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Developer's Guide to Oracle Solaris Security     Oracle Solaris 11 Express 11/10
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Document Information


1.  Oracle Solaris Security for Developers (Overview)

2.  Developing Privileged Applications

3.  Writing PAM Applications and Services

Introduction to the PAM Framework

PAM Service Modules

PAM Library

PAM Authentication Process

Requirements for PAM Consumers

PAM Configuration

Writing Applications That Use PAM Services

A Simple PAM Consumer Example

Other Useful PAM Functions

Writing Conversation Functions

Writing Modules That Provide PAM Services

Requirements for PAM Service Providers

Sample PAM Provider Service Module

4.  Writing Applications That Use GSS-API

5.  GSS-API Client Example

6.  GSS-API Server Example

7.  Writing Applications That Use SASL

8.  Introduction to the Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework

9.  Writing User-Level Cryptographic Applications and Providers

10.  Introduction to the Oracle Solaris Key Management Framework

A.  Sample C-Based GSS-API Programs

B.  GSS-API Reference

C.  Specifying an OID

D.  Source Code for SASL Example

E.  SASL Reference Tables

F.  Packaging and Signing Cryptographic Providers



Writing Modules That Provide PAM Services

This section describes how to write PAM service modules.

Requirements for PAM Service Providers

PAM service modules use pam_get_item(3PAM) and pam_set_item(3PAM) to communicate with applications. To communicate with each other, service modules use pam_get_data(3PAM) and pam_set_data(3PAM). If service modules from the same project need to exchange data, then a unique data name for that project should be established. The service modules can then share this data through the pam_get_data() and pam_set_data() functions.

Service modules must return one of three classes of PAM return code:

If a service module performs multiple functions, these functions should be split up into separate modules. This approach gives system administrators finer-grained control for configuring policy.

Man pages should be provided for any new service modules. Man pages should include the following items:

Service modules are required to honor the PAM_SILENT flag for preventing display of messages. The debug argument is recommended for logging debug information to syslog. Use syslog(3C) with LOG_AUTH and LOG_DEBUG for debug logging. Other messages should be sent to syslog() with LOG_AUTH and the appropriate priority. openlog(3C), closelog(3C), and setlogmask(3C) must not be used as these functions interfere with the applications settings.

Sample PAM Provider Service Module

A sample PAM service module follows. This example checks to see if the user is a member of a group that is permitted access to this service. The provider then grants access on success or logs an error message on failure.

The example goes through the following steps:

  1. Parse the options passed to this module from the configuration line in /etc/pam.conf.

    This module accepts the nowarn and debug options as well as a specific option group. With the group option, the module can be configured to allow access for a particular group other than the group root that is used by default. See the definition of DEFAULT_GROUP in the source code for the example. For example, to allow telnet(1) access by users that belong to group staff, one could use the following line, which is in the telnet stack in /etc/pam.conf:

    telnet  account  required group=staff
  2. Get the username, service name and hostname.

    The username is obtained by calling pam_get_user(3PAM) which retrieves the current user name from the PAM handle. If the user name has not been set, access is denied. The service name and the host name are obtained by calling pam_get_item(3PAM).

  3. Validate the information to be worked on.

    If the user name is not set, deny access. If the group to be worked on is not defined, deny access.

  4. Verify that the current user is a member of the special group that allows access to this host and grant access.

    In the event that the special group is defined but contains no members at all, PAM_IGNORE is returned to indicate that this module does not participate in any account validation process. The decision is left to other modules on the stack.

  5. If the user is not a member of the special group, display a message to inform the user that access is denied.

    Log a message to record this event.

The following example shows the source code for the sample PAM provider.

Note - The source code for this example is also available through the Sun download center. See

Example 3-3 Sample PAM Service Module

 * Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
 * Use is subject to license terms.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <grp.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <syslog.h>
#include <libintl.h>
#include <security/pam_appl.h>

 * by default, only users who are a member of group "root" are allowed access
#define    DEFAULT_GROUP "root"

static char *NOMSG =
    "Sorry, you are not on the access list for this host - access denied.";

pam_sm_acct_mgmt(pam_handle_t * pamh, int flags, int argc, const char **argv)
    char *user = NULL;
    char *host = NULL;
    char *service = NULL;
    const char *allowed_grp = DEFAULT_GROUP;
    char grp_buf[4096];
    struct group grp;
    struct pam_conv *conversation;
    struct pam_message message;
    struct pam_message *pmessage = &message;
    struct pam_response *res = NULL;
    int i;
    int nowarn = 0;
    int debug = 0;

    /* Set flags to display warnings if in debug mode. */
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
        if (strcasecmp(argv[i], "nowarn") == 0)
            nowarn = 1;
        else if (strcasecmp(argv[i], "debug") == 0)
            debug = 1;
        else if (strncmp(argv[i], "group=", 6) == 0)
            allowed_grp = &argv[i][6];
    if (flags & PAM_SILENT)
        nowarn = 1;

    /* Get user name,service name, and host name. */
    (void) pam_get_user(pamh, &user, NULL);
    (void) pam_get_item(pamh, PAM_SERVICE, (void **) &service);
    (void) pam_get_item(pamh, PAM_RHOST, (void **) &host);

    /* Deny access if user is NULL. */
    if (user == NULL) {
            "%s: members_only: user not set", service);
        return (PAM_USER_UNKNOWN);

    if (host == NULL)
        host = "unknown";

     * Deny access if vuser group is required and user is not in vuser
     * group
    if (getgrnam_r(allowed_grp, &grp, grp_buf, sizeof (grp_buf)) == NULL) {
            "%s: members_only: group \"%s\" not defined",
            service, allowed_grp);
        return (PAM_SYSTEM_ERR);

    /* Ignore this module if group contains no members. */
    if (grp.gr_mem[0] == 0) {
        if (debug)
                "%s: members_only: group %s empty: "
                "all users allowed.", service, grp.gr_name);
        return (PAM_IGNORE);

    /* Check to see if user is in group. If so, return SUCCESS. */
    for (; grp.gr_mem[0]; grp.gr_mem++) {
        if (strcmp(grp.gr_mem[0], user) == 0) {
            if (debug)
                    "%s: user %s is member of group %s. "
                    "Access allowed.",
                    service, user, grp.gr_name);
            return (PAM_SUCCESS);

     * User is not a member of the group.
     * Set message style to error and specify denial message.
    message.msg_style = PAM_ERROR_MSG;
    message.msg = gettext(NOMSG);

    /* Use conversation function to display denial message to user. */
    (void) pam_get_item(pamh, PAM_CONV, (void **) &conversation);
    if (nowarn == 0 && conversation != NULL) {
        int err;
        err = conversation->conv(1, &pmessage, &res,
        if (debug && err != PAM_SUCCESS)
                "%s: members_only: conversation returned "
                "error %d (%s).", service, err,
                pam_strerror(pamh, err));

        /* free response (if any) */
        if (res != NULL) {
            if (res->resp)

    /* Report denial to system log and return error to caller. */
    syslog(LOG_NOTICE | LOG_AUTH, "%s: members_only: "
        "Connection for %s not allowed from %s", service, user, host);

    return (PAM_PERM_DENIED);