Bare Metal and Virtual Machine DB Systems
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure offers single-node DB systems on either bare metal or virtual machines, and 2-node RAC DB systems on virtual machines. If you need to provision a DB system for development or testing purposes, a special fast-provisioning single-node virtual machine system is available.
You can manage these systems by using the Console, the API, the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure CLI, the Database CLI (DBCLI), Enterprise Manager, Enterprise Manager Express, or SQL Developer.
This documentation is intended for Oracle database administrators and assumes familiarity with Oracle databases and tools. If you need additional information, see the product documentation available at http://docs.oracle.com/en/database/.
All single-node Oracle RAC DB systems support the following Oracle Database editions:
- Standard Edition
- Enterprise Edition
- Enterprise Edition - High Performance
- Enterprise Edition - Extreme Performance
Two-node Oracle RAC DB systems require Oracle Enterprise Edition - Extreme Performance.
For standard provisioning of DB systems (using Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) as your storage management software), the supported database versions are:
- Oracle Database 21c
- Oracle Database 19c
- Oracle Database 18c (18.0)
- Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2)
- Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1)
- Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
- Oracle Database 21c
- Oracle Database 19c
- Oracle Database 18c
Your DB system's operating system will periodically need to be updated, just as your Oracle Database software will need to be updated. Before attempting an OS update, be sure to read the information in Updating a DB System and back up your DB system's databases.
Upgrading the Oracle Database Software in Your DB System
You can upgrade database instances that use Oracle Database 18c and earlier to Oracle Database 19c (Long Term Release). For information on prerequisites and upgrade instructions see Upgrading a Database.
Oracle Database Preview Version Availability
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure periodically offers preview software versions of Oracle Database for testing purposes. You can provision a virtual machine DB system using preview version software to test applications before the general availability of the software in the Database service. When you provision a DB system with preview version software, the system remains available to you until you decide to terminate it.
Preview version DB systems are provisioned in the same manner as non-preview systems. If available, preview version software is displayed as one of the choices in the Database version selector in the Create DB System dialog. See To create a DB system for instructions on provisioning a virtual machine DB system using preview version software.
Current Preview Version Software
There is no Oracle Database preview software version available at this time for bare metal and virtual machine DB systems in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.
Oracle Database Preview Version Restrictions
Preview version software cannot be used for production databases. The following restrictions apply to preview version software:
- Only available for non-RAC virtual machine DB systems. Preview software is not available for bare metal systems, Exadata systems, or virtual machine systems using RAC.
- Uses Logical Volume Manager (LVM) storage management software only. Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is not available.
- Patching and database version upgrades (including upgrades to the generally available release of the preview software) are not available.
- You cannot create a new DB system from a backup of a database that uses preview version software.
- Standalone backups cannot be created.
- Data Guard is not available.
- Preview version software DB systems cannot be created from backups. In-place restores are supported.
Availability of Older Database Versions for Virtual Machine DB Systems
For virtual machine DB systems, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure also supports the creation of DB systems using older database versions. For each shape, the latest version and the two prior versions of the release are available at provisioning.
If you need to launch your DB system with an older database version, see Critical Patch Updates for information on known security issues with your chosen database version. You will also need to analyze and patch known security issues for the operating system included with the older database version. See Securing Database for information on security best practices for databases in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.
Per-Second Billing for Bare Metal and Virtual Machine Database Resources
For databases using bare metal and virtual machine infrastructure, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure uses per-second billing. This means that OCPU and storage usage is billed by the second, with a minimum usage period of 1 minute for virtual machine DB systems and 1 hour for bare metal DB systems.
Bare Metal DB Systems
Bare metal DB systems consist of a single bare metal server running Oracle Linux 6.8, with locally attached NVMe storage. If the node fails, you can simply launch another system and restore the databases from current backups.
When you launch a bare metal DB system, you select a single Oracle Database edition that applies to all the databases on that DB system. The selected edition cannot be changed. Each DB system can have multiple database homes, which can be different versions. Each database home can have only one database, which is the same version as the database home.
Shapes for Bare Metal DB Systems
When you launch a DB system, you choose a shape, which determines the resources allocated to the DB system. The available shapes for a bare metal DB system are:
- BM.DenseIO2.52: Provides a 1-node DB system (one bare metal server), with up to 52 CPU cores, 768 GB memory, and eight 6.4 TB locally attached NVMe drives (51.2 TB total) to the DB system.
BM.DenseIO1.36: Limited availability. Provides a 1-node DB system (one bare metal server), with up to 36 CPU cores, 512 GB memory, and nine 3.2 TB locally attached NVMe drives (28.8 TB total) to the DB system.
Note: BM.DenseO1.36 is available only to monthly universal credit customers existing on or before November 9th, 2018. This shape is available only in the US West (Phoenix), US East (Ashburn), and Germany Central (Frankfurt) regions.
Bare Metal DB System Storage Considerations
The shape you choose for a bare metal DB system determines its total raw storage, but other options, like 2- or 3-way mirroring and the space allocated for data files, affect the amount of usable storage on the system. The following table shows how various configurations affect the usable storage for bare metal DB systems.
|Shape||Raw Storage||Usable Storage with Normal Redundancy (2-way Mirroring)||Usable Storage with High Redundancy (3-way Mirroring)|
|51.2 TB NVMe||
DATA 16 TB
RECO 4 TB
DATA 9 TB
RECO 2.3 TB
|28.8 TB NVMe||
DATA 9.4 TB
RECO 1.7 TB
DATA 5.4 TB
RECO 1 TB
Note: BM.DenseIO1.36 availability is limited to monthly universal credit customers existing on or before November 9th, 2018, in the us-phoenix-1, us-ashburn-1, and eu-frankfurt-1 regions.
Virtual Machine DB Systems
There are two types of DB systems on virtual machines:
- A 1-node virtual machine DB system consists of one virtual machine.
- A 2-node virtual machine DB system consists of two virtual machines.
When you launch a virtual machine DB system, you select the Oracle Database edition and version that applies to the database on that DB system. The selected edition cannot be changed. Depending on your selected Oracle Database edition and version, your DB system can support multiple pluggable databases (PDBs). See the following Oracle Database licensing topics for information about the maximum number of pluggable and container databases available for your selected Oracle Database version:
- Oracle Database 18c: Permitted Features, Options, and Management Packs by Oracle Database Offering
- Oracle Database 19c: Permitted Features, Options, and Management Packs by Oracle Database Offering
Unlike a bare metal DB system, a virtual machine DB system can have only a single Database Home, which in turn can have only a single database. The databases will be the same version as the Database Home.
Virtual machine DB systems also differ from bare metal DB systems in the following ways:
- A virtual machine DB system database uses Oracle Cloud Infrastructure block storage instead of local storage. You specify a storage size when you launch the DB system, and you can scale up the storage as needed at any time.
To change the number of CPU cores on an existing virtual machine DB system, you must change the shape of that DB system. See To change the shape of a virtual machine DB system for more information.Note
The shape-changer operation takes place in a rolling fashion for multi-node DB systems, allowing you to change the shape with no database downtime.
Fast Provisioning Option for Single-Node Virtual Machine DB Systems
For 1-node virtual machine DB systems, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure provides have a "fast provisioning" option that allows you to create your DB system using Logical Volume Manager as your storage management software. The alternative ("standard provisioning") is to provision with Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM).
- When using the fast provisioning option, the number and size of the block volumes specified during provisioning determines the maximum total storage available through scaling. See Storage Scaling Considerations for Virtual Machine Databases Using Fast Provisioning for details.
- Multi-node Virtual Machine DB systems require Oracle Automatic Storage Management and cannot be created using the fast-provisioning option.
- You can clone virtual machine DB systems that have been created using the fast provisioning option. See Cloning a Virtual Machine DB System for instructions.
- You cannot use a custom database software image when provisioning a system with logical volume manager storage software.
Cloning a Fast-Provisioned Virtual Machine DB System
Fault Domain Considerations for Two-Node Virtual Machine DB Systems
When you provision a 2-node RAC DB systems, the system assigns each node to a different fault domain by default. Using the Advanced Options link in the provisioning dialog, you can select the fault domain(s) to be used for your 2-node RAC DB systems and the system will assign the nodes to your selected fault domains. Oracle recommends that you place each node of a 2-node RAC DB system in a different fault domain. For more information on fault domains, see Fault Domains.
Rebooting a Virtual Machine DB System Node for Planned Maintenance
Virtual machine DB system nodes use underlying physical hosts that periodically need to undergo maintenance. When such maintenance is needed, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure schedules a reboot of your virtual machine DB system node and notifies you of the upcoming reboot. The reboot allows your virtual machine DB system node to be migrated to a new physical host which is not in need of maintenance. (Stopping and starting the node will also result in the migration to a new physical host.) The only impact to your virtual machine DB system node is the reboot itself. The planned maintenance of the original physical hardware takes place after your node has been migrated to its new host, and has no impact on your DB system.
If your virtual machine DB system node is scheduled for a maintenance reboot, you can proactively reboot your node (by stopping and starting it) using the Console or the API. This lets you control how and when your node experiences downtime. If you choose not to reboot before the scheduled time, then Oracle Cloud Infrastructure will reboot and migrate your node at the scheduled time.
To identify the virtual machine DB system nodes that you can proactively reboot, navigate to your system's DB System Details page in the Console and check the Node Maintenance Reboot field. If the instance has a maintenance reboot scheduled and can be proactively rebooted, this field displays the date and start time for the reboot. When the Maintenance Reboot field does not display a date, your virtual machine DB system has no scheduled node maintenance events.
To check for scheduled maintenance events using the API, use the GetDbNode operation to check the
timeMaintenanceWindowEnd field of the DbNode resource. This field specifies when the system will initiate the next scheduled node reboot.
To make it easier to locate nodes that have scheduled maintenance reboots, you can use the Search service with a predefined query to find all DB systems that have a maintenance reboot scheduled.
For instructions on using the Console to reboot a node, see To start, stop, or reboot a database system.
When you launch a virtual machine DB system, you choose a shape, which determines the resources allocated to the DB system. After you provision the system, you can change the shape to adapt to new processing capacity requirements.
The following table shows the available shapes in the X7 series for a virtual machine DB system.
The following table shows the available shapes in the X5 series for a virtual machine DB system.
Availability of X5 shapes is limited to monthly universal credit customers existing on or before November 9th, 2018, in the us-phoenix-1, us-ashburn-1, and eu-frankfurt-1 regions.
Storage Options for Virtual Machine DB Systems
Virtual machine DB systems use Oracle Cloud Infrastructure block storage. The following table shows details of the storage options for a virtual machine DB system. Total storage includes available storage plus recovery logs.
|Available Storage (GB)||Total Storage (GB)|
For 2-node RAC virtual machine DB systems, storage capacity is shared between the nodes.
Security Hardening Tool for Virtual Machine DB systems
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure virtual machine DB systems provisioned using Oracle Linux 7 include a python script, referred to as the Security Technical Implementation Guide (STIG) tool, that you can use to perform security hardening for your virtual machine DB system. See Security Technical Implementation Guide (STIG) Tool for Virtual Machine DB systems for more information.
Boot Volume Backups
Oracle maintains a weekly boot volume backup of your virtual machine DB system so that the system can be easily restored in the event of a serious error or system failure. Boot volume backups are currently not accessible to users (there is no Console, API, or CLI access to a DB system boot volume backup), and Oracle bears the cost of keeping and maintaining the backup. In the event of a system failure, contact My Oracle Support to request that Oracle perform a restore of your system from the boot volume backup.
Database Backups, Restoring from a Backup, and Creating a Database or DB System from a backup
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure offers you the ability to create and store automatic daily backups and on-demand full backups. You can store backups in your DB system's local storage, or in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage. See Backing Up a Database for information about the backup storage options you have for your cloud databases. See Backing Up a Database to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage for information about managed automatic backups in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.
Restoring from a Backup
See Recovering a Database from Object Storage for information on restoring a database from a backup in Object Storage.
Creating a Database or DB System Using a Backup
See To create a DB system from a backup and To create a database from a backup in an existing DB system for information about creating a database or DB system from the following sources:
- Daily automatic backups or on-demand full backups.
- The last archived redo log backup. Requires that you have automatic backups enabled. This backup combines data from the most recent daily automatic backup and data from archived redo logs, and represents the most current backup available.
- Daily automatic backup data used to crate a point-in-time copy of the source database based on a specified timestamp.
- Standalone Backups
Moving Databases to Oracle Cloud DB Systems Using Zero Downtime Migration
Oracle now offers the Zero Downtime Migration service, a quick and easy way to move on-premises Oracle Databases and Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Classic databases to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. You can migrate databases to the following types of Oracle Cloud Infrastructure systems: Exadata, Exadata Cloud@Customer, bare metal, and virtual machine.
Zero Downtime Migration leverages Oracle Active Data Guard to create a standby instance of your database in an Oracle Cloud Infrastructure system. You switch over only when you are ready, and your source database remains available as a standby. Use the Zero Downtime Migration service to migrate databases individually or at the fleet level. See Move to Oracle Cloud Using Zero Downtime Migration for more information.