Oracle® Linux

Administrator's Solutions Guide for Release 6

Oracle Legal Notices
Oracle Documentation License


August 2017

Table of Contents

1 The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
1.1 About the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
1.1.1 About UEK Release 1
1.1.2 About UEK Release 2
1.1.3 About UEK Release 3
1.1.4 About UEK Release 4
1.2 Obtaining and Installing the UEK Packages
1.3 For More Information About the UEK
2 Yum
2.1 About Yum
2.2 Yum Configuration
2.2.1 Configuring Use of a Proxy Server
2.2.2 Yum Repository Configuration
2.3 Downloading the Oracle Linux Yum Server Repository Files
2.4 Using Yum from the Command Line
2.5 Yum Groups
2.6 Installing and Using the Yum Security Plugin
2.7 Switching CentOS or Scientific Linux Systems to Use the Oracle Linux Yum Server
2.8 Creating and Using a Local ULN Mirror
2.9 Creating a Local Yum Repository Using an ISO Image
2.10 Setting up a Local Yum Server Using an ISO Image
2.11 For More Information About Yum
3 The Unbreakable Linux Network
3.1 About the Unbreakable Linux Network
3.2 About ULN Channels
3.3 About Software Errata
3.4 Registering as a ULN User
3.5 Registering an Oracle Linux 6 or Oracle Linux 7 System
3.6 Registering an Oracle Linux 4 or Oracle Linux 5 System
3.7 Configuring an Oracle Linux 5 System to Use yum with ULN
3.8 Disabling Package Updates
3.9 Subscribing Your System to ULN Channels
3.10 Browsing and Downloading Errata Packages
3.11 Downloading Available Errata for a System
3.12 Updating System Details
3.13 Deleting a System
3.14 About CSI Administration
3.14.1 Becoming a CSI Administrator
3.14.2 Listing Active CSIs and Transferring Their Registered Servers
3.14.3 Listing Expired CSIs and Transferring Their Registered Servers
3.14.4 Removing a CSI Administrator
3.15 Switching from RHN to ULN
3.16 For More Information About ULN
4 Ksplice Uptrack
4.1 About Ksplice Uptrack
4.1.1 Supported Kernels
4.2 Registering to Use Ksplice Uptrack
4.3 Installing Ksplice Uptrack
4.4 Configuring Ksplice Uptrack
4.5 Managing Ksplice Updates
4.6 Patching and Updating Your System
4.7 Removing the Ksplice Uptrack software
4.8 About Ksplice Offline Client
4.8.1 Modifying a Local Yum Server to Act as a Ksplice Mirror
4.8.2 Configuring Ksplice Offline Clients
4.9 For More Information About Ksplice Uptrack
5 The Btrfs File System
5.1 About the Btrfs File System
5.2 Creating a Btrfs File System
5.3 Modifying a Btrfs File System
5.4 Compressing and Defragmenting a Btrfs File System
5.5 Resizing a Btrfs File System
5.6 Creating Subvolumes and Snapshots
5.6.1 Cloning Virtual Machine Images and Linux Containers
5.7 Using the Send/Receive Feature
5.7.1 Using Send/Receive to Implement Incremental Backups
5.8 Using Quota Groups
5.9 Replacing Devices on a Live File System
5.10 Creating Snapshots of Files
5.11 Converting an Ext2, Ext3, or Ext4 File System to a Btrfs File System
5.11.1 Converting a Non-root File System
5.11.2 Converting the root File System
5.11.3 Mounting the Image of the Original File System
5.11.4 Deleting the Snapshot of the Original File System
5.11.5 Recovering an Original Non-root File System
5.12 Installing a Btrfs root File System
5.12.1 Setting up a New NFS Server
5.12.2 Configuring an Existing NFS Server
5.12.3 Setting up a New HTTP Server
5.12.4 Configuring an Existing HTTP Server
5.12.5 Setting up a Network Installation Server
5.12.6 Installing from a Network Installation Server
5.12.7 About the Installation root File System
5.12.8 Creating Snapshots of the root File System
5.12.9 Mounting Alternate Snapshots as the root File System
5.12.10 Deleting Snapshots of the root File System
5.13 For More Information About Btrfs
6 The XFS File System
6.1 About the XFS File System
6.1.1 About External XFS Journals
6.1.2 About XFS Write Barriers
6.1.3 About Lazy Counters
6.2 Installing the XFS Packages
6.3 Creating an XFS File System
6.4 Modifying an XFS File System
6.5 Growing an XFS File System
6.6 Freezing and Unfreezing an XFS File System
6.7 Setting Quotas on an XFS File System
6.7.1 Setting Project Quotas
6.8 Backing up and Restoring XFS File Systems
6.9 Defragmenting an XFS File System
6.10 Checking and Repairing an XFS File System
6.11 For More Information About XFS
7 Oracle Cluster File System Version 2
7.1 About OCFS2
7.2 Installing and Configuring OCFS2
7.2.1 Preparing a Cluster for OCFS2
7.2.2 Configuring the Firewall
7.2.3 Configuring the Cluster Software
7.2.4 Creating the Configuration File for the Cluster Stack
7.2.5 Configuring the Cluster Stack
7.2.6 Configuring the Kernel for Cluster Operation
7.2.7 Starting and Stopping the Cluster Stack
7.2.8 Creating OCFS2 volumes
7.2.9 Mounting OCFS2 Volumes
7.2.10 Querying and Changing Volume Parameters
7.3 Troubleshooting OCFS2
7.3.1 Recommended Tools for Debugging
7.3.2 Mounting the debugfs File System
7.3.3 Configuring OCFS2 Tracing
7.3.4 Debugging File System Locks
7.3.5 Configuring the Behavior of Fenced Nodes
7.4 Use Cases for OCFS2
7.4.1 Load Balancing
7.4.2 Oracle Real Application Cluster (RAC)
7.4.3 Oracle Databases
7.5 For More Information About OCFS2
8 Control Groups
8.1 About cgroups
8.2 Subsystems
8.2.1 blkio Parameters
8.2.2 cpu Parameters
8.2.3 cpuacct Parameters
8.2.4 cpuset Parameters
8.2.5 devices Parameters
8.2.6 freezer Parameter
8.2.7 memory Parameters
8.2.8 net_cls Parameter
8.3 Enabling the cgconfig Service
8.4 Enabling PAM to Work with cgroup Rules
8.5 Restarting the cgconfig Service
8.6 About the cgroups Configuration File
8.7 About the cgroup Rules Configuration File
8.8 Displaying and Setting Subsystem Parameters
8.9 Use Cases for cgroups
8.9.1 Pinning Processes to CPU Cores
8.9.2 Controlling CPU and Memory Usage
8.9.3 Restricting Access to Devices
8.9.4 Throttling I/O Bandwidth
8.10 For More Information About cgroups
9 Linux Containers
9.1 About Linux Containers
9.1.1 Supported Oracle Linux Container Versions
9.2 Configuring Operating System Containers
9.2.1 Installing and Configuring the Software
9.2.2 Setting up the File System for the Containers
9.2.3 Creating and Starting a Container
9.2.4 About the lxc-oracle Template Script
9.2.5 About Veth and Macvlan
9.2.6 Modifying a Container to Use Macvlan
9.3 Logging in to Containers
9.4 Creating Additional Containers
9.5 Monitoring and Shutting Down Containers
9.6 Starting a Command Inside a Running Container
9.7 Controlling Container Resources
9.8 Configuring ulimit Settings for an Oracle Linux Container
9.9 Configuring Kernel Parameter Settings for Oracle Linux Containers
9.10 Deleting Containers
9.11 Running Application Containers
9.12 For More Information About Linux Containers
10 HugePages
10.1 About HugePages
10.2 Configuring HugePages for Oracle Database
10.3 For More Information About HugePages
11 Using kexec for Fast Rebooting
11.1 About kexec
11.2 Setting up Fast Reboots of the Current Kernel
11.3 Controlling Fast Reboots
11.4 For More Information About kexec
12 DTrace
12.1 About DTrace
12.2 Installing and Configuring DTrace
12.2.1 Changing the Mode of the DTrace Helper Device
12.2.2 Loading DTrace Kernel Modules
12.3 Differences Between DTrace on Oracle Linux and Oracle Solaris
12.4 Calling DTrace from the Command Line
12.5 About Programming for DTrace
12.6 Introducing the D Programming Language
12.6.1 Probe Clauses
12.6.2 Pragmas
12.6.3 Global Variables
12.6.4 Predicates
12.6.5 Scalar Arrays and Associative Arrays
12.6.6 Pointers and External Variables
12.6.7 Address Spaces
12.6.8 Thread-local Variables
12.6.9 Speculations
12.6.10 Aggregations
12.7 DTrace Command Examples
12.8 Tracing User-Space Applications
12.8.1 Examining the Stack Trace of a User-Space Application
12.9 For More Information About DTrace
13 Support Diagnostic Tools
13.1 About sosreport
13.1.1 Configuring and Using sosreport
13.2 About Kdump
13.2.1 Configuring and Using Kdump
13.2.2 Files Used by Kdump
13.3 About OSWatcher Black Box
13.3.1 Installing OSWbb
13.3.2 Running OSWbb
13.4 For More Information About the Diagnostic Tools