Review the following sections to resolve a missing, removed or faulted device.
If a device cannot be opened, it displays the UNAVAIL state in the zpool status output. This state means that ZFS was unable to open the device when the pool was first accessed, or the device has since become unavailable. If the device causes a top-level virtual device to be unavailable, then nothing in the pool can be accessed. Otherwise, the fault tolerance of the pool might be compromised. In either case, the device just needs to be reattached to the system to restore normal operations. If you need to replace a device that is UNAVAIL because it has failed, see Replacing a Device in a ZFS Storage Pool.
If a device is UNAVAIL in a root pool or a mirrored root pool, see the following references:
Mirrored root pool disk failed – Booting From an Alternate Root Pool Disk
Replacing a disk in a root pool
Full root pool disaster recovery – Using Unified Archives for System Recovery and Cloning in Oracle Solaris 11.3
For example, you might see a message similar to the following from fmd after a device failure:
SUNW-MSG-ID: ZFS-8000-QJ, TYPE: Fault, VER: 1, SEVERITY: Minor EVENT-TIME: Wed Jun 20 13:09:55 MDT 2012 ... SOURCE: zfs-diagnosis, REV: 1.0 EVENT-ID: e13312e0-be0a-439b-d7d3-cddaefe717b0 DESC: Outstanding dtls on ZFS device 'id1,sd@n5000c500335dc60f/a' in pool 'pond'. AUTO-RESPONSE: No automated response will occur. IMPACT: None at this time. REC-ACTION: Use 'fmadm faulty' to provide a more detailed view of this event. Run 'zpool status -lx' for more information. Please refer to the associated reference document at http://support.oracle.com/msg/ZFS-8000-QJ for the latest service procedures and policies regarding this diagnosis.
To view more detailed information about the device problem and the resolution, use the zpool status –v command. For example:
# zpool status -v pool: pond state: DEGRADED status: One or more devices are unavailable in response to persistent errors. Sufficient replicas exist for the pool to continue functioning in a degraded state. action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors using 'zpool clear' or 'fmadm repaired', or replace the device with 'zpool replace'. scan: scrub repaired 0 in 0h0m with 0 errors on Wed Jun 20 13:16:09 2012 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM pond DEGRADED 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F95E3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F907Fd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 DEGRADED 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335BD117d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335DC60Fd0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 device details: c0t5000C500335DC60Fd0 UNAVAIL cannot open status: ZFS detected errors on this device. The device was missing. see: http://support.oracle.com/msg/ZFS-8000-LR for recovery
You can see from this output that the c0t5000C500335DC60Fd0 device is not functioning. If you determine that the device is faulty, replace it.
If necessary, use the zpool online command to bring the replaced device online. For example:
# zpool online pond c0t5000C500335DC60Fd0
Let FMA know that the device has been replaced if the output of the fmadm faulty identifies the device error. For example:
# fmadm faulty --------------- ------------------------------------ -------------- --------- TIME EVENT-ID MSG-ID SEVERITY --------------- ------------------------------------ -------------- --------- Jun 20 13:15:41 3745f745-371c-c2d3-d940-93acbb881bd8 ZFS-8000-LR Major Problem Status : solved Diag Engine : zfs-diagnosis / 1.0 System Manufacturer : unknown Name : ORCL,SPARC-T3-4 Part_Number : unknown Serial_Number : 1120BDRCCD Host_ID : 84a02d28 ---------------------------------------- Suspect 1 of 1 : Fault class : fault.fs.zfs.open_failed Certainty : 100% Affects : zfs://pool=86124fa573cad84e/ vdev=25d36cd46e0a7f49/pool_name=pond/ vdev_name=id1,sd@n5000c500335dc60f/a Status : faulted and taken out of service FRU Name : "zfs://pool=86124fa573cad84e/ vdev=25d36cd46e0a7f49/pool_name=pond/ vdev_name=id1,sd@n5000c500335dc60f/a" Status : faulty Description : ZFS device 'id1,sd@n5000c500335dc60f/a' in pool 'pond' failed to open. Response : An attempt will be made to activate a hot spare if available. Impact : Fault tolerance of the pool may be compromised. Action : Use 'fmadm faulty' to provide a more detailed view of this event. Run 'zpool status -lx' for more information. Please refer to the associated reference document at http://support.oracle.com/msg/ZFS-8000-LR for the latest service procedures and policies regarding this diagnosis.
Extract the string in the Affects: section of the fmadm faulty output and include it with the following command to let FMA know that the device is replaced:
# fmadm repaired zfs://pool=86124fa573cad84e/ \ vdev=25d36cd46e0a7f49/pool_name=pond/ \ vdev_name=id1,sd@n5000c500335dc60f/a fmadm: recorded repair to of zfs://pool=86124fa573cad84e/ vdev=25d36cd46e0a7f49/pool_name=pond/vdev_ name=id1,sd@n5000c500335dc60f/a
As a last step, confirm that the pool with the replaced device is healthy. For example:
# zpool status -x system1 pool 'system1' is healthy
If a device is completely removed from the system, ZFS detects that the device cannot be opened and places it in the REMOVED state. Depending on the data replication level of the pool, this removal might or might not result in the entire pool becoming unavailable. If one disk in a mirrored or RAID-Z device is removed, the pool continues to be accessible. A pool might become UNAVAIL, which means no data is accessible until the device is reattached, under the following conditions:
If a redundant storage pool device is accidentally removed and reinserted, then you can just clear the device error, in most cases. For example:
# zpool clear system1 c1t1d0
Exactly how a missing device is reattached depends on the device in question. If the device is a network-attached drive, connectivity to the network should be restored. If the device is a USB device or other removable media, it should be reattached to the system. If the device is a local disk, a controller might have failed such that the device is no longer visible to the system. In this case, the controller should be replaced, at which point the disks will again be available. Other problems can exist and depend on the type of hardware and its configuration. If a drive fails and it is no longer visible to the system, the device should be treated as a damaged device. Follow the procedures in Replacing or Repairing a Damaged Device.
A pool might be SUSPENDED if device connectivity is compromised. A SUSPENDED pool remains in the wait state until the device issue is resolved. For example:
# zpool status cybermen pool: cybermen state: SUSPENDED status: One or more devices are unavailable in response to IO failures. The pool is suspended. action: Make sure the affected devices are connected, then run 'zpool clear' or 'fmadm repaired'. Run 'zpool status -v' to see device specific details. see: http://support.oracle.com/msg/ZFS-8000-HC scan: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM cybermen UNAVAIL 0 16 0 c8t3d0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 c8t1d0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0
After device connectivity is restored, clear the pool or device errors.
# zpool clear cybermen # fmadm repaired zfs://pool=name/vdev=guid
After a device is reattached to the system, ZFS might or might not automatically detect its availability. If the pool was previously UNAVAIL or SUSPENDED, or the system was rebooted as part of the attach procedure, then ZFS automatically rescans all devices when it tries to open the pool. If the pool was degraded and the device was replaced while the system was running, you must notify ZFS that the device is now available and ready to be reopened by using the zpool online command. For example:
# zpool online system1 c0t1d0
For more information about bringing devices online, see Taking Devices in a Storage Pool Offline or Returning Online.
This section describes how to determine device failure types, clear transient errors, and replacing a device.
The term damaged device is rather vague and can describe a number of possible situations:
Bit rot – Over time, random events such as magnetic influences and cosmic rays can cause bits stored on disk to flip. These events are relatively rare but common enough to cause potential data corruption in large or long-running systems.
Misdirected reads or writes – Firmware bugs or hardware faults can cause reads or writes of entire blocks to reference the incorrect location on disk. These errors are typically transient, though a large number of them might indicate a faulty drive.
Administrator error – Administrators can unknowingly overwrite portions of a disk with bad data (such as copying /dev/zero over portions of the disk) that cause permanent corruption on disk. These errors are always transient.
Temporary outage– A disk might become unavailable for a period of time, causing I/Os to fail. This situation is typically associated with network-attached devices, though local disks can experience temporary outages as well. These errors might or might not be transient.
Bad or flaky hardware – This situation is a catch-all for the various problems that faulty hardware exhibits, including consistent I/O errors, faulty transports causing random corruption, or any number of failures. These errors are typically permanent.
Offline device – If a device is offline, it is assumed that the administrator placed the device in this state because it is faulty. The administrator who placed the device in this state can determine if this assumption is accurate.
Determining exactly what is wrong with a device can be a difficult process. The first step is to examine the error counts in the zpool status output. For example:
# zpool status -v system1 pool: system1 state: ONLINE status: One or more devices has experienced an error resulting in data corruption. Applications may be affected. action: Restore the file in question if possible. Otherwise restore the entire pool from backup. see: http://support.oracle.com/msg/ZFS-8000-8A config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM system1 ONLINE 2 0 0 c8t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c8t0d0 ONLINE 2 0 0 errors: Permanent errors have been detected in the following files: /system1/file.1
The errors are divided into I/O errors and checksum errors, both of which might indicate the possible failure type. Typical operation predicts a very small number of errors (just a few over long periods of time). If you are seeing a large number of errors, then this situation probably indicates impending or complete device failure. However, an administrator error can also result in large error counts. The other source of information is the syslog system log. If the log shows a large number of SCSI or Fibre Channel driver messages, then this situation probably indicates serious hardware problems. If no syslog messages are generated, then the damage is likely transient.
The goal is to answer the following question:
Is another error likely to occur on this device?
Errors that happen only once are considered transient and do not indicate potential failure. Errors that are persistent or severe enough to indicate potential hardware failure are considered fatal. The act of determining the type of error is beyond the scope of any automated software currently available with ZFS, and so much must be done manually by you, the administrator. After determination is made, the appropriate action can be taken. Either clear the transient errors or replace the device due to fatal errors. These repair procedures are described in the next sections.
Even if the device errors are considered transient, they still might have caused uncorrectable data errors within the pool. These errors require special repair procedures, even if the underlying device is deemed healthy or otherwise repaired. For more information about repairing data errors, see Repairing Corrupted ZFS Data.
If the device errors are deemed transient, in that they are unlikely to affect the future health of the device, they can be safely cleared to indicate that no fatal error occurred. To clear error counters for RAID-Z or mirrored devices, use the zpool clear command. For example:
# zpool clear system1 c1t1d0
This syntax clears any device errors and clears any data error counts associated with the device.
To clear all errors associated with the virtual devices in a pool, and to clear any data error counts associated with the pool, use the following syntax:
# zpool clear system1
For more information about clearing pool errors, see Clearing Storage Pool Device Errors.
Transient device errors are most likely cleared by using the zpool clear command. If a device has failed, then see the next section about replacing a device. If a redundant device was accidentally overwritten or was UNAVAIL for a long period of time, then this error might need to be resolved by using the fmadm repaired command as directed in the zpool status output. For example:
# zpool status -v pond pool: pond state: DEGRADED status: One or more devices are unavailable in response to persistent errors. Sufficient replicas exist for the pool to continue functioning in a degraded state. action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors using 'zpool clear' or 'fmadm repaired', or replace the device with 'zpool replace'. scan: scrub repaired 0 in 0h0m with 0 errors on Wed Jun 20 15:38:08 2012 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM pond DEGRADED 0 0 0 mirror-0 DEGRADED 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F95E3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335F907Fd0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335BD117d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t5000C500335DC60Fd0 ONLINE 0 0 0 device details: c0t5000C500335F907Fd0 UNAVAIL cannot open status: ZFS detected errors on this device. The device was missing. see: http://support.oracle.com/msg/ZFS-8000-LR for recovery errors: No known data errors
If device damage is permanent or future permanent damage is likely, the device must be replaced. Whether the device can be replaced depends on the configuration.
If the device to be replaced is part of a redundant configuration, sufficient replicas from which to retrieve good data must exist. For example, if two disks in a four-way mirror are UNAVAIL, then either disk can be replaced because healthy replicas are available. However, if two disks in a four-way RAID-Z (raidz1) virtual device are UNAVAIL, then neither disk can be replaced because insufficient replicas from which to retrieve data exist. If the device is damaged but otherwise online, it can be replaced as long as the pool is not in the UNAVAIL state. However, any corrupted data on the device is copied to the new device, unless sufficient replicas with good data exist.
In the following configuration, the c1t1d0 disk can be replaced, and any data in the pool is copied from the healthy replica, c1t0d0:
mirror DEGRADED c1t0d0 ONLINE c1t1d0 UNAVAIL
The c1t0d0 disk can also be replaced, though no self-healing of data can take place because no good replica is available.
In the following configuration, neither UNAVAIL disk can be replaced. The ONLINE disks cannot be replaced either because the pool itself is UNAVAIL.
raidz1 UNAVAIL c1t0d0 ONLINE c2t0d0 UNAVAIL c3t0d0 UNAVAIL c4t0d0 ONLINE
In the following configuration, either top-level disk can be replaced, though any bad data present on the disk is copied to the new disk.
c1t0d0 ONLINE c1t1d0 ONLINE
If either disk is UNAVAIL, then no replacement can be performed because the pool itself is UNAVAIL.
If the loss of a device causes the pool to become UNAVAIL or the device contains too many data errors in a non-redundant configuration, then the device cannot be safely replaced. Without sufficient redundancy, no good data with which to heal the damaged device exists. In this case, the only option is to destroy the pool and re-create the configuration, and then to restore your data from a backup copy.
For more information about restoring an entire pool, see Repairing ZFS Storage Pool-Wide Damage.
After you have determined that a device can be replaced, use the zpool replace command to replace the device. If you are replacing the damaged device with different device, use syntax similar to the following:
# zpool replace system1 c1t1d0 c2t0d0
This command migrates data to the new device from the damaged device or from other devices in the pool if it is in a redundant configuration. When the command is finished, it detaches the damaged device from the configuration, at which point the device can be removed from the system. If you have already removed the device and replaced it with a new device in the same location, use the single device form of the command. For example:
# zpool replace system1 c1t1d0
This command takes an unformatted disk, formats it appropriately, and then resilvers data from the rest of the configuration.
For more information about the zpool replace command, see Replacing Devices in a Storage Pool.Example 50 Replacing a SATA Disk in a ZFS Storage Pool
The following example shows how to replace a device (c1t3d0) in a mirrored storage pool system1 on a system with SATA devices. To replace the disk c1t3d0 with a new disk at the same location (c1t3d0), then you must unconfigure the disk before you attempt to replace it. If the disk to be replaced is not a SATA disk, then see Replacing Devices in a Storage Pool.
The basic steps follow:
Take offline the disk (c1t3d0)to be replaced. You cannot unconfigure a SATA disk that is currently being used.
Use the cfgadm command to identify the SATA disk (c1t3d0) to be unconfigured and unconfigure it. The pool will be degraded with the offline disk in this mirrored configuration, but the pool will continue to be available.
Physically replace the disk (c1t3d0). Ensure that the blue Ready to Remove LED is illuminated before you physically remove the UNAVAIL drive, if available.
Reconfigure the SATA disk (c1t3d0).
Bring the new disk (c1t3d0) online.
Run the zpool replace command to replace the disk (c1t3d0).
If a failed disk is automatically replaced with a hot spare, you might need to detach the hot spare after the failed disk is replaced. For example, if c2t4d0 is still an active hot spare after the failed disk is replaced, then detach it.
# zpool detach system1 c2t4d0
If FMA is reporting the failed device, then you should clear the device failure.
# fmadm faulty # fmadm repaired zfs://pool=name/vdev=guid
The following example walks through the steps to replace a disk in a ZFS storage pool.
# zpool offline system1 c1t3d0 # cfgadm | grep c1t3d0 sata1/3::dsk/c1t3d0 disk connected configured ok # cfgadm -c unconfigure sata1/3 Unconfigure the device at: /devices/pci@0,0/pci1022,7458@2/pci11ab,11ab@1:3 This operation will suspend activity on the SATA device Continue (yes/no)? yes # cfgadm | grep sata1/3 sata1/3 disk connected unconfigured ok <Physically replace the failed disk c1t3d0> # cfgadm -c configure sata1/3 # cfgadm | grep sata1/3 sata1/3::dsk/c1t3d0 disk connected configured ok # zpool online system1 c1t3d0 # zpool replace system1 c1t3d0 # zpool status system1 pool: system1 state: ONLINE scrub: resilver completed after 0h0m with 0 errors on Tue Feb 2 13:17:32 2010 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM system1 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t2d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t2d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-2 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors
Note that the preceding zpool output might show both the new and old disks under a replacing heading. For example:
replacing DEGRADED 0 0 0 c1t3d0s0/o FAULTED 0 0 0 c1t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0
This text means that the replacement process is in progress and the new disk is being resilvered.
If you are going to replace a disk (c1t3d0) with another disk (c4t3d0), then you only need to run the zpool replace command. For example:
# zpool replace system1 c1t3d0 c4t3d0 # zpool status pool: system1 state: DEGRADED scrub: resilver completed after 0h0m with 0 errors on Tue Feb 2 13:35:41 2010 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM system1 DEGRADED 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t2d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t2d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-2 DEGRADED 0 0 0 c0t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 replacing DEGRADED 0 0 0 c1t3d0 OFFLINE 0 0 0 c4t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors
You might need to run the zpool status command several times until the disk replacement is completed.
# zpool status system1 pool: system1 state: ONLINE scrub: resilver completed after 0h0m with 0 errors on Tue Feb 2 13:35:41 2010 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM system1 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t2d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t2d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-2 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c4t3d0 ONLINE 0 0 0Example 51 Replacing a Failed Log Device
ZFS identifies intent log failures in the zpool status command output. Fault Management Architecture (FMA) reports these errors as well. Both ZFS and FMA describe how to recover from an intent log failure.
The following example shows how to recover from a failed log device (c0t5d0) in the storage pool (storpool). The basic steps follow:
Review the zpool status –x output and FMA diagnostic message, described in ZFS intent log read failure (Doc ID 1021625.1) in https://support.oracle.com/.
Physically replace the failed log device.
Bring the new log device online.
Clear the pool's error condition.
Clear the FMA error.
For example, if the system shuts down abruptly before synchronous write operations are committed to a pool with a separate log device, you see messages similar to the following:
# zpool status -x pool: storpool state: FAULTED status: One or more of the intent logs could not be read. Waiting for administrator intervention to fix the faulted pool. action: Either restore the affected device(s) and run 'zpool online', or ignore the intent log records by running 'zpool clear'. scrub: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM storpool FAULTED 0 0 0 bad intent log mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c0t4d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 logs FAULTED 0 0 0 bad intent log c0t5d0 UNAVAIL 0 0 0 cannot open <Physically replace the failed log device> # zpool online storpool c0t5d0 # zpool clear storpool # fmadm faulty # fmadm repair zfs://pool=name/vdev=guid
You can resolve the log device failure in the following ways:
Replace or recover the log device. In this example, the log device is c0t5d0.
Bring the log device back online.
# zpool online storpool c0t5d0
Reset the failed log device error condition.
# zpool clear storpool
To recover from this error without replacing the failed log device, you can clear the error with the zpool clear command. In this scenario, the pool will operate in a degraded mode and the log records will be written to the main pool until the separate log device is replaced.
Consider using mirrored log devices to avoid the log device failure scenario.
The process of replacing a device can take an extended period of time, depending on the size of the device and the amount of data in the pool. The process of moving data from one device to another device is known as resilvering and can be monitored by using the zpool status command.
The following zpool status resilver status messages are provided:
Resilver in-progress report. For example:
scan: resilver in progress since Mon Jun 7 09:17:27 2010 13.3G scanned 13.3G resilvered at 18.5M/s, 82.34% done, 0h2m to go
Resilver completion message. For example:
resilvered 16.2G in 0h16m with 0 errors on Mon Jun 7 09:34:21 2010
Resilver completion messages persist across system reboots.
Traditional file systems resilver data at the block level. Because ZFS eliminates the artificial layering of the volume manager, it can perform resilvering in a much more powerful and controlled manner. The two main advantages of this feature are as follows:
ZFS only resilvers the minimum amount of necessary data. In the case of a short outage (as opposed to a complete device replacement), the entire disk can be resilvered in a matter of minutes or seconds. When an entire disk is replaced, the resilvering process takes time proportional to the amount of data used on disk. Replacing a 500-GB disk can take seconds if a pool has only a few gigabytes of used disk space.
If the system loses power or is rebooted, the resilvering process resumes exactly where it left off, without any need for manual intervention.
To view the resilvering process, use the zpool status command. For example:
# zpool status system1 pool: system1 state: ONLINE status: One or more devices is currently being resilvered. The pool will continue to function, possibly in a degraded state. action: Wait for the resilver to complete. scan: resilver in progress since Mon Jun 7 10:49:20 2010 54.6M scanned54.5M resilvered at 5.46M/s, 24.64% done, 0h0m to go config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM system1 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 replacing-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c2t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 (resilvering) c1t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0
In this example, the disk c1t0d0 is being replaced by c2t0d0. This event is observed in the status output by the presence of the replacing virtual device in the configuration. This device is not real, nor is it possible for you to create a pool by using it. The purpose of this device is solely to display the resilvering progress and to identify which device is being replaced.
Note that any pool currently undergoing resilvering is placed in the ONLINE or DEGRADED state because the pool cannot provide the desired level of redundancy until the resilvering process is completed. Resilvering proceeds as fast as possible, though the I/O is always scheduled with a lower priority than user-requested I/O, to minimize impact on the system. After the resilvering is completed, the configuration reverts to the new, complete, configuration. For example:
# zpool status system1 pool: system1 state: ONLINE scrub: resilver completed after 0h1m with 0 errors on Tue Feb 2 13:54:30 2010 config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM system1 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c2t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 377M resilvered c1t1d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors
The pool is once again ONLINE, and the original failed disk (c1t0d0) has been removed from the configuration.
Do not try to change pool devices under an active pool.
Disks are identified both by their path and by their device ID, if available. On systems where device ID information is available, this identification method allows devices to be reconfigured without updating ZFS. Because device ID generation and management can vary by system, export the pool first before moving devices, such as moving a disk from one controller to another controller. A system event, such as a firmware update or other hardware change, might change the device IDs in your ZFS storage pool, which can cause the devices to become unavailable.
An additional problem is that if you attempt to change the devices underneath a pool and then you use the zpool status command as a non-root user, the previous device names could be displayed.