have to extend the convenience base class, you can extend the JAAS LoginModule instead if you so choose. (See Implement the Abstract LoginModule Methods for additional information.)

Example AppservCertificateLoginModule Code

Example AppservCertificateLoginModule Code shows a sample instance of the AppservCertificateLoginModule class.

Note - This sample code is part of a sample AppservCertificateLoginModule project. See the complete sample project for information on how to build and run the sample.

Take note of the following points from the example:

Example 1-1 Sample AppservCertificateLoginModule Code

 * @author nasradu8
public class CertificateLM extends AppservCertificateLoginModule {

    protected void authenticateUser() throws LoginException {
        // Get the distinguished name from the X500Principal.
        String dname = getX500Principal().getName();
        StringTokenizer st = new StringTokenizer(dname, "B \t\n\r\f,");
        while (st.hasMoreTokens()) {
            String next = st.nextToken();
            // Set the appname:OU as the group.
            // At this point, one has the application name and the DN of
            // the certificate. A suitable login decision can be made here.
            if (next.startsWith("OU=")) {
            commitUserAuthentication(new String[]{getAppName() 
+ ":" + next.substring(3)});
        throw new LoginException("No OU found.");
Setting the JAAS Context

After you create your LoginModule, you must plug it in to a jaas-context, which you then specify as a parameter to the certificate realm in GlassFish Server.

To do this, perform the following steps:

  1. Specify a new jaas-context for the Certificate realm in the file <domain-dir>/config/login.conf. For example, using the CertificateLM class from Example AppservCertificateLoginModule Code:

    certRealm {
        com.sun.blogs.certificate.login.CertificateLM required;
  2. Specify this jaas-context as a parameter to the set subcommand in the<jaas-context-name> property. For example:

    asadmin> set

    Command set executed successfully.

  3. Optionally, get the value you just set to make sure that it is correct.

    asadmin> get

    Command get executed successfully.

Tools for Managing System Security

GlassFish Server provides the following tools for managing system security:

Administration Console

The Administration Console is a browser-based utility used to configure security for the entire server. Tasks include managing certificates, users, groups, and realms, and performing other system-wide security tasks. For a general introduction to the Administration Console, see Administration Console in Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1 Administration Guide.

The asadmin utility

The asadmin command-line utility performs many of the same tasks as the Administration Console. You might be able to do some things with the asadmin utility that you cannot do with the Administration Console. For a general introduction to asadmin, see asadmin Utility in Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1 Administration Guide.

The keytool utility

The keytool Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) command-line utility is used for managing digital certificates and key pairs. For more information, see Administering JSSE Certificates.

The policytool utility

The policytool Java SE graphical utility is used for managing system-wide Java security policies. As an administrator, you rarely use policytool.

For more information about using keytool, policytool, and other Java security tools, see Summary of Tools for Java Platform Security .