Building the SQL API

Setting User Authentication
Binary Compatibility With SQLite
Setting Encryption
Changing Compile Options
Enabling Extensions
Disabling Log Checksums
Building the JDBC Driver
Using the JDBC Driver
Using the JDBC Driver in ADF/JDeveloper
Building the ODBC Driver
Using the ADO.NET Driver

SQL support is built as part of the default build on Windows. For information on the build instructions, see Building Berkeley DB for Windows .

The SQL library is built as libdb_sql181.dll in the Release mode or libdb_sql181d.dll in the Debug mode. An SQL command line interpreter called dbsql.exe is also built.

Setting User Authentication

To enable user authentication in the Berkeley DB SQL API, specify BDBSQL_USER_AUTHENTICATION and SQLITE_HAS_CODEC in Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql and the db_sql_shell project.

To enable key-store based user authentication in the Berkeley DB SQL API, specify BDBSQL_USER_AUTHENTICATION_KEYSTORE and SQLITE_HAS_CODEC in Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql and the db_sql_shell project.

For more information on user authentication and key-store based user authentication, see Berkeley DB Getting Started with the SQL APIs.

Binary Compatibility With SQLite

libdb_sql181.dll is compatible with sqlite3.dll. You can copy libdb_sql181.dll to sqlite3.dll and dbsql.exe to sqlite3.exe, and use these applications as a replacement for the standard SQLite binaries with the same names. However, if you want to do this, then any legacy data in use by those tools must be migrated from the standard SQLite database to a Berkeley DB SQL database before you replace the standard SQLite dll and executable with the Berkeley DB equivalent. For information on migrating data from standard SQLite databases to a Berkeley DB SQL database, see the Berkeley DB Getting Started with the SQL APIs guide.


Rename your dlls and executables to the standard SQLite names with extreme care. Doing this will cause all existing tools to break that currently have data stored in a standard SQLite database.

For best results, rename your dlls and command line tool to use the standard SQLite names only if you know there are no other tools on your production platform that rely on standard SQLite.

Setting Encryption

To enable encryption in the Berkeley DB SQL API, specify SQLITE_HAS_CODEC in Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql project. See SQL Encryption in the Berkeley DB Getting Started with the SQL APIs guide for usage details.

Changing Compile Options

There are several configuration options you can add to the Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql project. For example, to enable the option BDBSQL_FILE_PER_TABLE, add BDBSQL_FILE_PER_TABLE=1; to the Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql project.

To set the default page size when you create a database, specify the BDBSQL_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE flag. The assigned value must be 0, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, or 65536. The default value is 4096. If the value is set to zero, Berkeley DB queries the file system to determine the best page size, and the value of SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE is used to calculate the cache size, because the cache size is specified as a number of pages.
To generate each table in a separate file, rather than as subdatabases in a single file, specify the BDBSQL_FILE_PER_TABLE flag. When this option is enabled, the SQL database name is used as a directory name. This directory contains one file for the metadata and one file each for every table created by the SQL API. Note that adding or deleting files from the database directory may corrupt your database. To backup the metadata (schema), make a copy of the metadata and table00001 files from the database directory. Make a new copy whenever the schema is changed.
To configure the log region size for the underlying storage engine, specify the BDBSQL_LOG_REGIONMAX flag. For more information, see DB_ENV->get_lg_regionmax().
For Berkeley DB to use the default system allocation routines rather than the SQLite allocation routines, specify the BDBSQL_OMIT_LEAKCHECK flag.
Berkeley DB automatically removes log files that are no longer required That is, files that are older than the most recent checkpoint. To disable this functionality, specify the BDBSQL_OMIT_LOG_REMOVE flag. It is necessary to provide this flag if you are using replication with Berkeley DB SQL.
To create a private environment rather than a shared environment, specify the BDBSQL_OMIT_SHARING flag. That is, the cache and other region files will be created in memory rather than using file backed shared memory. For more information, see the DB_PRIVATE flag of DB_ENV->open()
To disable locking and thread safe connections, specify the BDBSQL_SINGLE_THREAD flag. If an application is going to use Berkeley DB from a single thread and a single process, enabling this flag can deliver significant performance advantages.
SQLite provides an in-memory cache which you size according to the maximum number of database pages that you want to hold in memory at any given time. Berkeley DB's in-memory cache feature performs the same function as SQLite. To specify the suggested maximum number of pages of disk cache that will be allocated per open database file specify the SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE flag. Default value is 2000 pages. For more information, see the SQLite documentation on PRAGMA default_cache_size.
For SQLite, this pragma identifies the maximum size that the journal file is allowed to be. Berkeley DB does not have a journal file, but it writes and uses log files. A new log file is created when the current log file has reached the defined maximum size. To define this maximum size for a log file, specify the SQLITE_DEFAULT_JOURNAL_SIZE_LIMIT flag. Default value is 10 MB for the Berkeley DB SQL interface.

Enabling Extensions

The Berkeley DB SQL API provides extensions such as full text search and R-Tree index. To enable these extensions, do the following:

  1. Open the Berkeley DB solution in Visual Studio.
  2. Specify SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3 or SQLITE_ENABLE_RTREE in Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql project.
  3. Re-build the db_sql project.

See the SQLite Documentation for more information on full text search and R-Tree.

Disabling Log Checksums

You can disable checksums in log records so as to provide a boost to database performance. However, this comes at the risk of having undetectable log file corruption that could prevent data recovery in the event of database corruption.


Note that disabling log record checksums is meant to only be used with the SQL interface. However, disabling checksums for the SQL interface also disables checksums for the non-SQL interfaces.

To disable log checksums, before you build the library edit the build_windows/db_config.h file, and delete the following line:


Building the JDBC Driver

This section describes the steps to build the JDBC driver.

  1. Configure your build environment. For information on how to configure to build Java applications, see Building the Java API. In Visual Studio 2010/2012/2013/2015, you need to configure the db_sql_jdbc project.

  2. Open Berkeley_DB_vs2010.sln, Berkeley_DB_vs2012.sln or Berkeley_DB_vs2015.sln in Visual Studio. If you are using Java 1.6, do the following:

    • In the Solution Explorer, right-click the db_sql_jdbc project and select properties.

    • In the Configuration Properties -> Build Events -> Pre-Build Event section, alter the command to refer to JDBC2z instead of JDBC2x.

    If you are using Java 1.7 or Java 1.8, do the following:

    • In the Solution Explorer, right-click the db_sql_jdbc project and select properties.

    • In the Configuration Properties -> Build Events -> Pre-Build Event section, alter the command to refer to JDBC2z1 instead of JDBC2x.

    • Download the JDBC driver package javasqlite-20150419.tar.gz from Then, in the directory <db>/dist,

      ./s_sql_drivers -jdbc \
      		-jdbc_package /path/to/javasqlite-20150419.tar.gz \

      This will install the package with a few necessary patches to <db>/lang/sql/jdbc.

      Go to db\lang\sql\jdbc\SQLite, and replace with JDBCDriver.java17, and replace with JDBCDataSource.java17.

  3. To enable encryption in the Berkeley DB SQL JDBC driver, make sure the db_sql project is built with encryption enabled and specify HAVE_SQLITE3_KEY in Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql_jdbc project. See SQL Encryption in the Berkeley DB Getting Started with the SQL APIs guide for usage details.

  4. Build the db_sql_jdbc project in Visual Studio.

You can test the build by entering the following commands from the db\build_windows\Win32\Debug directory:

javac -cp ".;jdbc.jar" -d . ..\..\..\lang\sql\jdbc\
java -cp ".;jdbc.jar" test3

Using the JDBC Driver

This section describes the steps to download, build, and run sample programs using the built JDBC driver.

Downloading JDBC Sample Code

The download link for JDBC sample code is available on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) . You can identify the link by the "JDBC programming examples from all three editions (ZIP format)" text beside it.

Modifying Sample Code

Before running the sample code, do the following:

  1. Unzip the file containing the sample code to a new directory (for example, jdbc_ex).
  2. Substitute jdbc:sqlite:/<db-file-name> for the generic JDBC URL that appears in the code. That is, put jdbc:sqlite:/<db-file-name> between the quotation marks in the line:

    String url = "jdbc:mySubprotocol:myDataSource";

    Note: The <db-file-name> can either be an absolute path name like "jdbc:sqlite:/D:\\jdbc_ex_db\\myDataSource", or a relative path-file-name like "jdbc:sqlite:/..\\jdbc_ex_db\myDataSource", or a file name, like "jdbc:sqlite:/myDataSource", in which the database file will be stored at the current directory. Note that all path arguments require a leading slash, even in the case of relative paths or a database in the local directory. Please refer to the above examples.

  3. Substitute SQLite.JDBCDriver for myDriver.ClassName in the line: Class.forName("myDriver.ClassName");
  4. Substitute the username and password you use for your database in the following: "myLogin", "myPassword".

    This is optional.

  5. If your JDK version is above 1.5, change the variable name enum in to some other variable name because, as of JDK release 5 enum is a keyword and can not be used as an identifier.

Building and Running the JDBC Sample code

See Building the JDBC Driver for instructions about building JDBC driver.

To build and run the JDBC examples do the following:

  1. In the db\build_windows\Win32\Debug directory, run following commands:
        $ javac -classpath ".;jdbc.jar" -d . \path\to\jdbc_ex\*.java
        $ java  -classpath ".;jdbc.jar" <ClassName, eg. CreateCoffees>
  2. After you run the CreateCoffees example, use the dbsql executable to open the myDataSource database file and check if the table COFFEES has been successfully created in the database.
        $ dbsql myDataSourcedbsql> .tables
        dbsql> .dump
        PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF;
        CREATE TABLE COFFEES (COF_NAME varchar(32),/
        SUP_ID int, PRICE float, SALES int, TOTAL int);
  3. Repeat step 2 to run other examples.

    Note: Some examples like AutoGenKeys are not yet supported by BDB JDBC driver. The SQLFeatureNotSupportedException is displayed for those unsupported examples.

Using the JDBC Driver in ADF/JDeveloper

This section describes steps to use BDB JDBC driver in the integrated development environment ADF/JDeveloper.

  1. Build the JDBC driver. For more information, see Building the JDBC Driver .

    Ensure that the Java environment used to build the JDBC driver is same as used in ADF/JDeveloper.

    Include JDBC driver path in the system CLASSPATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

  2. Create BDB JDBC Database Connection in JDeveloper. ADF accesses the database by Database Connection. As long as the database file exists and has tables, you can see all tables located by the database connection in the project application resources panel.

    • Select File -> New -> General -> Connections -> Database Connection.

      1. In the panel of "Create Database Connection", choose "Generic JDBC" as "Connection Type".
      2. In the "Generic JDBC Settings" section, select "New" to register a JDBC driver.
    • In the registration form, enter "SQLite.JDBCDriver" for Driver Class.

      1. Select "Browse" to locate the library.
      2. In the library information form, select User -> New to create a library.
      3. Enter "DBSQL_JDBC" for "Library Name," and add the path of the JDBC driver to the Class Path.
      4. Select "OK" to save.
    • Test the connection in the panel of Create Database Connection.

      1. Configure the JDBC URL with jdbc:sqlite:/<db-file-name>. The <db-file-name> should include the database file path which must be absolute.
      2. Select Test Connection. If the connection is proved to be working, a "Success" message is displayed.
  3. Apply BDB JDBC Database Connection in the ADF application. After successfully creating the database connection, you can create and initialize ADF BC component with it. During initialization, choose "SQL92" as SQL Platform and "Java" as Data Type Map for the connection.

    You can define the ADF BC component by adding entity objects, view objects etc. and the database connection takes charge of accessing the database. For more information, see the example lang/sql/adf/EX_ADF.

Building the ODBC Driver

This section describes the steps required to build the ODBC driver.

Configuring Your System

To configure your system prior to building the ODBC driver, do the following:

  1. Download and install the latest SQLite ODBC driver Windows installer package for 32 bit Windows or 64 bit Windows.
  2. Download and install the latest Microsoft Data Access Components (MDAC) SDK . The MDAC SDK is only required for testing the installation.

Building the Library

  1. Build the SQL project in Release mode. See Building the SQL API.
  2. Open Visual Studio.
  3. Load the appropriate Berkeley_DB solution file into Visual Studio.
  4. Set the build target to Release
  5. Build the solution.
  6. Select File -> Add -> Existing Project.
  7. Select build_windows.
  8. Select the appropriate directory for your compiler: VS10, VS12, or VS15.
  9. Select db_sql_odbc.vcproj and add it to the Berkeley_DB solution. This adds the db_sql_odbc Visual Studio project to the Berkeley_DB solution file.
  10. To enable encryption in the Berkeley DB SQL ODBC driver, make sure the db_sql project is built with encryption enabled and specify SQLITE_HAS_CODEC=1 and SQLITE_ACTIVATION_KEY="password_str" in Preprocessor Definitions of the db_sql_odbc project. The "password_str" can be any string you want. See SQL Encryption in the Berkeley DB Getting Started with the SQL APIs guide for usage details.
  11. Build the db_sql_odbc project. This can be done by right-clicking the db_sql_odbc project in the project explorer panel, and selecting build.

The db_sql_odbc181.dll, libdb_sql181.dll and libdb181.dll files are now built.

Installing the Library

Rename db_sql_odbc181.dll to sqlite3odbc.dll and copy the dll files built in the Building the Library section to the Windows system folder.

The Windows system folder is different on different systems, but is often C:\WINDOWS\System32.

By default, the DSN name is SQLite3 Datasource, but for the encryption build, the name is SQLite3 SEE Datasource.

Testing the ODBC Install

The steps to verify that the installed driver works are as follows:

  1. Open the Unicode ODBCTest application. On Windows: Windows start -> Microsoft Data Access SDK 2.8 -> ODBCTest (Unicode, x86) (or ODBCTest (Unicode, amd64) for 64 bit Windows).
  2. Select the Conn -> Full Connect... menu item.
  3. Select SQLite3 Datasource and click OK.
  4. Select the Stmt -> SQLExecDirect... menu item.
  5. Enter CREATE TABLE t1(x); in the Statement text box and click OK.
  6. Verify that no error messages were output to the error window.

Using the ADO.NET Driver

See the instructions in the Berkeley DB SQL API Guide.