You can secure files through UNIX file permissions and through ACLs. Files with sticky bits, and files that are executable, require special security measures.
This table describes the commands for monitoring and securing files and directories.
Traditional UNIX file permissions can assign ownership to three classes of users:
user – The file or directory owner, which is usually the user who created the file. The owner of a file can decide who has the right to read the file, to write to the file (make changes to it), or, if the file is a command, to execute the file.
group – Members of a group of users.
others – All other users who are not the file owner and are not members of the group.
The owner of the file can usually assign or modify file permissions. Additionally, the root account can change a file's ownership. To override system policy, see Example 2, Enabling Users to Change the Ownership of Their Own Files.
A file can be one of seven types. Each type is displayed by a symbol:
Block special file
Character special file
Named pipe (FIFO)
The following table lists and describes the permissions that you can give to each class of user for a file or directory.
These file permissions apply to regular files, and to special files such as devices, sockets, and named pipes (FIFOs).
For a symbolic link, the permissions that apply are the permissions of the file that the link points to.
You can protect the files in a directory and its subdirectories by setting restrictive file permissions on that directory. Note, however, that the root role has access to all files and directories on the system.
Three special types of permissions are available for executable files and public directories: setuid, setgid, and sticky bit. When these permissions are set, any user who runs that executable file assumes the ID of the owner (or group) of the executable file.
You must be extremely careful when you set special permissions, because special permissions constitute a security risk. For example, a user can gain root capabilities by executing a program that sets the user ID (UID) to 0, which is the UID of root. Also, all users can set special permissions for files that they own, which constitutes another security concern.
You should monitor your system for any unauthorized use of the setuid permission and the setgid permission to gain root capabilities. A suspicious permission grants ownership of an administrative program to a user rather than to root or bin. To search for and list all files that use this special permission, see How to Find Files With Special File Permissions.
When setuid permission is set on an executable file, a process that runs this file is granted access on the basis of the owner of the file. The access is not based on the user who is running the executable file. This special permission allows a user to access files and directories that are normally available only to the owner.
For example, the setuid permission on the passwd command makes it possible for users to change passwords. A passwd command with setuid permission would resemble the following:
-r-sr-sr-x 1 root sys 56808 Jun 17 12:02 /usr/bin/passwd
This special permission presents a security risk. Some determined users can find a way to maintain the permissions that are granted to them by the setuid process even after the process has finished executing.
The setgid permission is similar to the setuid permission. The process's effective group ID (GID) is changed to the group that owns the file, and a user is granted access based on the permissions that are granted to that group. The /usr/bin/mail command has setgid permissions:
-r-x--s--x 1 root mail 71212 Jun 17 12:01 /usr/bin/mail
When the setgid permission is applied to a directory, files that are created in this directory belong to the group that owns the directory. The files do not belong to the group to which the creating process belongs. Any user who has write and execute permissions in the directory can create a file there. However, the file belongs to the group that owns the directory, not to the group that the user belongs to.
You should monitor your system for any unauthorized use of the setgid permission to gain root capabilities. A suspicious permission grants group access to such a program to an unusual group rather than to root or bin. To search for and list all files that use this permission, see How to Find Files With Special File Permissions.
The sticky bit is a permission bit that protects the files within a directory. If the directory has the sticky bit set, a file can be deleted only by the file owner, the directory owner, or by a privileged user. The root user is an example of a privileged user. The sticky bit prevents a user from deleting other users' files from public directories such as /tmp:
drwxrwxrwt 7 root sys 400 Sep 3 13:37 tmp
Be sure to set the sticky bit manually when you create a swap file or set up a public directory on a TMPFS file system. For instructions, see Example 5, Setting Special File Permissions in Absolute Mode.
When you create a file or directory, you create it with a default set of permissions. The system defaults are open. A text file has 666 permissions, which grants read and write permission to everyone. A directory and an executable file have 777 permissions, which grants read, write, and execute permission to everyone. Typically, users override the system defaults in their shell initialization files, such as .bashrc and .kshrc.user. An administrator can also set defaults in the /etc/profile file.
The value that the umask command assigns is subtracted from the default. This process has the effect of denying permissions in the same way that the chmod command grants them. For example, the chmod 022 command grants write permission to group and others. The umask 022 command denies write permission to group and others.
The following table shows some typical umask values and their effect on an executable file.
For more information about setting the umask value, see the umask(1) man page.
The chmod command enables you to change the permissions on a file. You must be root or the owner of a file or directory to change its permissions.
You can use the chmod command to set permissions in either of two modes:
Absolute Mode – Use numbers to represent file permissions. When you change permissions by using the absolute mode, you represent permissions for each triplet by an octal mode number. Absolute mode is the method most commonly used to set permissions.
Symbolic Mode – Use combinations of letters and symbols to add permissions or remove permissions.
The following table lists the octal values for setting file permissions in absolute mode. You use these numbers in sets of three to set permissions for owner, group, and other, in that order. For example, the value 644 sets read and write permissions for owner, and read-only permissions for group and other.
The following table lists the symbols for setting file permissions in symbolic mode. Symbols can specify whose permissions are to be set or changed, the operation to be performed, and the permissions that are being assigned or changed.
The who operator permissions designations in the function column specify the symbols that change the permissions on the file or directory.
Specifies whose permissions are to be changed.
Specifies the operation to be performed.
Specifies what permissions are to be changed.
You can set special permissions on a file in absolute mode or symbolic mode. However, you must use symbolic mode to set or remove setuid permissions on a directory. In absolute mode, you set special permissions by adding a new octal value to the left of the permission triplet. See Example 5, Setting Special File Permissions in Absolute Mode. The following table lists the octal values for setting special permissions on a file.