MySQL 5.0 Reference Manual

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This is the MySQL™ Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 5.0 through 5.0.92.

This manual is for MySQL Enterprise Server, our commercial offering, and for MySQL Community Server. Sections that do not apply for MySQL Enterprise Server users are marked:

This section does not apply to MySQL Enterprise Server users.

Sections that do not apply to MySQL Community Server users are marked:

This section does not apply to MySQL Community Server users.

MySQL 5.0 Features—This manual describes features that are not included in every edition of MySQL 5.0 and such features may not be included in the edition of MySQL 5.0 licensed to you. If you have any questions about the features included in your edition of MySQL 5.0, refer to your MySQL 5.0 license agreement or contact your Oracle representative.

Document generated on: 2010-10-22 (revision: 23331)

End of Product LifecycleActive development and support for MySQL Database Server version 5.0 has ended. However, there is still extended support available. For details, see According to the MySQL Lifecycle Policy (see, only Security and Severity Level 1 issues will still be fixed for MySQL 5.0. Please consider upgrading to a recent version.

Table of Contents

Preface, Notes, Licenses
1. Licenses for Third-Party Components
1.1. Apache Commons Collections License
1.2. Apache Commons DBCP License
1.3. Apache Commons Digester License
1.4. Apache Commons FileUpload License
1.5. Apache Commons IO License
1.6. Apache Commons Lang License
1.7. Apache Commons Logging License
1.8. Apache Commons Pool License
1.9. Apache Commons Validator License
1.10. Apache License Version 2.0, January 2004
1.11. Apache log4j License
1.12. Apache log4j Version 1.2.9 License
1.13. Apache Tomcat License
1.14. ASM License
1.15. Boost Library License
1.16. cURL (libcurl) License
1.17. Fred Fish's Dbug Library License
1.18. JDOM Project License
1.19. jQuery License
1.20. jQuery UI License
1.21. libedit License
1.22. libevent License
1.23. LPeg Library License
1.24. LuaFileSystem Library License
1.25. OpenSSL v0.9.8o and Later License
1.26. RegEX-Spencer Library License
1.27. Richard A. O'Keefe String Library License
1.28. Spring Framework License
1.29. StringTemplate Template Engine License
1.30. zlib License
1. General Information
1.1. About This Manual
1.2. Typographical and Syntax Conventions
1.3. Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.3.1. What is MySQL?
1.3.2. History of MySQL
1.3.3. The Main Features of MySQL
1.4. MySQL Development History
1.5. What Is New in MySQL 5.0
1.6. MySQL Information Sources
1.6.1. MySQL Mailing Lists
1.6.2. MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.6.3. MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.6.4. MySQL Enterprise
1.7. How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.8. MySQL Standards Compliance
1.8.1. What Standards MySQL Follows
1.8.2. Selecting SQL Modes
1.8.3. Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
1.8.4. MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.8.5. MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.8.6. How MySQL Deals with Constraints
1.9. Credits
1.9.1. Contributors to MySQL
1.9.2. Documenters and translators
1.9.3. Packages that support MySQL
1.9.4. Tools that were used to create MySQL
1.9.5. Supporters of MySQL
2. Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1. MySQL Installation Overview
2.2. Determining your current MySQL version
2.3. Notes for MySQL Enterprise Server
2.3.1. Enterprise Server Distribution Types
2.3.2. Upgrading MySQL Enterprise Server
2.4. Notes for MySQL Community Server
2.4.1. Overview of MySQL Community Server Installation
2.4.2. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server
2.4.3. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
2.5. How to Get MySQL
2.6. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.6.1. Verifying the MD5 Checksum
2.6.2. Signature Checking Using GnuPG
2.6.3. Signature Checking Using RPM
2.7. Installation Layouts
2.8. Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.9. Standard MySQL Installation from a Binary Distribution
2.10. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.10.1. Choosing An Installation Package
2.10.2. Installing MySQL with the Automated Installer
2.10.3. MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard
2.10.4. Installing MySQL from a Noinstall Zip Archive
2.10.5. Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows
2.10.6. Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.10.7. Windows Post-Installation Procedures
2.10.8. Installing MySQL from Source on Windows
2.10.9. Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
2.11. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.12. Installing MySQL from RPM Packages on Linux
2.13. Installing MySQL on Solaris
2.14. Installing MySQL on i5/OS
2.15. Installing MySQL on NetWare
2.16. Installing MySQL from tar.gz Packages on Other Unix-Like Systems
2.17. MySQL Installation from a Source Distribution
2.17.1. Source Installation Overview
2.17.2. Typical configure Options
2.17.3. Installing from the Development Source Tree
2.17.4. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.18. Post-Installation Setup and Testing
2.18.1. Unix Post-Installation Procedures
2.18.2. Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.19. Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.19.1. Upgrading MySQL
2.19.2. Downgrading MySQL
2.19.3. Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt
2.19.4. Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.19.5. Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.20. Operating System-Specific Notes
2.20.1. Linux Notes
2.20.2. Mac OS X Notes
2.20.3. Solaris Notes
2.20.4. BSD Notes
2.20.5. Other Unix Notes
2.20.6. OS/2 Notes
2.21. Environment Variables
2.22. Perl Installation Notes
2.22.1. Installing Perl on Unix
2.22.2. Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.22.3. Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3. Tutorial
3.1. Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2. Entering Queries
3.3. Creating and Using a Database
3.3.1. Creating and Selecting a Database
3.3.2. Creating a Table
3.3.3. Loading Data into a Table
3.3.4. Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4. Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5. Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6. Examples of Common Queries
3.6.1. The Maximum Value for a Column
3.6.2. The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.3. Maximum of Column per Group
3.6.4. The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.5. Using User-Defined Variables
3.6.6. Using Foreign Keys
3.6.7. Searching on Two Keys
3.6.8. Calculating Visits Per Day
3.7. Queries from the Twin Project
3.7.1. Find All Nondistributed Twins
3.7.2. Show a Table of Twin Pair Status
3.8. Using MySQL with Apache
4. MySQL Programs
4.1. Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2. Using MySQL Programs
4.2.1. Invoking MySQL Programs
4.2.2. Connecting to the MySQL Server
4.2.3. Specifying Program Options
4.2.4. Setting Environment Variables
4.3. MySQL Server and Server-Startup Programs
4.3.1. mysqld — The MySQL Server
4.3.2. mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.3. mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.4. mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
4.4. MySQL Installation-Related Programs
4.4.1. comp_err — Compile MySQL Error Message File
4.4.2. make_win_bin_dist — Package MySQL Distribution as ZIP Archive
4.4.3. make_win_src_distribution — Create Source Distribution for Windows
4.4.4. mysqlbug — Generate Bug Report
4.4.5. mysql_fix_privilege_tables — Upgrade MySQL System Tables
4.4.6. mysql_install_db — Initialize MySQL Data Directory
4.4.7. mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security
4.4.8. mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables
4.4.9. mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade
4.5. MySQL Client Programs
4.5.1. mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
4.5.2. mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
4.5.3. mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance Program
4.5.4. mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
4.5.5. mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
4.5.6. mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
4.6. MySQL Administrative and Utility Programs
4.6.1. innochecksum — Offline InnoDB File Checksum Utility
4.6.2. myisam_ftdump — Display Full-Text Index information
4.6.3. myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
4.6.4. myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
4.6.5. myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
4.6.6. mysqlaccess — Client for Checking Access Privileges
4.6.7. mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
4.6.8. mysqldumpslow — Summarize Slow Query Log Files
4.6.9. mysqlhotcopy — A Database Backup Program
4.6.10. mysqlmanager — The MySQL Instance Manager
4.6.11. mysql_convert_table_format — Convert Tables to Use a Given Storage Engine
4.6.12. mysql_explain_log — Use EXPLAIN on Statements in Query Log
4.6.13. mysql_find_rows — Extract SQL Statements from Files
4.6.14. mysql_fix_extensions — Normalize Table File Name Extensions
4.6.15. mysql_setpermission — Interactively Set Permissions in Grant Tables
4.6.16. mysql_tableinfo — Generate Database Metadata
4.6.17. mysql_waitpid — Kill Process and Wait for Its Termination
4.6.18. mysql_zap — Kill Processes That Match a Pattern
4.7. MySQL Program Development Utilities
4.7.1. msql2mysql — Convert mSQL Programs for Use with MySQL
4.7.2. mysql_config — Get Compile Options for Compiling Clients
4.7.3. my_print_defaults — Display Options from Option Files
4.7.4. resolve_stack_dump — Resolve Numeric Stack Trace Dump to Symbols
4.8. Miscellaneous Programs
4.8.1. perror — Explain Error Codes
4.8.2. replace — A String-Replacement Utility
4.8.3. resolveip — Resolve Host name to IP Address or Vice Versa
5. MySQL Server Administration
5.1. The MySQL Server
5.1.1. Server Option and Variable Reference
5.1.2. Server Command Options
5.1.3. Server System Variables
5.1.4. Using System Variables
5.1.5. Server Status Variables
5.1.6. Server SQL Modes
5.1.7. Server-Side Help
5.1.8. Server Response to Signals
5.1.9. The Shutdown Process
5.2. MySQL Server Logs
5.2.1. The Error Log
5.2.2. The General Query Log
5.2.3. The Binary Log
5.2.4. The Slow Query Log
5.2.5. Server Log Maintenance
5.3. General Security Issues
5.3.1. General Security Guidelines
5.3.2. Password Security in MySQL
5.3.3. Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
5.3.4. Security-Related mysqld Options
5.3.5. Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
5.3.6. How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
5.4. The MySQL Access Privilege System
5.4.1. Privileges Provided by MySQL
5.4.2. Privilege System Grant Tables
5.4.3. Specifying Account Names
5.4.4. Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
5.4.5. Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
5.4.6. When Privilege Changes Take Effect
5.4.7. Causes of Access-Denied Errors
5.5. MySQL User Account Management
5.5.1. User Names and Passwords
5.5.2. Adding User Accounts
5.5.3. Removing User Accounts
5.5.4. Setting Account Resource Limits
5.5.5. Assigning Account Passwords
5.5.6. Using SSL for Secure Connections
5.5.7. Connecting to MySQL Remotely from Windows with SSH
5.5.8. Auditing MySQL Account Activity
5.6. Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine
5.6.1. Running Multiple Servers on Windows
5.6.2. Running Multiple Servers on Unix
5.6.3. Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
6. Backup and Recovery
6.1. Backup and Recovery Types
6.2. Database Backup Methods
6.3. Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
6.3.1. Establishing a Backup Policy
6.3.2. Using Backups for Recovery
6.3.3. Backup Strategy Summary
6.4. Using mysqldump for Backups
6.4.1. Dumping Data in SQL Format with mysqldump
6.4.2. Reloading SQL-Format Backups
6.4.3. Dumping Data in Delimited-Text Format with mysqldump
6.4.4. Reloading Delimited-Text Format Backups
6.4.5. mysqldump Tips
6.5. Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log
6.5.1. Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Times
6.5.2. Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Positions
6.6. MyISAM Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
6.6.1. Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
6.6.2. How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
6.6.3. How to Repair MyISAM Tables
6.6.4. MyISAM Table Optimization
6.6.5. Setting Up a MyISAM Table Maintenance Schedule
7. Optimization
7.1. Optimization Overview
7.1.1. MySQL Design Limitations and Tradeoffs
7.1.2. Designing Applications for Portability
7.1.3. The MySQL Benchmark Suite
7.1.4. Using Your Own Benchmarks
7.2. Obtaining Query Execution Plan Information
7.2.1. Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
7.2.2. EXPLAIN Output Format
7.2.3. Estimating Query Performance
7.3. Optimizing SQL Statements
7.3.1. Optimizing SELECT Statements
7.3.2. Optimizing Non-SELECT Statements
7.3.3. Other Optimization Tips
7.4. Controlling the Query Optimizer
7.5. Optimization and Indexes
7.5.1. Column Indexes
7.5.2. Multiple-Column Indexes
7.5.3. How MySQL Uses Indexes
7.5.4. MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
7.6. Buffering and Caching
7.6.1. The MyISAM Key Cache
7.6.2. The InnoDB Buffer Pool
7.6.3. The MySQL Query Cache
7.7. Locking Issues
7.7.1. Internal Locking Methods
7.7.2. Table Locking Issues
7.7.3. Concurrent Inserts
7.7.4. External Locking
7.8. Optimizing Database Structure
7.8.1. Make Your Data as Small as Possible
7.8.2. How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables
7.8.3. Disadvantages of Creating Many Tables in the Same Database
7.8.4. How MySQL Uses Internal Temporary Tables
7.9. Optimizing the MySQL Server
7.9.1. How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL
7.9.2. System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning
7.9.3. Tuning Server Parameters
7.9.4. How MySQL Uses Threads for Client Connections
7.9.5. How MySQL Uses Memory
7.9.6. Disk Issues
7.9.7. Using Symbolic Links
7.9.8. Enabling Large Page Support
7.9.9. How MySQL Uses DNS
7.10. Examining Thread Information
7.10.1. Thread Command Values
7.10.2. General Thread States
7.10.3. Delayed-Insert Thread States
7.10.4. Query Cache Thread States
7.10.5. Replication Master Thread States
7.10.6. Replication Slave I/O Thread States
7.10.7. Replication Slave SQL Thread States
7.10.8. Replication Slave Connection Thread States
7.10.9. MySQL Cluster Thread States
8. Language Structure
8.1. Literal Values
8.1.1. Strings
8.1.2. Numbers
8.1.3. Date and Time Values
8.1.4. Hexadecimal Values
8.1.5. Boolean Values
8.1.6. Bit-Field Values
8.1.7. NULL Values
8.2. Schema Object Names
8.2.1. Identifier Qualifiers
8.2.2. Identifier Case Sensitivity
8.2.3. Function Name Parsing and Resolution
8.3. Reserved Words
8.4. User-Defined Variables
8.5. Expression Syntax
8.6. Comment Syntax
9. Internationalization and Localization
9.1. Character Set Support
9.1.1. Character Sets and Collations in General
9.1.2. Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
9.1.3. Specifying Character Sets and Collations
9.1.4. Connection Character Sets and Collations
9.1.5. Configuring the Character Set and Collation for Applications
9.1.6. Character Set for Error Messages
9.1.7. Collation Issues
9.1.8. String Repertoire
9.1.9. Operations Affected by Character Set Support
9.1.10. Unicode Support
9.1.11. UTF-8 for Metadata
9.1.12. Column Character Set Conversion
9.1.13. Character Sets and Collations That MySQL Supports
9.2. Setting the Error Message Language
9.3. Adding a New Character Set
9.3.1. The Character Definition Arrays
9.3.2. String Collating Support
9.3.3. Multi-Byte Character Support
9.4. How to Add a New Collation to a Character Set
9.4.1. Collation Implementation Types
9.4.2. Choosing a Collation ID
9.4.3. Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set
9.4.4. Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set
9.5. Character Set Configuration
9.6. MySQL Server Time Zone Support
9.6.1. Staying Current with Time Zone Changes
9.6.2. Time Zone Leap Second Support
9.7. MySQL Server Locale Support
10. Data Types
10.1. Data Type Overview
10.1.1. Overview of Numeric Types
10.1.2. Overview of Date and Time Types
10.1.3. Overview of String Types
10.1.4. Data Type Default Values
10.2. Numeric Types
10.3. Date and Time Types
10.3.1. The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types
10.3.2. The TIME Type
10.3.3. The YEAR Type
10.3.4. Year 2000 Issues and Date Types
10.4. String Types
10.4.1. The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
10.4.2. The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
10.4.3. The BLOB and TEXT Types
10.4.4. The ENUM Type
10.4.5. The SET Type
10.5. Data Type Storage Requirements
10.6. Out-of-Range and Overflow Handling
10.7. Choosing the Right Type for a Column
10.8. Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
11. Functions and Operators
11.1. Function and Operator Reference
11.2. Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
11.3. Operators
11.3.1. Operator Precedence
11.3.2. Comparison Functions and Operators
11.3.3. Logical Operators
11.4. Control Flow Functions
11.5. String Functions
11.5.1. String Comparison Functions
11.5.2. Regular Expressions
11.6. Numeric Functions and Operators
11.6.1. Arithmetic Operators
11.6.2. Mathematical Functions
11.7. Date and Time Functions
11.8. What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
11.9. Full-Text Search Functions
11.9.1. Natural Language Full-Text Searches
11.9.2. Boolean Full-Text Searches
11.9.3. Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
11.9.4. Full-Text Stopwords
11.9.5. Full-Text Restrictions
11.9.6. Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
11.9.7. Adding a Collation for Full-Text Indexing
11.10. Cast Functions and Operators
11.11. Bit Functions
11.12. Encryption and Compression Functions
11.13. Information Functions
11.14. Miscellaneous Functions
11.15. Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Clauses
11.15.1. GROUP BY (Aggregate) Functions
11.15.2. GROUP BY Modifiers
11.15.3. GROUP BY and HAVING with Hidden Columns
11.16. Spatial Extensions
11.16.1. Introduction to MySQL Spatial Support
11.16.2. The OpenGIS Geometry Model
11.16.3. Supported Spatial Data Formats
11.16.4. Creating a Spatially Enabled MySQL Database
11.16.5. Analyzing Spatial Information
11.16.6. Optimizing Spatial Analysis
11.16.7. MySQL Conformance and Compatibility
11.17. Precision Math
11.17.1. Types of Numeric Values
11.17.2. DECIMAL Data Type Changes
11.17.3. Expression Handling
11.17.4. Rounding Behavior
11.17.5. Precision Math Examples
12. SQL Statement Syntax
12.1. Data Definition Statements
12.1.1. ALTER DATABASE Syntax
12.1.2. ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
12.1.3. ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
12.1.4. ALTER TABLE Syntax
12.1.5. ALTER VIEW Syntax
12.1.6. CREATE DATABASE Syntax
12.1.7. CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
12.1.8. CREATE INDEX Syntax
12.1.10. CREATE TABLE Syntax
12.1.11. CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
12.1.12. CREATE VIEW Syntax
12.1.13. DROP DATABASE Syntax
12.1.14. DROP FUNCTION Syntax
12.1.15. DROP INDEX Syntax
12.1.17. DROP TABLE Syntax
12.1.18. DROP TRIGGER Syntax
12.1.19. DROP VIEW Syntax
12.1.20. RENAME TABLE Syntax
12.2. Data Manipulation Statements
12.2.1. CALL Syntax
12.2.2. DELETE Syntax
12.2.3. DO Syntax
12.2.4. HANDLER Syntax
12.2.5. INSERT Syntax
12.2.6. LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
12.2.7. REPLACE Syntax
12.2.8. SELECT Syntax
12.2.9. Subquery Syntax
12.2.10. TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
12.2.11. UPDATE Syntax
12.3. MySQL Transactional and Locking Statements
12.3.2. Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
12.3.3. Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
12.3.6. SET TRANSACTION Syntax
12.3.7. XA Transactions
12.4. Database Administration Statements
12.4.1. Account Management Statements
12.4.2. Table Maintenance Statements
12.4.3. User-Defined Function Statements
12.4.4. SET Syntax
12.4.5. SHOW Syntax
12.4.6. Other Administrative Statements
12.5. Replication Statements
12.5.1. SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
12.5.2. SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
12.6. SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements
12.6.1. PREPARE Syntax
12.6.2. EXECUTE Syntax
12.7. MySQL Compound-Statement Syntax
12.7.1. BEGIN ... END Compound Statement Syntax
12.7.2. DECLARE Syntax
12.7.3. Variables in Stored Programs
12.7.4. Conditions and Handlers
12.7.5. Cursors
12.7.6. Flow Control Constructs
12.7.7. RETURN Syntax
12.8. MySQL Utility Statements
12.8.1. DESCRIBE Syntax
12.8.2. EXPLAIN Syntax
12.8.3. HELP Syntax
12.8.4. USE Syntax
13. Storage Engines
13.1. The MyISAM Storage Engine
13.1.1. MyISAM Startup Options
13.1.2. Space Needed for Keys
13.1.3. MyISAM Table Storage Formats
13.1.4. MyISAM Table Problems
13.2. The InnoDB Storage Engine
13.2.1. InnoDB Contact Information
13.2.2. InnoDB Configuration
13.2.3. InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
13.2.4. Creating and Using InnoDB Tables
13.2.5. Adding, Removing, or Resizing InnoDB Data and Log Files
13.2.6. Backing Up and Recovering an InnoDB Database
13.2.7. Moving an InnoDB Database to Another Machine
13.2.8. The InnoDB Transaction Model and Locking
13.2.9. InnoDB Multi-Versioning
13.2.10. InnoDB Table and Index Structures
13.2.11. InnoDB Disk I/O and File Space Management
13.2.12. InnoDB Error Handling
13.2.13. InnoDB Performance Tuning and Troubleshooting
13.2.14. Restrictions on InnoDB Tables
13.3. The MERGE Storage Engine
13.3.1. MERGE Table Advantages and Disadvantages
13.3.2. MERGE Table Problems
13.4. The MEMORY (HEAP) Storage Engine
13.5. The BDB (BerkeleyDB) Storage Engine
13.5.1. Operating Systems Supported by BDB
13.5.2. Installing BDB
13.5.3. BDB Startup Options
13.5.4. Characteristics of BDB Tables
13.5.5. Restrictions on BDB Tables
13.5.6. Errors That May Occur When Using BDB Tables
13.6. The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
13.7. The FEDERATED Storage Engine
13.7.1. Description of the FEDERATED Storage Engine
13.7.2. How to Use FEDERATED Tables
13.7.3. Limitations of the FEDERATED Storage Engine
13.8. The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
13.9. The CSV Storage Engine
13.10. The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
14. High Availability and Scalability
14.1. Using MySQL with DRBD
14.1.1. Configuring the DRBD Environment
14.1.2. Configuring MySQL for DRBD
14.1.3. Optimizing Performance and Reliability
14.2. Using Linux HA Heartbeat
14.2.1. Heartbeat Configuration
14.2.2. Using Heartbeat with MySQL and DRBD
14.2.3. Using Heartbeat with DRBD and dopd
14.2.4. Dealing with System Level Errors
14.3. MySQL and Virtualization
14.3.1. Common Issues with Virtualization
14.3.2. Using MySQL within an Amazon EC2 Instance
14.3.3. Virtualization Resources
14.4. Using ZFS Replication
14.4.1. Using ZFS for Filesystem Replication
14.4.2. Configuring MySQL for ZFS Replication
14.4.3. Handling MySQL Recovery with ZFS
14.5. Using MySQL with memcached
14.5.1. Installing memcached
14.5.2. Using memcached
14.5.3. memcached Interfaces
14.5.4. Getting memcached Statistics
14.5.5. memcached FAQ
14.6. MySQL Proxy
14.6.1. MySQL Proxy Supported Platforms
14.6.2. Installing MySQL Proxy
14.6.3. MySQL Proxy Command Options
14.6.4. MySQL Proxy Scripting
14.6.5. Using MySQL Proxy
14.6.6. MySQL Proxy FAQ
15. MySQL Enterprise Monitor
15.1. Overview of the Service
15.1.1. The Service Architecture
15.1.2. Service Features
15.1.3. Security
15.2. Conventions Used in This Document
15.3. Installation and Upgrades
15.3.1. User Roles
15.3.2. Service Manager Installation
15.3.3. Monitor Agent Installation
15.3.4. Unattended Installation
15.3.5. Post-Installation Considerations
15.3.6. Upgrading, Re-Installing or Changing Your Installation
15.3.7. Uninstalling the MySQL Enterprise Monitor
15.4. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard
15.4.1. The Server Tree
15.4.2. The Server Graphs and Critical Events
15.4.3. The Heat Chart
15.5. The Settings Page
15.5.1. Global Settings
15.5.2. User Preferences
15.5.3. Manage Servers
15.5.4. Managing Users
15.5.5. Manage Notification Groups
15.5.6. Logs
15.5.7. The Product Information Screen
15.6. The What's New Page
15.6.1. Setting What's New Configuration
15.7. The Advisors Page
15.7.1. Installing and Updating Advisors
15.7.2. Scheduling Rules
15.7.3. Editing Built-in Rules
15.7.4. Creating Advisors and Rules
15.7.5. Creating a Custom Data Collection Item
15.7.6. Disabling and Unscheduling Rules
15.7.7. Advisor Blackout Periods
15.8. The Events Page
15.8.1. Closing an Event
15.8.2. Notification of Events
15.9. The Graphs Page
15.9.1. Displaying Graphs
15.9.2. Setting an Interval
15.9.3. Setting a Time Span
15.10. The Query Analyzer Page
15.10.1. Enabling Query Analyzer
15.10.2. Getting Detailed Query Information
15.10.3. Using Graphs to Identify Queries
15.10.4. Filtering Query Analyzer Data
15.10.5. Using Query Analyzer Data
15.10.6. Troubleshooting Query Analyzer
15.10.7. Query Analyzer Settings
15.11. The Replication Page
15.11.1. Replication Page Details
15.12. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Reference
15.12.1. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Limitations
15.12.2. Supported Browsers
15.12.3. Installation Requirements
15.12.4. Creating a new SSL KeyStore
15.12.5. Choosing Suitable MySQL Enterprise Service Manager Hardware Configurations
15.12.6. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Agent Reference
15.12.7. Configuring Tomcat Parameters
15.12.8. Backing up MySQL Enterprise Service Manager
15.12.9. Migrating 1.3.x Historical Data to MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.0
15.12.10. Regular MySQL Enterprise Monitor Maintenance
15.12.11. Advisor/Graph Reference
15.13. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Frequently Asked Questions
16. Replication
16.1. Replication Configuration
16.1.1. How to Set Up Replication
16.1.2. Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables
16.1.3. Common Replication Administration Tasks
16.2. Replication Implementation
16.2.1. Replication Implementation Details
16.2.2. Replication Relay and Status Files
16.2.3. How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules
16.3. Replication Solutions
16.3.1. Using Replication for Backups
16.3.2. Using Replication with Different Master and Slave Storage Engines
16.3.3. Using Replication for Scale-Out
16.3.4. Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves
16.3.5. Improving Replication Performance
16.3.6. Switching Masters During Failover
16.3.7. Setting Up Replication Using SSL
16.4. Replication Notes and Tips
16.4.1. Replication Features and Issues
16.4.2. Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
16.4.3. Upgrading a Replication Setup
16.4.4. Replication FAQ
16.4.5. Troubleshooting Replication
16.4.6. How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
17. MySQL Cluster
17.1. MySQL Cluster Overview
17.1.1. MySQL Cluster Core Concepts
17.1.2. MySQL Cluster Nodes, Node Groups, Replicas, and Partitions
17.1.3. MySQL Cluster Hardware, Software, and Networking Requirements
17.1.4. MySQL Cluster Development History
17.1.5. Known Limitations of MySQL Cluster
17.2. MySQL Cluster Multi-Computer How-To
17.2.1. MySQL Cluster Multi-Computer Installation
17.2.2. MySQL Cluster Multi-Computer Configuration
17.2.3. Initial Startup of MySQL Cluster
17.2.4. Loading Sample Data into MySQL Cluster and Performing Queries
17.2.5. Safe Shutdown and Restart of MySQL Cluster
17.2.6. Upgrading and Downgrading MySQL Cluster
17.3. MySQL Cluster Configuration
17.3.1. Quick Test Setup of MySQL Cluster
17.3.2. MySQL Cluster Configuration Files
17.3.3. Overview of MySQL Cluster Configuration Parameters
17.3.4. MySQL Server Options and Variables for MySQL Cluster
17.3.5. Using High-Speed Interconnects with MySQL Cluster
17.4. MySQL Cluster Programs
17.4.1. MySQL Server Usage for MySQL Cluster
17.4.2. ndbd — The MySQL Cluster Data Node Daemon
17.4.3. ndb_mgmd — The MySQL Cluster Management Server Daemon
17.4.4. ndb_mgm — The MySQL Cluster Management Client
17.4.5. ndb_config — Extract MySQL Cluster Configuration Information
17.4.6. ndb_cpcd — Automate Testing for NDB Development
17.4.7. ndb_delete_all — Delete All Rows from an NDB Table
17.4.8. ndb_desc — Describe NDB Tables
17.4.9. ndb_drop_index — Drop Index from an NDB Table
17.4.10. ndb_drop_table — Drop an NDB Table
17.4.11. ndb_error_reporter — NDB Error-Reporting Utility
17.4.12. ndb_print_backup_file — Print NDB Backup File Contents
17.4.13. ndb_print_schema_file — Print NDB Schema File Contents
17.4.14. ndb_print_sys_file — Print NDB System File Contents
17.4.15. ndb_restore — Restore a MySQL Cluster Backup
17.4.16. ndb_select_all — Print Rows from an NDB Table
17.4.17. ndb_select_count — Print Row Counts for NDB Tables
17.4.18. ndb_show_tables — Display List of NDB Tables
17.4.19. — NDBCLUSTER Size Requirement Estimator
17.4.20. ndb_waiter — Wait for MySQL Cluster to Reach a Given Status
17.4.21. Options Common to MySQL Cluster Programs
17.5. Management of MySQL Cluster
17.5.1. Summary of MySQL Cluster Start Phases
17.5.2. Commands in the MySQL Cluster Management Client
17.5.3. Online Backup of MySQL Cluster
17.5.4. Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster
17.5.5. MySQL Cluster Log Messages
17.5.6. MySQL Cluster Single User Mode
17.5.7. Quick Reference: MySQL Cluster SQL Statements
17.5.8. MySQL Cluster Security Issues
18. Stored Programs and Views
18.1. Defining Stored Programs
18.2. Using Stored Routines (Procedures and Functions)
18.2.1. Stored Routine Syntax
18.2.2. Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges
18.2.3. Stored Routine Metadata
18.2.4. Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and LAST_INSERT_ID()
18.3. Using Triggers
18.3.1. Trigger Syntax
18.3.2. Trigger Metadata
18.4. Using Views
18.4.1. View Syntax
18.4.2. View Processing Algorithms
18.4.3. Updatable and Insertable Views
18.4.4. View Metadata
18.5. Access Control for Stored Programs and Views
18.6. Binary Logging of Stored Programs
19.18. Other INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
19.19. Extensions to SHOW Statements
20. Connectors and APIs
20.1. MySQL Connector/ODBC
20.1.1. Connector/ODBC Versions
20.1.2. Connector/ODBC Introduction
20.1.3. Connector/ODBC Installation
20.1.4. Connector/ODBC Configuration
20.1.5. Connector/ODBC Examples
20.1.6. Connector/ODBC Reference
20.1.7. Connector/ODBC Notes and Tips
20.1.8. Connector/ODBC Support
20.2. MySQL Connector/NET
20.2.1. Connector/NET Versions
20.2.2. Connector/NET Installation
20.2.3. Connector/NET Visual Studio Integration
20.2.4. Connector/NET Tutorials
20.2.5. Connector/NET Programming
20.2.6. Connector/NET Connection String Options Reference
20.2.7. Connector/NET API Reference
20.2.8. Connector/NET Support
20.2.9. Connector/NET FAQ
20.3. MySQL Connector/J
20.3.1. Connector/J Versions
20.3.2. Connector/J Installation
20.3.3. Connector/J Examples
20.3.4. Connector/J (JDBC) Reference
20.3.5. Connector/J Notes and Tips
20.3.6. Connector/J Support
20.4. MySQL Connector/MXJ
20.4.1. Connector/MXJ Overview
20.4.2. Connector/MXJ Versions
20.4.3. Connector/MXJ Installation
20.4.4. Connector/MXJ Configuration
20.4.5. Connector/MXJ Reference
20.4.6. Connector/MXJ Notes and Tips
20.4.7. Connector/MXJ Samples
20.4.8. Connector/MXJ Support
20.5. MySQL Connector/C
20.5.1. Building MySQL Connector/C from the Source Code
20.5.2. Testing MySQL Connector/C
20.5.3. MySQL Connector/C FAQ
20.6. MySQL Connector/
20.6.1. Installation
20.6.2. Getting Started: Connecting to MySQL
20.6.3. Getting Started: Usage Examples
20.6.4. References
20.6.5. Known Bugs
20.6.6. Contact
20.7. libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
20.8. MySQL C API
20.8.1. C API Data Structures
20.8.2. C API Function Overview
20.8.3. C API Function Descriptions
20.8.4. C API Prepared Statements
20.8.5. C API Prepared Statement Data Structures
20.8.6. C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
20.8.7. C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
20.8.8. C API Threaded Function Descriptions
20.8.9. C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions
20.8.10. Common Questions and Problems When Using the C API
20.8.11. Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior
20.8.12. C API Support for Multiple Statement Execution
20.8.13. C API Prepared Statement Problems
20.8.14. C API Prepared Statement Handling of Date and Time Values
20.8.15. C API Support for Prepared CALL Statements
20.8.16. Building Client Programs
20.9.1. MySQL
20.9.2. MySQL Improved Extension (Mysqli)
20.9.3. MySQL Native Driver (Mysqlnd)
20.9.4. MySQL Functions (PDO_MYSQL)
20.9.5. Connector/PHP
20.9.6. Common Problems with MySQL and PHP
20.9.7. Enabling Both mysql and mysqli in PHP
20.10. MySQL Perl API
20.11. MySQL Python API
20.12. MySQL Ruby APIs
20.12.1. The MySQL/Ruby API
20.12.2. The Ruby/MySQL API
20.13. MySQL Tcl API
20.14. MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
21. Extending MySQL
21.1. MySQL Internals
21.1.1. MySQL Threads
21.1.2. MySQL Test Suite
21.2. Adding New Functions to MySQL
21.2.1. Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
21.2.2. Adding a New User-Defined Function
21.2.3. Adding a New Native Function
21.3. Adding New Procedures to MySQL
21.3.2. Writing a Procedure
21.4. Debugging and Porting MySQL
21.4.1. Debugging a MySQL Server
21.4.2. Debugging a MySQL Client
21.4.3. The DBUG Package
A. MySQL 5.0 Frequently Asked Questions
A.1. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: General
A.2. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Storage Engines
A.3. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Server SQL Mode
A.4. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Stored Procedures and Functions
A.5. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Triggers
A.6. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Views
A.8. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Migration
A.9. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Security
A.10. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: MySQL Cluster
A.11. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets
A.12. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Connectors & APIs
A.13. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: Replication
A.14. MySQL 5.0 FAQ: MySQL, DRBD, and Heartbeat
A.14.1. Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD)
A.14.2. Linux Heartbeat
A.14.3. DRBD Architecture
A.14.4. DRBD and MySQL Replication
A.14.5. DRBD and File Systems
A.14.6. DRBD and LVM
A.14.7. DRBD and Virtualization
A.14.8. DRBD and Security
A.14.9. DRBD and System Requirements
A.14.10. DBRD and Support and Consulting
B. Errors, Error Codes, and Common Problems
B.1. Sources of Error Information
B.2. Types of Error Values
B.3. Server Error Codes and Messages
B.4. Client Error Codes and Messages
B.5. Problems and Common Errors
B.5.1. How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
B.5.2. Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
B.5.3. Installation-Related Issues
B.5.4. Administration-Related Issues
B.5.5. Query-Related Issues
B.5.6. Optimizer-Related Issues
B.5.7. Table Definition-Related Issues
B.5.8. Known Issues in MySQL
C. MySQL Change History
C.1. Changes in Release 5.0.x (Production)
C.1.1. Changes in MySQL 5.0.92 (Not yet released)
C.1.2. Changes in MySQL 5.0.91 (05 May 2010)
C.1.3. Changes in MySQL 5.0.90 (15 January 2010)
C.1.4. Changes in MySQL 5.0.89 (02 December 2009)
C.1.5. Changes in MySQL 5.0.88 (04 November 2009)
C.1.6. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.87sp1 [QSP] (03 February 2010)
C.1.7. Changes in MySQL 5.0.87 (15 October 2009)
C.1.8. Changes in MySQL 5.0.86 (09 September 2009)
C.1.9. Changes in MySQL 5.0.85 (11 August 2009)
C.1.10. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.84sp1 [QSP] (30 September 2009)
C.1.11. Changes in MySQL 5.0.84 (07 July 2009)
C.1.12. Changes in MySQL 5.0.83 (29 May 2009)
C.1.13. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.82sp1 [QSP] (21 July 2009)
C.1.14. Changes in MySQL 5.0.82 (20 May 2009)
C.1.15. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.81 (01 May 2009)
C.1.16. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.80 [MRU] (01 May 2009)
C.1.17. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.79 [MRU] (09 March 2009)
C.1.18. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.78 [MRU] (06 February 2009)
C.1.19. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.77 (28 January 2009)
C.1.20. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.76 [MRU] (05 January 2009)
C.1.21. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.75 (17 December 2008)
C.1.22. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.74sp1 [QSP] (30 April 2009)
C.1.23. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.74 [MRU] (03 December 2008)
C.1.24. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.72sp1 [QSP] (13 January 2009)
C.1.25. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.72 [MRU] (24 October 2008)
C.1.26. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.70 [MRU] (27 September 2008)
C.1.27. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.68 [MRU] (13 August 2008)
C.1.28. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.67 (04 August 2008)
C.1.29. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.66sp1 [QSP] (23 October 2008)
C.1.30. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.66a [MRU] (16 July 2008)
C.1.31. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.66 [MRU] (09 July 2008)
C.1.32. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.64 [MRU] (10 June 2008)
C.1.33. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.62 [MRU] (12 May 2008)
C.1.34. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.60sp1 [QSP] (27 June 2008)
C.1.35. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.60 [MRU] (28 April 2008)
C.1.36. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.58 [MRU] (05 March 2008)
C.1.37. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.56sp1 [QSP] (30 March 2008)
C.1.38. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.56 [MRU] (06 February 2008)
C.1.39. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.54a [MRU] (11 January 2008)
C.1.40. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.54 [MRU] (14 December 2007)
C.1.41. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.52 [MRU] (30 November 2007)
C.1.42. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.51b (24 April 2008)
C.1.43. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.51a (11 January 2008)
C.1.44. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.51 (15 November 2007)
C.1.45. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.50sp1a [QSP] (11 January 2008)
C.1.46. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.50sp1 [QSP] (12 December 2007)
C.1.47. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.50 [MRU] (19 October 2007)
C.1.48. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.48 [MRU] (27 August 2007)
C.1.49. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.46 [MRU] (13 July 2007)
C.1.50. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.45 (04 July 2007)
C.1.51. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.44sp1 [QSP] (01 August 2007)
C.1.52. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.44 [MRU] (21 June 2007)
C.1.53. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.42 [MRU] (23 May 2007)
C.1.54. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.41 (01 May 2007)
C.1.55. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.40 [MRU] (17 April 2007)
C.1.56. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.38 [MRU] (20 March 2007)
C.1.57. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.37 (27 February 2007)
C.1.58. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.36sp1 [QSP] (12 April 2007)
C.1.59. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.36 [MRU] (20 February 2007)
C.1.60. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.34 [MRU] (17 January 2007)
C.1.61. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.33 (09 January 2007)
C.1.62. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.32 [MRU] (20 December 2006)
C.1.63. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.30sp1 [QSP] (19 January 2007)
C.1.64. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.30 [MRU] (14 November 2006)
C.1.65. Release Notes for MySQL Enterprise 5.0.28 (24 October 2006)
C.1.66. Release Notes for MySQL Community Server 5.0.27 (21 October 2006)
C.1.67. Changes in MySQL 5.0.26 (03 October 2006)
C.1.68. Changes in MySQL 5.0.25 (15 September 2006)
C.1.69. Changes in MySQL 5.0.24a (25 August 2006)
C.1.70. Changes in MySQL 5.0.24 (27 July 2006)
C.1.71. Changes in MySQL 5.0.23 (Not released)
C.1.72. Changes in MySQL 5.0.22 (24 May 2006)
C.1.73. Changes in MySQL 5.0.21 (02 May 2006)
C.1.74. Changes in MySQL 5.0.20a (18 April 2006)
C.1.75. Changes in MySQL 5.0.20 (31 March 2006)
C.1.76. Changes in MySQL 5.0.19 (04 March 2006)
C.1.77. Changes in MySQL 5.0.18 (21 December 2005)
C.1.78. Changes in MySQL 5.0.17 (14 December 2005)
C.1.79. Changes in MySQL 5.0.16 (10 November 2005)
C.1.80. Changes in MySQL 5.0.15 (19 October 2005 Production)
C.1.81. Changes in MySQL 5.0.14 (Not released)
C.1.82. Changes in MySQL 5.0.13 (22 September 2005 Release Candidate)
C.1.83. Changes in MySQL 5.0.12 (02 September 2005)
C.1.84. Changes in MySQL 5.0.11 (06 August 2005)
C.1.85. Changes in MySQL 5.0.10 (27 July 2005)
C.1.86. Changes in MySQL 5.0.9 (15 July 2005)
C.1.87. Changes in MySQL 5.0.8 (Not released)
C.1.88. Changes in MySQL 5.0.7 (10 June 2005)
C.1.89. Changes in MySQL 5.0.6 (26 May 2005)
C.1.90. Changes in MySQL 5.0.5 (Not released)
C.1.91. Changes in MySQL 5.0.4 (16 April 2005)
C.1.92. Changes in MySQL 5.0.3 (23 March 2005 Beta)
C.1.93. Changes in MySQL 5.0.2 (01 December 2004)
C.1.94. Changes in MySQL 5.0.1 (27 July 2004)
C.1.95. Changes in MySQL 5.0.0 (22 December 2003 Alpha)
C.2. Changes in MySQL Cluster
C.2.1. Changes in MySQL Cluster-5.0.7 (10 June 2005)
C.2.2. Changes in MySQL Cluster-5.0.6 (26 May 2005)
C.2.3. Changes in MySQL Cluster-5.0.5 (Not released)
C.2.4. Changes in MySQL Cluster-5.0.4 (16 April 2005)
C.2.5. Changes in MySQL Cluster-5.0.3 (23 March 2005: Beta)
C.2.6. Changes in MySQL Cluster-5.0.1 (27 July 2004)
C.2.7. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.13 (15 July 2005)
C.2.8. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.12 (13 May 2005)
C.2.9. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.11 (01 April 2005)
C.2.10. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.10 (12 February 2005)
C.2.11. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.9 (13 January 2005)
C.2.12. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.8 (14 December 2004)
C.2.13. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.7 (23 October 2004)
C.2.14. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.6 (10 October 2004)
C.2.15. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.5 (16 September 2004)
C.2.16. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.4 (31 August 2004)
C.2.17. Changes in MySQL Cluster-4.1.3 (28 June 2004)
C.3. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Change History
C.3.1. Changes in MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.1.2 (26 May 2010)
C.3.2. Changes in MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.1.1 (10 February 2010)
C.3.3. Changes in MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.1.0 (08 September 2009)
C.4. MySQL Connector/ODBC (MyODBC) Change History
C.4.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.8 (Not yet released)
C.4.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.7 (24 August 2010)
C.4.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.6 (09 November 2009)
C.4.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.5 (18 August 2008)
C.4.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.4 (15 April 2008)
C.4.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.3 (26 March 2008)
C.4.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.2 (13 February 2008)
C.4.8. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.1 (13 December 2007)
C.4.9. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.0 (10 September 2007)
C.4.10. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.12 (Never released)
C.4.11. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.11 (31 January 2007)
C.4.12. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.10 (14 December 2006)
C.4.13. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.9 (22 November 2006)
C.4.14. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.8 (17 November 2006)
C.4.15. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.7 (08 November 2006)
C.4.16. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.6 (03 November 2006)
C.4.17. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.5 (17 October 2006)
C.4.18. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.3 (Connector/ODBC 5.0 Alpha 3) (20 June 2006)
C.4.19. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.2 (Never released)
C.4.20. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.1 (Connector/ODBC 5.0 Alpha 2) (05 June 2006)
C.4.21. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.28 (Not yet released)
C.4.22. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.27 (20 November 2008)
C.4.23. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.26 (07 July 2008)
C.4.24. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.25 (11 April 2008)
C.4.25. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.24 (14 March 2008)
C.4.26. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.23 (09 January 2008)
C.4.27. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.22 (13 November 2007)
C.4.28. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.21 (08 October 2007)
C.4.29. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.20 (10 September 2007)
C.4.30. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.19 (10 August 2007)
C.4.31. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.18 (08 August 2007)
C.4.32. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.17 (14 July 2007)
C.4.33. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.16 (14 June 2007)
C.4.34. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.15 (07 May 2007)
C.4.35. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.14 (08 March 2007)
C.4.36. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.13 (Never released)
C.4.37. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.12 (11 February 2005)
C.4.38. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.11 (28 January 2005)
C.5. MySQL Connector/NET Change History
C.5.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.3.x
C.5.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.2.x
C.5.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.1.x
C.5.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.0.x
C.5.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.3.x
C.5.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.2.x
C.5.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.1.x
C.5.8. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.0.x
C.5.9. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.x
C.5.10. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.9.0 (30 August 2004)
C.5.11. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.76
C.5.12. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.75
C.5.13. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.74
C.5.14. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.71
C.5.15. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.70
C.5.16. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.68
C.5.17. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.65
C.5.18. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.60
C.5.19. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.50
C.6. MySQL Visual Studio Plugin Change History
C.6.1. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.3 (Not yet released)
C.6.2. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.2 (Not yet released)
C.6.3. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.1 (04 October 2006)
C.6.4. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.0 (04 October 2006)
C.7. MySQL Connector/J Change History
C.7.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 5.1.x
C.7.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 5.0.x
C.7.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 3.1.x
C.7.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 3.0.x
C.7.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 2.0.x
C.7.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 1.2b (04 July 1999)
C.7.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 1.2.x and lower
C.8. MySQL Connector/MXJ Change History
C.8.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.11 (24th November 2009)
C.8.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.10 (Never released)
C.8.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.9 (19 August 2008)
C.8.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.8 (06 August 2007)
C.8.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.7 (27 May 2007)
C.8.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.6 (04 May 2007)
C.8.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.5 (14 March 2007)
C.8.8. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.4 (28 January 2007)
C.8.9. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.3 (24 June 2006)
C.8.10. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.2 (15 June 2006)
C.8.11. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.1 (Never released)
C.8.12. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.0 (09 December 2005)
C.9. MySQL Proxy Change History
C.9.1. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.8.1 (13 September 2010)
C.9.2. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.8.0 (21 January 2010)
C.9.3. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.7.2 (30 June 2009)
C.9.4. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.7.1 (15 May 2009)
C.9.5. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.7.0 (Not Released)
C.9.6. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.6.1 (06 February 2008)
C.9.7. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.6.0 (11 September 2007)
C.9.8. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.5.1 (30 June 2007)
C.9.9. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.5.0 (19 June 2007)
D. Restrictions and Limits
D.1. Restrictions on Stored Routines and Triggers
D.2. Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
D.3. Restrictions on Subqueries
D.4. Restrictions on Views
D.5. Restrictions on XA Transactions
D.6. Restrictions on Character Sets
D.7. Limits in MySQL
D.7.1. Limits of Joins
D.7.2. The Maximum Number of Columns Per Table
D.7.3. Windows Platform Limitations
Standard Index
C Function Index
Command Index
Function Index
Transaction Isolation Level Index
JOIN Types Index
Operator Index
Option Index
Privileges Index
SQL Modes Index
Status Variable Index
Statement/Syntax Index
System Variable Index

List of Figures

14.1. DRBD Architecture Overview
14.2. DRBD Architecture Using Separate Network Interfaces
14.3. Heartbeat Architecture
14.4. memcached Architecture Overview
14.5. memcached Hash Selection
14.6. memcached Hash Selection with New memcached instance
14.7. Memory Allocation in memcached
14.8. Typical memcached Application Flowchart
15.1. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Architecture
15.2. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Language Selection
15.3. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Installation Directory
15.4. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Tomcat Server Options
15.5. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Repository Configuration
15.6. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Language Selection
15.7. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Java Selection
15.8. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Installation Directory
15.9. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Tomcat Server Options
15.10. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Repository Configuration
15.11. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Initial Dashboard Log-In
15.12. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Outgoing Email Settings
15.13. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Language Selection
15.14. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Installation Directory
15.15. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Monitored Database Information
15.16. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Query Analyzer Configuration
15.17. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: MySQL Enterprise Service Manager Options
15.18. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Language Selection
15.19. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Installation Directory
15.20. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Monitored Database Information
15.21. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Monitored Database Information
15.22. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Query Analyzer Configuration
15.23. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: MySQL Enterprise Service Manager Options
15.24. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Language Selection
15.25. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Previous Installation
15.26. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Backup of Previous Installation
15.27. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Completed installing files
15.28. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Final Setup
15.29. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: The Graphs Screen
15.30. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: The Heat Chart
15.31. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: The Heat Chart Legend
15.32. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Settings
15.33. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: User Preferences
15.34. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Manage Servers
15.35. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Server Renaming
15.36. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Manage Users
15.37. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Manage Notification Groups
15.38. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Edit Notification Groups
15.39. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Logs
15.40. The What's New Tab
15.41. What's New Configuration
15.42. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Scheduling Dialog
15.43. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Editing Rules
15.44. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Events Screen
15.45. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Query Analyzer
15.46. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Standard Agent/Monitor Topology
15.47. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Query Analyzer Agent/Monitor Topology
15.48. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Canonical Query Tab for a Query
15.49. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Example Query Tab for a Query
15.50. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Explain Query Tab for a Query
15.51. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Correlated Graphs
15.52. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Query Analyzer Configuration
15.53. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Replication Groups
15.54. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Historical Data Migration Availability
15.55. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Confirming Historical Data Migration
15.56. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Historical Data Migration Progress
16.1. Using Replication to Improve Performance During Scale-Out
16.2. Using Replication to Replicate Databases to Separate Replication Slaves
16.3. Using an Additional Replication Host to Improve Performance
16.4. Redundancy Using Replication, Initial Structure
16.5. Redundancy Using Replication, After Master Failure
20.1. Add Connection Context Menu
20.2. Choose Data Source
20.3. Add Connection Dialog
20.4. New Data Connection
20.5. Editing New Table
20.6. Choose Table Name
20.7. Newly Created Table
20.8. Table Designer Main Menu
20.9. Indexes Dialog
20.10. Foreign Key Relationships Dialog
20.11. Table Properties Menu Item
20.12. Table Properties
20.13. Editing View SQL
20.14. View SQL Added
20.15. View SQL Saved
20.16. Edit Stored Procedure SQL
20.17. Stored Procedure SQL Saved
20.18. MySQL Website Configuration Tool
20.19. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Membership
20.20. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Connection String Editor
20.21. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Advanced Options
20.22. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Roles
20.23. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Profiles
20.24. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Session State
20.25. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Tables
20.26. MySQL SQL Editor - New File
20.27. MySQL SQL Editor - Query
20.28. DDL T4 Template Macro - Model Properties
20.29. DDL T4 Template Macro - Generate Database Wizard
20.30. World Database Application
20.31. Authentication Type
20.32. Select Membership and Role Provider
20.33. Membership and Role Provider Tables
20.34. Security Tab
20.35. Create User
20.36. Membership and Roles Table Contents
20.37. Simple Profile Application
20.38. Add Entity Data Model
20.39. Entity Data Model Wizard Screen 1
20.40. Entity Data Model Wizard Screen 2
20.41. Entity Data Model Wizard Screen 3
20.42. Entity Data Model Diagram
20.43. Entity Data Source Configuration Wizard Screen 1
20.44. Entity Data Source Configuration Wizard Screen 2
20.45. Entity Data Source Configuration Wizard Screen 3
20.46. Data Sources
20.47. Data Form Designer
20.48. Adding Code to the Form
20.49. The Populated Grid Control
20.50. Save Button Enabled
20.51. Adding Save Code to the Form
20.52. The Design Tab
20.53. Drop Down List
20.54. Enable AutoPostBack
20.55. Grid View Control
20.56. Placed Grid Vew Control
20.57. Source Code
20.58. The Working Web Site
20.59. Adding an Extension
20.60. Selecting the Database
20.61. Selecting the connection type
20.62. Entering Connection Settings
20.63. Setting Up User Authentication
20.64. After Connecting to the Database
20.65. Entering the Database File Name
20.66. Listing Tables
A.1. Active-Master MySQL Server

List of Tables

2.1. MySQL Installation Layout for Windows
2.2. MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM
2.3. MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package
2.4. MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.5. Build (configure) options
4.1. mysqld_safe Options
4.2. mysql Options
4.3. mysqladmin Options
4.4. mysqlcheck Options
4.5. mysqldump Options
4.6. mysqlimport Options
4.7. mysqlshow Options
4.8. myisamchk Options
4.9. mysqlaccess Options
4.10. mysqlbinlog Options
4.11. mysqldumpslow Options
4.12. mysqlhotcopy Options
4.13. mysql_tableinfo Options
5.1. Option/Variable Summary
5.2. System Variable Summary
5.3. Dynamic Variable Summary
5.4. Status Variable Summary
5.5. Security Option/Variable Summary
5.6. SSL Option/Variable Summary
11.1. Functions/Operators
11.2. Operators
11.3. Comparison Operators
11.4. Logical Operators
11.5. Flow Control Operators
11.6. String Operators
11.7. String Comparison Operators
11.8. String Regular Expression Operators
11.9. Numeric Functions and Operators
11.10. Arithmetic Operators
11.11. Mathematical Functions
11.12. Date/Time Functions
11.13. Cast Functions
11.14. Bitwise Functions
11.15. Encryption Functions
11.16. Information Functions
11.17. Miscellaneous Functions
11.18. Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions
13.1. MyISAM Option/Variable Reference
13.2. InnoDB Option/Variable Reference
13.3. BDB Option/Variable Reference
14.1. memcached Command Reference
14.2. memcached Protocol Responses
14.3. mysql-proxy Help Options
14.4. mysql-proxy Admin Options
14.5. mysql-proxy Proxy Options
14.6. mysql-proxy Applications Options
15.1. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Wiki Formatting
15.2. mysql-monitor-agent Help Options
15.3. mysql-monitor-agent Admin Options
15.4. mysql-monitor-agent Agent Options
15.5. mysql-monitor-agent Monitor Options
15.6. mysql-monitor-agent Proxy Options
15.7. mysql-monitor-agent Application Options
16.1. Replication Option/Variable Summary
16.2. Binary Logging Option/Variable Summary
17.1. Data Node Configuration Parameters
17.2. Management Node Configuration Parameters
17.3. API Node Configuration Parameters
17.4. COMPUTER Configuration Parameters
17.5. TCP Configuration Parameters
17.6. SHM Configuration Parameters
17.7. SCI Configuration Parameters
17.8. MySQL Cluster Server Options and Variables
17.9. ndbd Command Line Options
17.10. ndb_mgmd Command Line Options
17.11. ndb_mgm Command Line Options
17.12. ndbd Command Line Options
17.13. ndb_error_reporter Command Line Options
17.14. ndb_restore Command Line Options
17.15. ndb_show_tables Command Line Options
17.16. Command Line Options
17.17. Common MySQL Cluster Command line Options
20.1. MySQL APIs and Interfaces
20.2. MySQL Connector Versions and MySQL Server Versions
20.3. Mapping of MySQL Error Numbers to SQLStates
20.4. MySQL Configuration Options
20.5. MySQL client constants
20.6. MySQL fetch constants
20.7. MySQLi Configuration Options
20.8. Possible mysqli_info return values
20.9. Valid options
20.10. Supported flags
20.11. Attribute values
20.12. Type specification chars
20.13. Return Values
20.14. Object attributes
20.15. Object properties
20.16. Object properties
20.17. Supported flags
20.18. MySQL Native Driver Configuration Options
20.19. PDO_MYSQL Configuration Options

List of Examples

20.1. Connector/J: Obtaining a connection from the DriverManager
20.2. Connector/J: Using java.sql.Statement to execute a SELECT query
20.3. Connector/J: Calling Stored Procedures
20.4. Connector/J: Using Connection.prepareCall()
20.5. Connector/J: Registering output parameters
20.6. Connector/J: Setting CallableStatement input parameters
20.7. Connector/J: Retrieving results and output parameter values
20.8. Connector/J: Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values using Statement.getGeneratedKeys()
20.9. Connector/J: Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values using SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID()
20.10. Connector/J: Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values in Updatable ResultSets
20.11. Connector/J: Using a connection pool with a J2EE application server
20.12. Connector/J: Example of transaction with retry logic
20.13. insertdata.jsp
20.14. response.jsp
20.15. MySQL extension overview example
20.16. mysql_affected_rows example
20.17. mysql_affected_rows example using transactions
20.18. mysql_client_encoding example
20.19. mysql_close example
20.20. mysql_connect example
20.21. mysql_connect example using hostname:port syntax
20.22. mysql_connect example using ":/path/to/socket" syntax
20.23. mysql_create_db alternative example
20.24. mysql_data_seek example
20.25. mysql_db_name example
20.26. mysql_db_query alternative example
20.27. mysql_drop_db alternative example
20.28. mysql_errno example
20.29. mysql_error example
20.30. mysql_escape_string example
20.31. Query with aliased duplicate field names
20.32. mysql_fetch_array with MYSQL_NUM
20.33. mysql_fetch_array with MYSQL_ASSOC
20.34. mysql_fetch_array with MYSQL_BOTH
20.35. An expanded mysql_fetch_assoc example
20.36. mysql_fetch_field example
20.37. A mysql_fetch_lengths example
20.38. mysql_fetch_object example
20.39. mysql_fetch_object example
20.40. Fetching one row with mysql_fetch_row
20.41. A mysql_field_flags example
20.42. mysql_field_len example
20.43. mysql_field_name example
20.44. A mysql_field_table example
20.45. mysql_field_type example
20.46. A mysql_free_result example
20.47. mysql_get_client_info example
20.48. mysql_get_host_info example
20.49. mysql_get_proto_info example
20.50. mysql_get_server_info example
20.51. Relevant MySQL Statements
20.52. mysql_insert_id example
20.53. mysql_list_dbs example
20.54. Alternate to deprecated mysql_list_fields
20.55. mysql_list_processes example
20.56. mysql_list_tables alternative example
20.57. A mysql_num_fields example
20.58. mysql_num_rows example
20.59. A mysql_ping example
20.60. Invalid Query
20.61. Valid Query
20.62. Simple mysql_real_escape_string example
20.63. An example SQL Injection Attack
20.64. mysql_result example
20.65. mysql_select_db example
20.66. mysql_stat example
20.67. Alternative mysql_stat example
20.68. mysql_tablename example
20.69. mysql_thread_id example
20.70. mysqli->affected_rows example
20.71. mysqli::autocommit example
20.72. mysqli::change_user example
20.73. mysqli::character_set_name example
20.74. mysqli_get_client_info
20.75. mysqli_get_client_version
20.76. mysqli::commit example
20.77. mysqli->connect_errno example
20.78. mysqli->connect_error example
20.79. mysqli::__construct example
20.80. Generating a Trace File
20.81. mysqli->errno example
20.82. mysqli->error example
20.83. mysqli->field_count example
20.84. mysqli::get_charset example
20.85. mysqli_get_client_info
20.86. mysqli_get_client_version
20.87. A mysqli_get_connection_stats example
20.88. mysqli->host_info example
20.89. mysqli->protocol_version example
20.90. mysqli->server_info example
20.91. mysqli->server_version example
20.92. mysqli->info example
20.93. mysqli->insert_id example
20.94. mysqli::kill example
20.95. mysqli::multi_query example
20.96. mysqli::ping example
20.97. A mysqli_poll example
20.98. mysqli::prepare example
20.99. mysqli::query example
20.100. mysqli::real_connect example
20.101. mysqli::real_escape_string example
20.102. mysqli::rollback example
20.103. mysqli::select_db example
20.104. mysqli::set_charset example
20.105. mysqli::set_local_infile_handler example
20.106. mysqli->sqlstate example
20.107. mysqli::stat example
20.108. mysqli->thread_id example
20.109. mysqli::use_result example
20.110. mysqli->warning_count example
20.111. Object oriented style
20.112. Procedural style
20.113. Object oriented style
20.114. Procedural style
20.115. Object oriented style
20.116. Procedural style
20.117. Object oriented style
20.118. Procedural style
20.119. Object oriented style
20.120. Procedural style
20.121. Object oriented style
20.122. Procedural style
20.123. Object oriented style
20.124. Procedural style
20.125. Object oriented style
20.126. Procedural style
20.127. Object oriented style
20.128. Procedural style
20.129. Object oriented style
20.130. Procedural style
20.131. Object oriented style
20.132. Procedural style
20.133. Object oriented style
20.134. Procedural style
20.135. Object oriented style
20.136. Object oriented style
20.137. Object oriented style
20.138. Object oriented style
20.139. Object oriented style
20.140. Object oriented style
20.141. Object oriented style
20.142. Object oriented style
20.143. Object oriented style
20.144. Object oriented style
20.145. Object oriented style
20.146. Object oriented style
20.147. Object oriented style
20.148. Object oriented style
20.149. Object oriented style
20.150. Object oriented style
20.151. A mysqli_get_cache_stats example
20.152. A mysqli_get_client_stats example
20.153. Object oriented style
20.154. Forcing queries to be buffered in mysql
20.155. PDO_MYSQL DSN examples