10 XMLType Views

You can create XMLType views over relational and object-relational data.

10.1 What Are XMLType Views?

XMLType views wrap existing relational and object-relational data in XML formats. This lets you use existing data in contexts that expect XML data and exploit XML features, including XML Schema.

The major advantages of using XMLType views are:

  • You can exploit Oracle XML DB XML features that use XML Schema functionality without having to migrate your base legacy data.

  • With XMLType views, you can experiment with various forms of storage for your data. You need not decide immediately whether to store it as XMLType or which XMLType storage model to use.

XMLType views are similar to object views. Each row of an XMLType view corresponds to an XMLType instance. The object identifier for uniquely identifying each row in the view can be created using SQL/XML functions XMLCast and XMLQuery.

Throughout this chapter XML schema refers to the W3C XML Schema 1.0 recommendation, http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

There are two types of XMLType views:

  • Non-schema-based XMLType views. These views do not confirm to a particular XML schema.

  • XML schema-based XMLType views. As with XMLType tables, XMLType views that conform to a particular XML schema are called XML schema-based XMLType views. These provide stronger typing than non-schema-based XMLType views.

XPath rewrite of queries over XMLType views is enabled for both XML schema-based and non-schema-based XMLType views. XPath rewrite is described in XPath Rewrite for Object-Relational Storage.

To create an XML schema-based XMLType view, first register your XML schema. If the view is an object view, that is, if it is constructed using an object type, then the XML schema should have annotations that represent the bidirectional mapping from XML to SQL object types. XMLType views conforming to this registered XML schema can then be created by providing an underlying query that constructs instances of the appropriate SQL object type.

You can create XMLType views in any of the following ways:

  • Based on SQL/XML publishing functions, such as XMLElement, XMLForest, XMLConcat, and XMLAgg. SQL/XML publishing functions can be used to construct both non-schema-based XMLType views and XML schema-based XMLType views. This enables construction of XMLType view from the underlying relational tables directly without physically migrating those relational legacy data into XML. However, to construct XML schema-based XMLType view, the XML schema must be registered and the XML value generated by SQL/XML publishing functions must be constrained to the XML schema.

  • Based on object types or object views. This enables the construction of the XMLType view from underlying relational or object relational tables directly without physically migrating the relational or object relational legacy data into XML. Creating an XML-schema-based XMLType view requires that you annotate the XML schema with a mapping to existing object types or that you generate the XML schema from the existing object types.

  • Directly from an XMLType table.

10.2 CREATE VIEW for XMLType Views: Syntax

The syntax for the CREATE VIEW clause for creating XMLType views is presented.

Figure 10-1 shows this syntax. See Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details on the CREATE VIEW syntax.

Figure 10-1 Creating XMLType Views Clause: Syntax

Description of Figure 10-1 follows
Description of "Figure 10-1 Creating XMLType Views Clause: Syntax"

10.3 Creating Non-Schema-Based XMLType Views

The XML data in a non XML Schema-based XMLType view is not constrained to conform to a registered XML schema. You can create a non-schema-based XMLType view using SQL/XML publishing functions.

Example 10-1 shows how to create an XMLType view using SQL/XML function XMLELement.

Existing data in relational tables or views can be exposed as XML data this way. If a view is generated using a SQL/XML publishing function then queries that access that view using XQuery expressions can often be rewritten. These optimized queries can then directly access the underlying relational columns. See XPath Rewrite for Object-Relational Storage for details.

You can perform a DML operation on an XMLType view, but, in general, you must write instead-of triggers to handle the DML operation.

See Also:

Generation of XML Data from Relational Data, for details on SQL/XML publishing functions

Example 10-1 Creating an XMLType View Using XMLELEMENT

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW emp_view OF XMLType
  WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Emp/@empno'
                                   PASSING OBJECT_VALUE RETURNING CONTENT)
                          AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS
  SELECT XMLElement("Emp",
                    XMLAttributes(employee_id AS "empno"),
                    XMLForest(e.first_name ||' '|| e.last_name AS "name",
                              e.hire_date AS "hiredate"))
    AS "result" FROM employees e WHERE salary > 15000;

SELECT * FROM emp_view;
 
SYS_NC_ROWINFO$
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<Emp empno="100"><name>Steven King</name><hiredate>2003-06-17</hiredate></Emp> 
<Emp empno="101"><name>Neena Kochhar</name><hiredate>2005-09-21</hiredate></Emp> 
<Emp empno="102"><name>Lex De Haan</name><hiredate>2001-01-13</hiredate></Emp> 

10.4 Creating XML Schema-Based XMLType Views

The XML data in an XML Schema-based XMLType view is constrained to conform to an XML schema. You can create a schema-based XMLType view using SQL/XML publishing functions or using object types or views.

Create a schema-based view in either of these ways:

10.4.1 Creating XML Schema-Based XMLType Views Using SQL/XML Publishing Functions

You can use SQL/XML publishing functions to create an XML Schema-based XMLType view.

  1. Create and register the XML schema document that contains the necessary XML structures. You do not need to annotate the XML schema to define the mapping between XML types and SQL object types.

  2. Use SQL/XML publishing functions to create an XMLType view that conforms to the XML schema.

These two steps are illustrated in Example 10-2 and Example 10-3, respectively.

Example 10-4 illustrates querying an XMLType view.

Example 10-2 assumes that you have an XML schema emp_simple.xsd that contains XML structures defining an employee. It registers the XML schema with the target location http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd.

When using SQL/XML publishing functions to generate XML schema-based content, you must specify the appropriate namespace information for all of the elements and also indicate the location of the schema using attribute xsi:schemaLocation. These can be specified using the XMLAttributes clause. Example 10-3 illustrates this.

Note:

Whenever you use SQL/XML function XMLAttributes with an XML schema reference to create an XMLType view, register the XML schema before creating the view, if possible. Otherwise, you must recompile the view after registering the XML schema, in order for the generated documents to be based on the XML schema.

In Example 10-3, function XMLElement creates XML element Employee. Function XMLForest creates the children of element Employee. The XMLAttributes clause inside XMLElement constructs the required XML namespace and schema location attributes, so that the XML data that is generated conforms to the XML schema of the view. The innermost call to XMLForest creates the children of element department, which is a child of element Employee.

By default, the XML generation functions create a non-schema-based XML instance. However, when the schema location is specified, using attribute xsi:schemaLocation or xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation, Oracle XML DB generates XML schema-based XML data. For XMLType views, as long as the names of the elements and attributes match those in the XML schema, the XML data is converted implicitly into a valid XML schema-based document. Any errors in the generated XML data are caught later, when operations such as validation or extraction operations are performed on the XML instance.

Example 10-4 queries the XMLType view, returning an XML result from tables employees and departments. The result of the query is shown pretty-printed, for clarity.

Example 10-2 Registering XML Schema emp_simple.xsd

BEGIN
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.registerSchema(
   SCHEMAURL => 'http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd',
   SCHEMADOC => '<schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
                         targetNamespace="http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd"
                         version="1.0"
                         xmlns:xdb="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb" 
                         elementFormDefault="qualified"> 
                   <element name = "Employee"> 
                     <complexType> 
                       <sequence> 
                         <element name = "EmployeeId"
                                  type = "positiveInteger" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                         <element name = "Name"
                                  type = "string" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                         <element name = "Job"
                                  type = "string" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                         <element name = "Manager"
                                  type = "positiveInteger" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                         <element name = "HireDate"
                                  type = "date" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                         <element name = "Salary"
                                  type = "positiveInteger" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                         <element name = "Commission"
                                  type = "positiveInteger" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                         <element name = "Dept"> 
                           <complexType> 
                             <sequence> 
                               <element name = "DeptNo"
                                        type = "positiveInteger" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                               <element name = "DeptName"
                                        type = "string" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                               <element name = "Location"
                                        type = "positiveInteger" minOccurs = "0"/> 
                             </sequence> 
                           </complexType> 
                         </element> 
                       </sequence> 
                     </complexType> 
                   </element> 
                 </schema>',
   LOCAL     => TRUE,
   GENTYPES  => TRUE);
END;

Example 10-3 Creating an XMLType View Using SQL/XML Publishing Functions

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW emp_simple_xml OF XMLType
  XMLSCHEMA "http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd" ELEMENT "Employee"
   WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Employee/EmployeeId/text()'
                                    PASSING OBJECT_VALUE
                                    RETURNING CONTENT)
                           AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS
   SELECT
     XMLElement("Employee",
                XMLAttributes(
                  'http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd' AS "xmlns" ,
                  'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance' AS "xmlns:xsi",
                  'http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd
                   http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd'
                  AS "xsi:schemaLocation"),
                XMLForest(e.employee_id    AS "EmployeeId",
                          e.last_name      AS "Name",
                          e.job_id         AS "Job",
                          e.manager_id     AS "Manager",
                          e.hire_date      AS "HireDate",
                          e.salary         AS "Salary",
                          e.commission_pct AS "Commission",
                          XMLForest(
                            d.department_id   AS "DeptNo",
                            d.department_name AS "DeptName",
                            d.location_id     AS "Location") AS "Dept"))
     FROM employees e, departments d
     WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id;

Example 10-4 Querying an XMLType View

SELECT OBJECT_VALUE AS RESULT FROM emp_simple_xml WHERE ROWNUM < 2;

RESULT
---------------------------------------------------------------------
<Employee xmlns="http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd 
                              http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd">
  <EmployeeId>200</EmployeeId>
  <Name>Whalen</Name>
  <Job>AD_ASST</Job>
  <Manager>101</Manager>
  <HireDate>2003-09-17</HireDate>
  <Salary>4400</Salary>
  <Dept>
    <DeptNo>10</Deptno>
    <DeptName>Administration</DeptName>
    <Location>1700</Location>
  </Dept>
</Employee>

10.4.1.1 Using Namespaces with SQL/XML Publishing Functions

If you have complex XML schemas involving namespaces, you must use the partially escaped mapping provided by the SQL/XML publishing functions and create elements with appropriate namespaces and prefixes.

The query in Example 10-5 creates XML instances that have the correct namespace, prefixes, and target schema location. It can be used as the query in the definition of view emp_simple_xml.

If the XML schema had no target namespace, then you could use attribute xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation to indicate that. Example 10-6 shows such an XML schema.

Example 10-7 creates a view that conforms to the XML schema in Example 10-6. The XMLAttributes clause creates an XML element that contains the noNamespace schema location attribute.

Example 10-8 creates view dept_xml, which conforms to XML schema dept.xsd.

Example 10-5 Using Namespace Prefixes with SQL/XML Publishing Functions

SELECT XMLElement("ipo:Employee", 
          XMLAttributes('http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd' AS "xmlns:ipo", 
                        'http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd 
                         http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd' AS "xmlns:xsi"),
            XMLForest(e.employee_id                     AS "ipo:EmployeeId", 
                      e.last_name                       AS "ipo:Name",  
                      e.job_id                          AS "ipo:Job",
                      e.manager_id                      AS "ipo:Manager",
                      TO_CHAR(e.hire_date,'YYYY-MM-DD') AS "ipo:HireDate", 
                      e.salary                          AS "ipo:Salary",
                      e.commission_pct                  AS "ipo:Commission",
                 XMLForest(d.department_id   AS "ipo:DeptNo",
                           d.department_name AS "ipo:DeptName", d.location_id
       AS "ipo:Location") AS "ipo:Dept"))
       FROM employees e, departments d 
       WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id AND d.department_id = 20;
BEGIN
  -- Delete schema if it already exists (else error)
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.deleteSchema('emp-noname.xsd', 4); 
END;
XMLELEMENT("IPO:EMPLOYEE",XMLATTRIBUTES('HTTP://WWW.ORACLE.COM/EMP_SIMPLE.XSD'AS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<ipo:Employee
xmlns:ipo="http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd"
 xmlns:xsi="http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd
 http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd">
<ipo:EmployeeId>201</ipo:EmployeeId><ipo:Name>Hartstein</ipo:Name>
<ipo:Job>MK_MAN</ipo:Job><ipo:Manager>100</ipo:Manager>
<ipo:HireDate>2004-02-17</ipo:HireDate><ipo:Salary>13000</ipo:Salary>
<ipo:Dept><ipo:DeptNo>20</ipo:DeptNo><ipo:DeptName>Marketing</ipo:DeptName>
<ipo:Location>1800</ipo:Location></ipo:Dept></ipo:Employee>
<ipo:Employee xmlns:ipo="http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd"
 xmlns:xsi="http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd 
 http://www.oracle.com/emp_simple.xsd"><ipo:EmployeeId>202</ipo:EmployeeId>
<ipo:Name>Fay</ipo:Name><ipo:Job>MK_REP</ipo:Job><ipo:Manager>201</ipo:Manager>
<ipo:HireDate>2005-08-17</ipo:HireDate><ipo:Salary>6000</ipo:Salary>
<ipo:Dept><ipo:DeptNo>20</ipo:Dept
No><ipo:DeptName>Marketing</ipo:DeptName><ipo:Location>1800</ipo:Location>
</ipo:Dept>
</ipo:Employee>

Example 10-6 XML Schema with No Target Namespace

BEGIN
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.registerSchema(
    SCHEMAURL => 'emp-noname.xsd',
    SCHEMADOC => '<schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
                          xmlns:xdb="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb"> 
                    <element name = "Employee"> 
                      <complexType> 
                        <sequence> 
                          <element name = "EmployeeId" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                          <element name = "Name" type = "string"/> 
                          <element name = "Job" type = "string"/> 
                          <element name = "Manager" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                          <element name = "HireDate" type = "date"/> 
                          <element name = "Salary" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                          <element name = "Commission" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                          <element name = "Dept"> 
                            <complexType> 
                              <sequence> 
                                <element name = "DeptNo" type = "positiveInteger" /> 
                                <element name = "DeptName" type = "string"/> 
                                <element name = "Location" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                              </sequence> 
                            </complexType> 
                          </element> 
                        </sequence> 
                      </complexType> 
                    </element> 
                  </schema>',
    LOCAL     => TRUE,
    GENTYPES  => TRUE);
END;

Example 10-7 Creating a View for an XML Schema with No Target Namespace

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW emp_xml OF XMLType
     XMLSCHEMA "emp-noname.xsd" ELEMENT "Employee"
     WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Employee/EmployeeId/text()'
                                      PASSING OBJECT_VALUE
                                      RETURNING CONTENT)
                             AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS
     SELECT XMLElement(
       "Employee",
       XMLAttributes('http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance' AS "xmlns:xsi",
                     'emp-noname.xsd' AS "xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation"),
       XMLForest(e.employee_id    AS "EmployeeId",
                 e.last_name      AS "Name",
                 e.job_id         AS "Job",
                 e.manager_id     AS "Manager",
                 e.hire_date      AS "HireDate",
                 e.salary         AS "Salary",
                 e.commission_pct AS "Commission",
                 XMLForest(d.department_id   AS "DeptNo",
                           d.department_name AS "DeptName",
                           d.location_id     AS "Location") AS "Dept"))
       FROM employees e, departments d
       WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id;

Example 10-8 Using SQL/XML Functions in XML Schema-Based XMLType Views

BEGIN
  -- Delete schema if it already exists (else error)
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.deleteSchema('http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd', 4);
END;
/

BEGIN
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.registerSchema(
    SCHEMAURL => 'http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd',
    SCHEMADOC => '<schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
                          targetNamespace="http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd"
                          version="1.0" 
                          xmlns:xdb="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb"
                          elementFormDefault="qualified"> 
                    <element name = "Department"> 
                      <complexType> 
                        <sequence> 
                          <element name = "DeptNo" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                          <element name = "DeptName" type = "string"/> 
                          <element name = "Location" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                          <element name = "Employee" maxOccurs = "unbounded"> 
                            <complexType> 
                              <sequence> 
                                <element name = "EmployeeId" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                                <element name = "Name" type = "string"/> 
                                <element name = "Job" type = "string"/> 
                                <element name = "Manager" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                                <element name = "HireDate" type = "date"/> 
                                <element name = "Salary" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                                <element name = "Commission" type = "positiveInteger"/> 
                             </sequence> 
                            </complexType> 
                          </element> 
                        </sequence> 
                      </complexType> 
                    </element> 
                  </schema>',
    LOCAL     => TRUE,
    GENTYPES  => FALSE);
  END;
/

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW dept_xml OF XMLType
  XMLSCHEMA "http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd" ELEMENT "Department"
  WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Department/DeptNo'
                                   PASSING OBJECT_VALUE RETURNING CONTENT)
                          AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS
  SELECT XMLElement(
    "Department",
    XMLAttributes(
      'http://www.oracle.com/emp.xsd' AS "xmlns" ,
      'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance' AS "xmlns:xsi",
      'http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd
       http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd' AS "xsi:schemaLocation"),
    XMLForest(d.department_id AS "DeptNo",
              d.department_name AS "DeptName",
              d.location_id AS "Location"),
    (SELECT XMLagg(
              XMLElement("Employee",
                         XMLForest(
                           e.employee_id AS "EmployeeId",
                           e.last_name AS "Name",
                           e.job_id AS "Job",
                           e.manager_id AS "Manager",
                           to_char(e.hire_date,'YYYY-MM-DD') AS "Hiredate",
                           e.salary AS "Salary",
                           e.commission_pct AS "Commission")))
       FROM employees e
       WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id))
     FROM departments d;

This is the XMLType instance that results:

SELECT OBJECT_VALUE AS result FROM dept_xml WHERE ROWNUM < 2;

RESULT
----------------------------------------------------------------
<Department
    xmlns="http://www.oracle.com/emp.xsd"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd 
                        http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd">
  <DeptNo>10</DeptNo>
  <DeptName>Administration</DeptName>
  <Location>1700</Location>
  <Employee>
    <EmployeeId>200</EmployeeId>
    <Name>Whalen</Name>
    <Job>AD_ASST</Job>
    <Manager>101</Manager>
    <Hiredate>2003-09-17</Hiredate>
    <Salary>4400</Salary>
  </Employee>
</Department> 

10.4.2 Creating XML Schema-Based XMLType Views Using Object Types or Object Views

You can create an XML Schema-based XMLType view from object types or views by annotating the XML schema to define a mapping between XML types and SQL object types and object attributes.

To create an XML Schema-based XMLType view from object types or object views, do the following:

  1. Create the object types, if they do not yet exist.

  2. Create and then register the XML schema, annotating it to define the mapping between XML types and SQL object types and attributes.

    Annotate the XML schema before registering it. You typically do this when you wrap existing data to create an XMLType view.

    When such an XML schema document is registered, the following validation can occur:

    • SQLType for attributes or elements based on simpleType. The SQL type must be compatible with the XML type of the corresponding XMLType data. For example, an XML string data type can be mapped only to a VARCHAR2 or a Large Object (LOB) data type.

    • SQLType specified for elements based on complexType. This is either a LOB or an object type whose structure must be compatible with the declaration of the complexType, that is, the object type must have the correct number of attributes with the correct data types.

  3. Create the XMLType view, specifying the XML schema URL and the root element name. The query defining the view first constructs the object instances and then converts them to XML.

    1. Create an object view.

    2. Create an XMLType view over the object view.

The following sections present examples of creating XML schema-based XMLType views using object types or object views. They are based on relational tables that contain employee and department data.

The same relational data is used to create each of two XMLType views. In the employee view, emp_xml, the XML document describes an employee, with the employee's department as nested information. In the department view, dept_xml, the XML data describes a department, with the department's employees as nested information.

10.4.2.1 Creating XMLType Employee View, with Nested Department Information

Examples here create XMLType view emp_xml based on object views.

For the last step of the view creation, there are two alternatives:

10.4.2.1.1 Step 1. Create Object Types for XMLType Employee View

Create an object type for an XML Schema-based view.

Example 10-9 creates the object types used in the other steps.

Example 10-9 Creating Object Types for Schema-Based XMLType Views

CREATE TYPE dept_t AS OBJECT 
      (deptno NUMBER(4), 
       dname  VARCHAR2(30), 
       loc    NUMBER(4)); 
/ 

CREATE TYPE emp_t AS OBJECT 
      (empno     NUMBER(6), 
       ename     VARCHAR2(25), 
       job       VARCHAR2(10), 
       mgr       NUMBER(6), 
       hiredate  DATE, 
       sal       NUMBER(8,2), 
       comm      NUMBER(2,2), 
       dept      dept_t); 
/
10.4.2.1.2 Step 2. Create and Register XML Schema emp_complex.xsd

Create and register an XML schema, emp_complex.xsd. The schema maps XML elements and attributes to corresponding object-relational object attributes.

Create XML schema emp_complex.xsd, which specifies how XML elements and attributes are mapped to corresponding object attributes in the object types (the xdb:SQLType annotations), then register it. Example 10-10 registers it.

Example 10-10 creates and registers the XML schema using the target location http://www.oracle.com/emp_complex.xsd.

Example 10-10 Creating and Registering XML Schema emp_complex.xsd

BEGIN
  -- Delete schema if it already exists (else error)
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.deleteSchema('http://www.oracle.com/emp_complex.xsd', 4);
END;
/

COMMIT;
 
BEGIN
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.registerSchema(
    SCHEMAURL => 'http://www.oracle.com/emp_complex.xsd', 
    SCHEMADOC => '<?xml version="1.0"?>
                  <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" 
                              xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
                              xmlns:xdb="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb" 
                              xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb 
                                                  http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb/XDBSchema.xsd">
                    <xsd:element name="Employee" type="EMP_TType" xdb:SQLType="EMP_T"/>
                    <xsd:complexType name="EMP_TType" xdb:SQLType="EMP_T" xdb:maintainDOM="false">
                      <xsd:sequence>
                        <xsd:element name="EMPNO" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="EMPNO" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="ENAME" xdb:SQLName="ENAME" xdb:SQLType="VARCHAR2">
                          <xsd:simpleType>
                            <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
                              <xsd:maxLength value="25"/>
                            </xsd:restriction>
                          </xsd:simpleType>
                        </xsd:element>
                        <xsd:element name="JOB" xdb:SQLName="JOB" xdb:SQLType="VARCHAR2">
                          <xsd:simpleType>
                            <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
                              <xsd:maxLength value="10"/>
                            </xsd:restriction>
                          </xsd:simpleType>
                        </xsd:element>
                        <xsd:element name="MGR" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="MGR" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="HIREDATE" type="xsd:date" xdb:SQLName="HIREDATE" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="DATE"/>
                        <xsd:element name="SAL" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="SAL" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="COMM" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="COMM" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="DEPT" type="DEPT_TType" xdb:SQLName="DEPT"
                                     xdb:SQLType="DEPT_T"/>
                      </xsd:sequence>
                    </xsd:complexType>
                    <xsd:complexType name="DEPT_TType" xdb:SQLType="DEPT_T" 
                                     xdb:maintainDOM="false">
                      <xsd:sequence>
                        <xsd:element name="DEPTNO" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="DEPTNO" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="DNAME" xdb:SQLName="DNAME" xdb:SQLType="VARCHAR2">
                          <xsd:simpleType>
                            <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
                              <xsd:maxLength value="30"/>
                            </xsd:restriction>
                          </xsd:simpleType>
                        </xsd:element>
                       <xsd:element name="LOC" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="LOC" 
                                    xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                      </xsd:sequence>
                    </xsd:complexType>
                  </xsd:schema>', 
    LOCAL     => TRUE, 
    GENTYPES  => FALSE);
END;
/
10.4.2.1.3 Step 3a. Create XMLType View emp_xml Using Object Type emp_t

Create an XMLType view using an object type.

Example 10-11 creates an XMLType view using object type emp_t.

Example 10-11 uses SQL/XML function XMLCast in the OBJECT ID clause to convert the XML employee number to SQL data type BINARY_DOUBLE.

See Also:

Step 3b. Create XMLType View emp_xml Using Object View emp_v for an alternative way to create view emp_xml, which uses object view emp_v

Example 10-11 Creating XMLType View emp_xml Using Object Type emp_t

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW emp_xml OF XMLType 
  XMLSCHEMA "http://www.oracle.com/emp_complex.xsd"
  ELEMENT "Employee" 
    WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Employee/EMPNO'
                                     PASSING OBJECT_VALUE RETURNING CONTENT)
                            AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS 
  SELECT emp_t(e.employee_id, e.last_name, e.job_id, e.manager_id, e.hire_date, 
               e.salary, e.commission_pct,
               dept_t(d.department_id, d.department_name, d.location_id)) 
    FROM employees e, departments d 
    WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id;
10.4.2.1.4 Step 3b. Create XMLType View emp_xml Using Object View emp_v

Create an XMLType view using an object view.

Example 10-12 creates object view emp_v and then creates XMLType view emp_xml based on that object view.

See Also:

Step 3a. Create XMLType View emp_xml Using Object Type emp_t for an alternative way to create view emp_xml, which uses object type emp_t

Example 10-12 Creating an Object View and an XMLType View Based on the Object View

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW emp_v OF emp_t WITH OBJECT ID (empno) AS 
  SELECT emp_t(e.employee_id, e.last_name, e.job_id, e.manager_id, e.hire_date,
               e.salary, e.commission_pct,
               dept_t(d.department_id, d.department_name, d.location_id)) 
    FROM employees e, departments d 
    WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id;
 
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW emp_xml OF XMLType 
  XMLSCHEMA "http://www.oracle.com/emp_complex.xsd" ELEMENT "Employee"
  WITH OBJECT ID DEFAULT AS
  SELECT VALUE(p) FROM emp_v p;

10.4.2.2 Creating XMLType Department View, with Nested Employee Information

XMLType view dept_xml is created so that each department in the view contains nested employee information.

For the last step of the view creation, there are two alternatives:

10.4.2.2.1 Step 1. Create Object Types for XMLType Department View

Create an object type for an XML Schema-based view.

Example 10-13 creates the object types used in the other steps.

Example 10-13 Creating Object Types

CREATE TYPE emp_t AS OBJECT (empno    NUMBER(6),
                             ename    VARCHAR2(25), 
                             job      VARCHAR2(10), 
                             mgr      NUMBER(6), 
                             hiredate DATE, 
                             sal      NUMBER(8,2), 
                             comm     NUMBER(2,2)); /

CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE emplist_t AS TABLE OF emp_t; 
/

CREATE TYPE dept_t AS OBJECT (deptno NUMBER(4),
                              dname  VARCHAR2(30), 
                              loc    NUMBER(4),
                              emps   emplist_t); 
/
10.4.2.2.2 Step 2. Register XML Schema dept_complex.xsd

Register XML schema dept_complex.xsd.

Example 10-14 illustrates this.

Example 10-14 Registering XML Schema dept_complex.xsd

BEGIN
  -- Delete schema if it already exists (else error)
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.deleteSchema('http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd', 4);
END;
/

BEGIN
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.registerSchema(
    SCHEMAURL => 'http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd',
    SCHEMADOC => '<?xml version="1.0"?>
                  <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" 
                              xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
                              xmlns:xdb="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb"            
                              xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb 
                                                  http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb/XDBSchema.xsd">
                    <xsd:element name="Department" type="DEPT_TType" xdb:SQLType="DEPT_T"/>
                    <xsd:complexType name="DEPT_TType" xdb:SQLType="DEPT_T" 
                                     xdb:maintainDOM="false">
                      <xsd:sequence>
                        <xsd:element name="DEPTNO" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="DEPTNO" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="DNAME" xdb:SQLName="DNAME" xdb:SQLType="VARCHAR2">
                          <xsd:simpleType>
                            <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
                              <xsd:maxLength value="30"/>
                            </xsd:restriction>
                          </xsd:simpleType>
                        </xsd:element>
                        <xsd:element name="LOC" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="LOC" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="EMPS" type="EMP_TType" maxOccurs="unbounded" 
                                     minOccurs="0" xdb:SQLName="EMPS" 
                                     xdb:SQLCollType="EMPLIST_T" xdb:SQLType="EMP_T"  
                                     xdb:SQLCollSchema="HR"/>
                      </xsd:sequence>
                    </xsd:complexType>
                    <xsd:complexType name="EMP_TType" xdb:SQLType="EMP_T" xdb:maintainDOM="false">
                      <xsd:sequence>
                        <xsd:element name="EMPNO" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="EMPNO" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="ENAME" xdb:SQLName="ENAME" xdb:SQLType="VARCHAR2">
                          <xsd:simpleType>
                            <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
                              <xsd:maxLength value="25"/>
                            </xsd:restriction>
                          </xsd:simpleType>
                        </xsd:element>
                        <xsd:element name="JOB" xdb:SQLName="JOB" xdb:SQLType="VARCHAR2">
                          <xsd:simpleType>
                            <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
                              <xsd:maxLength value="10"/>
                            </xsd:restriction>
                          </xsd:simpleType>
                        </xsd:element>
                        <xsd:element name="MGR" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="MGR" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="HIREDATE" type="xsd:date" xdb:SQLName="HIREDATE" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="DATE"/>
                        <xsd:element name="SAL" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="SAL" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="COMM" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="COMM"   
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                      </xsd:sequence>
                    </xsd:complexType>
                  </xsd:schema>', 
    LOCAL     => TRUE, 
    GENTYPES  => FALSE);
END;
/
10.4.2.2.3 Step 3a. Create XMLType View dept_xml Using Object Type dept_t

Create XMLType view dept_xml using object type dept_t.

Example 10-15 illustrates this.

Example 10-15 Creating XMLType View dept_xml Using Object Type dept_t

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW dept_xml OF XMLType
  XMLSCHEMA "http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd" ELEMENT "Department"
  WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Department/DEPTNO'
                                   PASSING OBJECT_VALUE RETURNING CONTENT)
                          AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS
  SELECT dept_t(d.department_id, d.department_name, d.location_id,
                cast(MULTISET
                     (SELECT emp_t(e.employee_id, e.last_name, e.job_id,
                                   e.manager_id, e.hire_date,
                                   e.salary, e.commission_pct) 
                        FROM employees e WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id) 
                     AS emplist_t))
    FROM departments d;
10.4.2.2.4 Step 3b. Create XMLType View dept_xml Using Relational Data Directly

You can use SQL/XML publishing functions to create XMLType view dept_xml from the relational tables without using object type dept_t.

Example 10-16 illustrates this.

Note:

XML schema and element information must be specified at the view level, because the SELECT list could arbitrarily construct XML of a different XML schema from the underlying table.

Example 10-16 Creating XMLType View dept_xml Using Relational Data Directly

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW dept_xml OF XMLType
  XMLSCHEMA "http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd" ELEMENT "Department"
  WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Department/DEPTNO'
                                   PASSING OBJECT_VALUE RETURNING CONTENT)
                          AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS
  SELECT  
    XMLElement(
      "Department",
      XMLAttributes('http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd' AS "xmlns",        
                    'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance' AS "xmlns:xsi",
                    'http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd 
                     http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd' 
                      AS "xsi:schemaLocation"),
      XMLForest(d.department_id "DeptNo", d.department_name "DeptName",
                d.location_id "Location"),
      (SELECT XMLAgg(XMLElement("Employee",
                                XMLForest(e.employee_id "EmployeeId", 
                                          e.last_name "Name", 
                                          e.job_id "Job", 
                                          e.manager_id "Manager", 
                                          e.hire_date "Hiredate",
                                          e.salary "Salary",
                                          e.commission_pct "Commission")))
                      FROM employees e WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id))
    FROM departments d;

10.5 Creating XMLType Views from XMLType Tables

An XMLType view can be created on an XMLType table, for example, to transform the XML data or to restrict the rows returned.

Example 10-17 creates an XMLType view by restricting the rows included from an underlying XMLType table. It uses XML schema dept_complex.xsd to create the underlying table — see "Creating XMLType Department View_ with Nested Employee Information".

Example 10-18 shows how you can create an XMLType view by transforming XML data using an XSL stylesheet.

Example 10-17 Creating an XMLType View by Restricting Rows from an XMLType Table

CREATE TABLE dept_xml_tab OF XMLType 
    XMLSchema "http://www.oracle.com/dept_complex.xsd" ELEMENT "Department"
    NESTED TABLE XMLDATA."EMPS" STORE AS dept_xml_tab_tab1;
 
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW dallas_dept_view OF XMLType 
    XMLSchema "http://www.oracle.com/dept.xsd" ELEMENT "Department"
        AS SELECT OBJECT_VALUE FROM dept_xml_tab 
           WHERE XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Department/LOC'
                                  PASSING OBJECT_VALUE RETURNING CONTENT)
                         AS VARCHAR2(20))
                 = 'DALLAS'; 

Here, dallas_dept_view restricts the XMLType table rows to those departments whose location is Dallas.

Example 10-18 Creating an XMLType View by Transforming an XMLType Table

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW hr_po_tab OF XMLType 
  ELEMENT "PurchaseOrder" WITH OBJECT ID DEFAULT AS
  SELECT XMLtransform(OBJECT_VALUE, x.col1)
    FROM purchaseorder p, xsl_tab x;

10.6 Referencing XMLType View Objects Using SQL Function REF

You can reference an XMLType view object using SQL function ref.

SELECT ref(d) FROM dept_xml_tab d;

An XMLType view reference is based on one of the following object IDs:

  • System-generated OID — for views on XMLType tables or object views

  • Primary key based OID -- for views with OBJECT ID expressions

These REFs can be used to fetch OCIXMLType instances in the OCI Object cache, or they can be used in SQL queries. These REFs act the same as REFs to object views.

10.7 Using DML (Data Manipulation Language) on XMLType Views

A given XMLType view might not be implicitly updatable. In that case, you must write instead-of triggers to handle all DML. To determine whether an XMLType view is implicitly updatable, query it to see whether it is based on an object view or constructor that is itself inherently updatable.

Example 10-19 illustrates this.

Example 10-19 Determining Whether an XMLType View Is Implicitly Updatable, and Updating It

CREATE TYPE dept_t AS OBJECT 
      (deptno NUMBER(4), 
       dname  VARCHAR2(30), 
       loc    NUMBER(4)); 
/

BEGIN
  -- Delete schema if it already exists (else error)
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.deleteSchema('http://www.oracle.com/dept_t.xsd', 4);
END;
/
COMMIT;
 
BEGIN
  DBMS_XMLSCHEMA.registerSchema(
    SCHEMAURL => 'http://www.oracle.com/dept_t.xsd',
    SCHEMADOC => '<?xml version="1.0"?>
                  <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" 
                              xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
                              xmlns:xdb="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb" 
                              xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb 
                                                  http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb/XDBSchema.xsd">
                    <xsd:element name="Department" type="DEPT_TType" xdb:SQLType="DEPT_T"/>
                    <xsd:complexType name="DEPT_TType" xdb:SQLType="DEPT_T"
                                     xdb:maintainDOM="false">
                      <xsd:sequence>
                        <xsd:element name="DEPTNO" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="DEPTNO" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                        <xsd:element name="DNAME" xdb:SQLName="DNAME" xdb:SQLType="VARCHAR2">
                          <xsd:simpleType>
                            <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
                              <xsd:maxLength value="30"/>
                            </xsd:restriction>
                          </xsd:simpleType>
                        </xsd:element>
                        <xsd:element name="LOC" type="xsd:double" xdb:SQLName="LOC" 
                                     xdb:SQLType="NUMBER"/>
                      </xsd:sequence>
                    </xsd:complexType>
                  </xsd:schema>', 
    LOCAL     => TRUE, 
    GENTYPES  => FALSE);
END;
/

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW dept_xml of XMLType
  XMLSchema "http://www.oracle.com/dept_t.xsd" element "Department"
  WITH OBJECT ID (XMLCast(XMLQuery('/Department/DEPTNO'
                                   PASSING OBJECT_VALUE RETURNING CONTENT)
                          AS BINARY_DOUBLE)) AS
  SELECT dept_t(d.department_id, d.department_name, d.location_id) 
    FROM departments d;

INSERT INTO dept_xml 
  VALUES (
    XMLType.createXML(
      '<Department 
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
         xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.oracle.com/dept_t.xsd" >
         <DEPTNO>300</DEPTNO>
         <DNAME>Processing</DNAME>
         <LOC>1700</LOC>
       </Department>'));

UPDATE dept_xml d
  SET d.OBJECT_VALUE =
    XMLQuery('copy $i := $p1 modify
                (for $j in $i/Department/DNAME
                 return replace value of node $j with $p2)
              return $i'
             PASSING d.OBJECT_VALUE AS "p1", 'Shipping' AS "p2" RETURNING CONTENT)
    WHERE XMLExists('/Department[DEPTNO=300]' PASSING OBJECT_VALUE);