This chapter describes how to create and manage databases on Oracle Database Appliance. It also covers how to use Oracle Database Appliance solid-state drives (SSDs) and how to update and upgrade Oracle Database on Oracle Database Appliance.
Manage and maintain Oracle Database Appliance components using the Oracle Appliance Manager Command-Line Utility (OAKCLI).
Oracle Database Appliance provides its own command-line tool, OAKCLI, to manage all components on the system. Use OAKCLI commands for the following tasks:
Create, upgrade, and patch databases
Create and upgrade Oracle homes
Create and modify database creation parameter files
Many tasks related to managing Oracle Databases are also required with databases on Oracle Database Appliance. Tasks common to Oracle Database generally are described in the Oracle Database documentation library. However, to simplify database creation and related tasks, use the OAKCLI utility. The OAKCLI utility combines the capabilities of the SYS database administrator role and the operating system Superuser (
root user). Always perform administrative tasks using the OAKCLI utility.
Review the Oracle Database features that are available with Oracle Database Appliance.
Oracle Database Appliance supports the use of standard Oracle Database loading and migration tools.
If you are loading data or migrating data from an existing database to Oracle Database Appliance, then you can use the standard Oracle Database loading and migration tools. These tools include the following:
Oracle Data Pump
You can also use the RMAN utility to back up and recover databases on Oracle Database Appliance.
Oracle Clusterware provides the clustering infrastructure for Oracle Database Appliance.
Oracle Clusterware provides the cluster technology required for Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). In addition, Oracle Clusterware manages applications and processes as resources that you register with Oracle Clusterware, to provide high availability services. The number of resources that you register with Oracle Clusterware to manage an application depends on the application. Applications that consist of only one process are usually represented by only one resource. More complex applications that use multiple processes or components can require multiple resources to maintain high availability.
Refer to Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about making applications highly available with Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle RAC One Node is available with Oracle Database Appliance
Oracle Real Application Clusters One Node (Oracle RAC One Node) is a single instance of an Oracle RAC database that runs on one node in a cluster. Instead of stopping and starting instances, you can use the Oracle RAC One Node online database relocation feature to relocate an Oracle RAC One Node instance to another server.
Administration of Oracle RAC One Node databases on Oracle Database Appliance is different from administering Oracle RAC or single-instance Oracle Databases. For Oracle RAC One Node databases, one node is the primary node, and the other node is a candidate node, which is available to accommodate services if the primary node fails, or is shut down for maintenance. The nodes, Oracle Databases, and database services reside in the generic server pool.
Oracle Database Appliance supports administrator-managed Oracle RAC Databases.
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) provides technology that links two or more individual computers so that they function as one system. Oracle RAC deployed on Oracle Database Appliance enables each node to share access to a database. If one node fails or is taken offline, then the other node continues operating and the entire Oracle RAC database remains available.
Oracle Database Appliance currently supports only administrator-managed databases, where the database administrator allocates each instance of the database to a specific node in the cluster. Oracle Database Appliance does not support Policy-managed databases, where the database administrator defines the number of database instances required, but not the nodes where they run.
When you review the database resource for an administrator-managed database, you see a server pool defined with the same name as the Oracle Database. This server pool is part of a special Oracle-defined server pool, called the Generic server pool. The Generic server pool stores any server that is not in a top-level server pool and is not policy managed. Servers that host administrator-managed databases are statically assigned to the Generic server pool. When you add or remove an administrator-managed database by using either the Server Control (SRVCTL) utility, or by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), Oracle RAC creates or removes the server pools that are members of Generic. Oracle RAC manages the Generic server pool to support administrator-managed databases. You cannot use SRVCTL or Oracle Clusterware Control (CRSCTL) utility commands to modify the Generic server pool.
Oracle Database Appliance Web Console deployment creates operating system groups and users whose members are granted system administration privileges on the appliance.
During configuration, two administrative accounts are created for Oracle Database Appliance: the user
grid, with a user ID (UID) of 1001, and the user
oracle, with a UID of 1000. The user
grid is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner. The user
oracle is the Oracle Database installation owner, and the owner of all Oracle Database homes (Oracle homes). By default, these users are members of operating system groups whose members are granted privileges to start up and administer Oracle Database and Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
The following table describes the Oracle system privileges groups, and information about the operating system authentication groups:
Table 6-1 Operating System Groups and Users on Oracle Database Appliance
|Oracle System Privileges||Group Name||Group ID (GID)||grid is a member||oracle is a member|
Oracle Inventory group (OINSTALL)
yes (primary group)
yes (primary group
OSOPER for dbaoper group
OSASM Group for Oracle ASM
OSOPER for ASM group
OSDBA for ASM group
To change the Group Name and GID from the default values, use the
-advance parameter during deployment. If you create an initial database during deployment, then the password for the
SYSTEM users is the Master Password that you set in the Web Console. Change this password for both users as soon as possible after configuration to prevent unauthorized access to your database using these privileged accounts.
Use the Oracle Appliance Manager Command Line Interface (OAKCLI) to create and manage databases on Oracle Database Appliance.
Create additional Oracle Databases using the Oracle Appliance Manager Command-Line Utility (OAKCLI) to ensure that your database is configured optimally for Oracle Database Appliance.
OAKCLI assists you to deploy Oracle Databases that follow Optimal Flexible Architecture guidelines. The Optimal Flexible Architecture standard provides best practices configurations to help to ensure database deployments that are easier to support and maintain. Optimal Flexible Architecture includes the following
Structured organization of directories and files, and consistent naming for critical database files, such as control files, redo log files, and other critical files, which simplifies database administration.
Separation of tablespace contents to minimize tablespace free space fragmentation, and maximize administrative flexibility
Stripe and Mirror Everything (SAME) deployment, which safeguards against database failures
Refer to "Optimal Flexible Architecture" in Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux for more information about Optimal Flexible Architecture.
Start the OAKCLI utility by using the command
oakcli create database to create additional databases on Oracle Database Appliance.
When you run this command, respond to each prompt by entering the number that corresponds with the option you want to apply to your database. When a default is supplied, and the default is the value you want to use (typically shown as option 1), click Enter to accept that value. When there are many options, and the value you want is not displayed, press 0 to show all of the options.
You can use OAKCLI to create and use configuration files to deploy databases on Oracle Database Appliance. Also use OAKCLI to remove unwanted configuration files.
Use the Oracle Appliance Manager Command-Line Utility (OAKCLI) ommand option
oakcli create db_config_params to create a configuration file that you can use to configure multiple Oracle Database deployments. The command uses the following syntax, where
params_file is the name of the configuration file that you want to create:
oakcli create db_config_params params_file
When you run
oakcli create db_config_params, you are prompted to select one of a set of available parameter setting options to use in the configuration file. Respond to each prompt by entering the number that corresponds to the configuration that you want to use to set up your databases. If there is a default value, and you want to use this value (typically option 1), then press Enter to accept that value. If there are many options, then you may need to select option 0 to show all of the available parameter options.
To see your existing database configuration files, use the command
oakcli show db_config_params command. For example
# oakcli show db_config_params Available DB configuration files are: default eurodbs 4kblockdbs mytest.params
Configuration files using the default extension
.dbconf do not show the extension in this command output. Oracle recommends that you use this default file extension to simplify file management. If you create a configuration file that does not use the
.dbconf default extension, then the nondefault extension is shown as part of the output of
oakcli show db_config_params.
To use a database configuration file to create a single Oracle Database, or to use the command to create many Oracle Database instances with the identical profile, use the following command syntax, where
db_name is the name of the database that you want to create, and
params_file is the name of the parameter configuration file that you want to use to configure the database:
oakcli create database -db db_name -params params_file
For example, this command creates the database named
myxldb, using the parameter configuration file
oakcli create database -db myxldb -params myxldb.dbconf
After you have completed using configuration files, you can delete files that you do not plan to use again.
Remove unwanted database configuration files using the following command syntax, where
params_file is the name of the parameter configuration file that you want to delete:
oakcli delete db_config_params params_file
As with other Oracle Database Appliance Manager commands related to database configuration files, you do not need to include the parameter configuration filename extension if your file has the default extension value, which is
You can use OAKCLI to create snapshot databases.
An Oracle snapshot database is created by taking a snapshot of the Oracle ASM Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) where the source data files reside. The source database can be a single instance, Oracle RAC, or Oracle RAC One Node. Compared to other methods of creating copies of databases, snapshot databases require less time and storage space and involve no downtime of the source database. Additionally, you can create any database type and class from any other type and class. For example, you can create an Oracle RAC database from an Oracle RAC One Node database. Similarly, you can create a database that is different in size than the source database.
On Oracle Database Appliance, you can create snapshot databases from any Oracle Database instance stored on Oracle ACFS. You can create snapshot databases with Oracle Database 11g release 2 (22.214.171.124) or later databases created or upgraded on the system.
Snapshot database candidates must meet the following requirements:
They must not be a standby or container database
They must not be running in read-only mode, or in restricted mode, or in online backup mode
They must be in ARCHIVELOG mode
They must have all defined data files available and online
They must not use centralized wallets with Transparent Data Encryption.
They must be deployed in ACFS storage
Also, ensure that the system clocks on the two Oracle Database Appliance nodes are synchronized before you create a snapshot database. If the clocks are significantly different, then the command can fail.
To create a snapshot database, use the command
oakcli create snapshotdb. The following example creates a snapshot database named
snapprod from the database named
oakcli create snapshotdb -db snapprod -from prod
Oracle Database Appliance does not support centralized wallets with Transparent Data Encryption. Recovery of encrypted data may fail in the snapshot database if the source database relies on an external, centralized wallet.
Oracle provides utilities to enable you to convert your existing single-instance databases to Oracle Real Application Clusters or Oracle RAC One Node databases.
Use the procedures for converting your single-instance database as described in Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide. You can convert a single-instance database either to Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), or to Oracle RAC One Node.
For example, you can use RCONFIG to convert your single instance Oracle Database.
Open the template file
ConvertToRAC_AdminManaged.xml, and modify it as required for your migration, in accordance with the instructions in the file. Then save the file with a new filename. The information you provide determines how your converted database is configured. The template file is located in the following path:
Refer to the section "Converting to Oracle RAC and Oracle RAC One Node from Single-Instance Oracle Databases" in Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation and Configuration Guide for more information.
Review this topic to understand Oracle requirements for multiple Oracle home support.
The Oracle home is the directory in which you install Oracle Database binaries, and from which Oracle Database runs. Use Oracle Appliance Manager OAKCLI commands to create and manage multiple Oracle homes and databases on Oracle Database Appliance. Oracle Database Appliance Manager automatically creates an Oracle Database Oracle home that is compliant with Oracle’s Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standards.
Oracle Database Appliance supports multiple Oracle homes, including support of different release Oracle Database homes. Check the related
readme files or the Release Notes to obtain information about the specific Oracle software releases supported for your Oracle Database Appliance platform.
For information about supported releases, refer to My Oracle Support note 888888.1:
When you use OAKCLI commands to create multiple homes on Oracle Database Appliance, the commands start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure cloning process. In Oracle Database Appliance deployments, the user
oracle is the software installation owner account that owns the Oracle homes.
If you are not upgrading from an earlier release, then download the Oracle Database Appliance End-User Bundle for the Oracle Database version that you want to install. See My Oracle Support note 888888.1 for more details:
Use OAKCLI commands to create, manage, patch, and upgrade multiple databases on Oracle Database Appliance. The command
oakcli create database enables you to create a database with minimal user input. When you run this command without any additional options, the command creates a new database home. You can also create a database in an existing home by running the command
oakcli create database -oh oracle_home, where
oracle_home is the Oracle home in which you want to create the Oracle Database.
Do not apply Oracle Database patches directly to Oracle Databases on Oracle Database Appliance. Only use Oracle Database Appliance patch bundles, which are tested to work across the whole software stack.
oakcli commands to create new databases in either existing Oracle homes, or in new Oracle homes.
Use instance caging to manage your system resources on Oracle Database Appliance.
Oracle Database provides a method for managing CPU allocations on a multi-CPU server that runs multiple database instances. This method is called instance caging.
Instance caging and Oracle Database Resource Manager (the Resource Manager) work together to support your desired service levels across multiple instances. Consolidation can minimize idle resources, maximize efficiency, and lower costs.
Oracle Database Appliance templates are already tuned for the size of each database instance workload. They are designed to run on a specific number of cores. Instance caging ensures that each database workload is restricted to the set of cores allocated by the template, enabling multiple databases to run concurrently with no performance degradation, up to the capacity of Oracle Database Appliance. You can select database template sizes larger than your current needs to provide for planned growth.
Oracle strongly recommends that you use the Oracle Database Appliance templates, because they implement best practices and are configured specifically for Oracle Database Appliance.
The Oracle Database Appliance Manager interface refers to the database sizing templates as database classes.
By default, instance caging is not enabled on Oracle Database Appliance. To enable instance caging, set the initialization parameter,
RESOURCE_MANAGER_PLAN, for each database on Oracle Database Appliance. The parameter specifies the plan to be used by the Resource Manager for the current instance. Setting this parameter directs the Resource Manager to allocate core resources among databases. If a plan is not specified with this parameter, then the Resource Manager and instance caging are not enabled.
Instance caging allocation of core resources is enabled in accordance with the Oracle Database Appliance database template size that you select for each database. The
CPU_COUNT initialization parameter is set in the template. Use the
CPU_COUNT setting that matches the size of each database to consolidate, and follow the standard instructions for configuring instance caging.