4 Performing Privilege Analysis to Find Privilege Use

Privilege analysis dynamically analyzes the privileges and roles that users use and do not use.

What Is Privilege Analysis?

Privilege analysis increases the security of your applications and database operations by helping you to implement least privilege best practices for database roles and privileges.

About Privilege Analysis

Running inside the Oracle Database kernel, privilege analysis helps reduce the attack surface of user, tooling, and application accounts by identifying used and unused privileges to implement the least-privilege model.

Note:

See Oracle Database Licensing Information for privilege analysis licensing information.

Privilege analysis dynamically captures privileges used by database users and applications. The use of privilege analysis can help to quickly and efficiently enforce least privilege guidelines. In the least-privilege model, users are only given the privileges and access they need to do their jobs. Frequently, even though users perform different tasks, users are all granted the same set of powerful privileges. Without privilege analysis, figuring out the privileges that each user must have can be hard work and in many cases, users could end up with some common set of privileges even though they have different tasks. Even in organizations that manage privileges, users tend to accumulate privileges over time and rarely lose any privileges. Separation of duty breaks a single process into separate tasks for different users. Least privileges enforces the separation so users can only do their required tasks. The enforcement of separation of duty is beneficial for internal control, but it also reduces the risk from malicious users who steal privileged credentials.

Privilege analysis captures privileges used by database users and applications at runtime and writes its findings to data dictionary views that you can query. If your applications include definer’s rights and invoker’s rights procedures, then privilege analysis captures the privileges that are required to compile a procedure and execute it, even if the procedure was compiled before the privilege capture was created and enabled.

How Privilege Analysis Works with Pre-Compiled Database Objects

Privilege analysis can be used to capture the privileges that have been exercised on pre-compiled database objects.

Examples of these objects are PL/SQL packages, procedures, functions, views, triggers, and Java classes and data.

Because these privileges may not be exercised during run time when a stored procedure is called, these privileges are collected when you generate the results for any database-wide capture, along with run-time captured privileges. A privilege is treated as an unused privilege when it is not used in either pre-compiled database objects or run-time capture, and it is saved under the run-time capture name. If a privilege is used for pre-compiled database objects, then it is saved under the capture name ORA$DEPENDENCY. If a privilege is captured during run time, then it is saved under the run-time capture name. If you want to know what the used privileges are for both pre-compiled database objects and run-time usage, then you must query both the ORA$DEPENDENCY and run-time captures. For unused privileges, you only need to query with the run-time capture name.

To find a full list of the pre-compiled objects on which privilege analysis can be used, query the TYPE column of the ALL_DEPENDENCIES data dictionary view.

Who Can Perform Privilege Analysis?

To use privilege analysis, you must be granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role.

You use the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package to manage privilege capture. You use the data dictionary views provided by privilege analysis to analyze your privilege use.

Types of Privilege Analysis

You can create different types of privilege analysis policies to achieve specific goals.

  • Role-based privilege use capture. You must provide a list of roles. If the roles in the list are enabled in the database session, then the used privileges for the session will be captured. You can capture privilege use for the following types of roles: Oracle default roles, user-created roles, Code Based Access Control (CBAC) roles, and secure application roles.

  • Context-based privilege use capture. You must specify a Boolean expression only with the SYS_CONTEXT function. The used privileges will be captured if the condition evaluates to TRUE.

  • Role- and context-based privilege use capture. You must provide both a list of roles that are enabled and a SYS_CONTEXT Boolean expression for the condition. When any of these roles is enabled in a session and the given context condition is satisfied, then privilege analysis starts capturing the privilege use.

  • Database-wide privilege capture. If you do not specify any type in your privilege analysis policy, then the used privileges in the database will be captured, except those for the user SYS. (This is also referred to as unconditional analysis, because it is turned on without any conditions.)

Note the following restrictions:

  • You can enable only one privilege analysis policy at a time. The only exception is that you can enable a database-wide privilege analysis policy at the same time as a non-database-wide privilege analysis policy, such as a role or context attribute-driven analysis policy.

  • You cannot analyze the privileges of the SYS user.

  • Privilege analysis shows the grant paths to the privilege but it does not suggest which grant path to keep.

  • If the role, user, or object has been dropped, then the values that reflect the privilege captures for these in the privilege analysis data dictionary views are dropped as well.

Benefits and Use Cases of Privilege Analysis

Analyzing privilege use is beneficial in finding unnecessarily granted privileges.

Unnecessarily Granted Privileges of Applications

The privileges of the account that accesses a database should only be limited to the privileges that are strictly required by the application.

But when an application is developed, especially by a third party, more privileges than necessary may be granted to the application connection pool accounts for convenience. In addition, some developers grant system and application object privileges to the PUBLIC role.

For example, to select from application data and run application procedures, the system privileges SELECT ANY TABLE and EXECUTE ANY PROCEDURE are granted to an application account appsys. The account appsys now can access non-application data even if he or she does not intend to. In this situation, you can analyze the privilege usage by user appsys, and then based on the results, revoke and grant privileges as necessary.

Development of Secure Applications

During the application development phase, some administrators may grant many powerful system privileges and roles to application developers.

The administrators may do this because at that stage they may not know what privileges the application developer needs.

Once the application is developed and working, the privileges that the application developer needs — and does not need — become more apparent. At that time, the security administrator can begin to revoke unnecessary privileges. However, the application developer may resist this idea on the basis that the application is currently working without problems. The administrator can use privilege analysis to examine each privilege that the application uses, to ensure that when he or she does revoke any privileges, the application will continue to work.

For example, app_owner is an application database user through whom the application connects to a database. User app_owner must query tables in the OE, SH, and PM schemas. Instead of granting the SELECT object privilege on each of the tables in these schemas, a security administrator grants the SELECT ANY TABLE privilege to app_owner. After a while, a new schema, HR, is created and sensitive data are inserted into HR.EMPLOYEES table. Because user app_owner has the SELECT ANY TABLE privilege, he can query this table to access its sensitive data, which is a security issue. Instead of granting system privileges (particularly the ANY privileges), it is far better to grant object privileges for specific tables.

How Does a Multitenant Environment Affect Privilege Analysis?

You can create and use privilege analysis policies in a multitenant environment.

If you are using a multitenant environment, then you can create privilege analysis policies in either the CDB root or in individual PDBs. The privilege analysis policy applies only to the container in which it is created, either to the privileges used within the CDB root or the application root, or to the privileges used within a PDB. It cannot be applied globally throughout the multitenant environment. You can grant the CAPTURE_ADMIN role locally to a local user or a common user. You can grant the CAPTURE_ADMIN role commonly to common users.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for more information about multitenant container databases (CDBs)

Creating and Managing Privilege Analysis Policies

You can create and manage privilege analysis policies in either SQL*Plus or in Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.

About Creating and Managing Privilege Analysis Policies

You can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package to analyze privileges.

Before you can do so, you must be granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role. The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE package enables you to create, enable, disable, and drop privilege analysis policies. It also generates reports that show the privilege usage, which you can view in DBA_* views.

See Also:

Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package

General Steps for Managing Privilege Analysis

You must follow a general set of steps to analyze privileges.

  1. Define the privilege analysis policy.
  2. Enable the privilege analysis policy.

    This step begins recording the privilege use that the policy defined. Optionally, specify a name for this capture run. Each time you enable a privilege analysis policy, you can create a different capture run for it. In this way, you can create multiple named capture runs for comparison analysis later on.

  3. Optionally, enable the policy to capture dependency privileges if you want to capture the privileges that are used by definer’s rights and invoker’s rights program units.
  4. After a sufficient period of time to gather data, disable the privilege analysis policy's recording of privilege use.

    This step stops capturing the privilege use for the policy.

  5. Generate privilege analysis results.

    This step writes the results to the data dictionary views described in Privilege Analysis Policy and Report Data Dictionary Views.

  6. Optionally, disable and then drop the privilege analysis policy and capture run.

    Dropping a privilege analysis policy deletes the data captured by the policy.

Creating a Privilege Analysis Policy

You can create a privilege analysis policy in either Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or from SQL*Plus, using the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package.

About Creating a Privilege Analysis Policy

When a policy is created, it resides in the Oracle data dictionary and the SYS schema.

However, both SYS and the user who created the policy can drop it. After you create the policy, you must manually enable it so that it can begin to analyze privilege use. If you want to configure privilege analysis by using Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, then ensure that you have the latest plug-in. For information about how to deploy a plug-in, see Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrator's Guide.

Creating a Privilege Analysis Policy in Enterprise Manager Cloud Control

You can create a privilege analysis policy in Cloud Control.

  1. Log in to Cloud Control as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege. Oracle Database 2 Day DBA explains how to log in.
  2. From the Security menu, select Privilege Analysis.

    The Privilege Analysis home page appears.


    Description of priv_analysis_home122.png follows
    Description of the illustration priv_analysis_home122.png
  3. In the Privilege Analysis page, under Policies, select Create Capture.

    The Privilege Analysis: Create Policy page appears.

  4. Enter the following information:
    • Policy: Enter a unique name for the privilege analysis policy. You can find the names of existing policies by querying the NAME column of the DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES view. You can include spaces in the name and have a maximum of 128 characters in this name.

    • Description: Optionally, enter a description for the policy, in up to 1024 characters.

    • Scope: Select from the following types:

      • Database captures all privileges that were used in the entire database, except privileges from user SYS.

      • Role captures privileges from one or more roles that you specify. If the roles in the list are enabled in the database session, then the used privileges for the session will be captured. If you select this option, then the Create Policy page displays the Available Roles list.

      • Context captures privileges when the condition that you specify evaluates to TRUE. If you select this option, then the Capture Policy page displays a Condition field. To build the condition, select the edit icon on the right of this field to display the Policy Expression Builder dialog box.

      • Role and Context captures privileges from one of the specified roles when the context condition evaluates to TRUE. If you select this option, then both the list of available roles and Condition field appear.

  5. Click OK.

    The new policy appears in the Policies area of the Privilege Analysis page.

  6. To enable the policy so that it can begin to capture privilege use, return to the main Privilege Analysis policy page, select the policy under Policies, and then click Start Capture.
    The Privilege Analysis: Start Capture dialog box appears.
  7. Enter the following information to set the time in which the capture will begin:
    • To start the privilege capture process immediately, click Immediate and then click the OK button.
    • To start the privilege capture at a later date, click Later, specify the date and time that you want to capture process to begin, and then click OK.
    The Privilege Analysis page appears. The time that you set for the policy to begin is listed under First Start Time for the policy. If you want to modify the start time, select the policy and click Start Capture.
Creating a Privilege Analysis Policy Using DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE procedure creates a privilege analysis policy.

After you create the privilege analysis policy, you can find it listed in the DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES data dictionary view.

  • Use the following syntax for the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE procedure:

    DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
       name              VARCHAR2, 
       description       VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL, 
       type              NUMBER DEFAULT DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_DATABASE, 
       roles             ROLE_NAME_LIST DEFAULT ROLE_NAME_LIST(), 
       condition         VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL);
    

In this specification:

  • name: Specifies the name of the privilege analysis policy to be created. Ensure that this name is unique and no more than 128 characters. You can include spaces in the name, but you must enclose the name in single quotation marks whenever you refer to it. To find the names of existing policies, query the NAME column of the DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES view.

  • description: Describes the purpose of the privilege analysis policy, up to 1024 characters in mixed-case letters. Optional.

  • type: Specifies the type of capture condition. If you omit the type parameter, then the default is DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_DATABASE. Optional.

    Enter one of the following types:

    • DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_DATABASE: Captures all privileges used in the entire database, except privileges from user SYS.

    • DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE: Captures privileges for the sessions that have the roles enabled. If you enter DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE for the type parameter, then you must also specify the roles parameter. For multiple roles, separate each role name with a comma.

    • DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_CONTEXT: Captures privileges for the sessions that have the condition specified by the condition parameter evaluating to TRUE. If you enter DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_CONTEXT for the type parameter, then you must also specify the condition parameter.

    • DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE_AND_CONTEXT: Captures privileges for the sessions that have the role enabled and the context condition evaluating to TRUE. If you enter DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE_AND_CONTEXT for the type parameter, then you must also specify both the roles and condition parameters.

  • roles: Specifies the roles whose used privileges will be analyzed. That is, if a privilege from one of the given roles is used, then the privilege will be analyzed. You must specify this argument if you specify DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE or DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE_AND_CONTEXT for the type argument. Each role you enter must exist in the database. (You can find existing roles by querying the DBA_ROLES data dictionary view.) For multiple roles, use varray type role_name_list to enter the role names. You can specify up to 10 roles.

    For example, to specify two roles:

    roles => role_name_list('role1', 'role2'),
    
  • condition: Specifies a Boolean expression up to 4000 characters. You must specify this argument if you specify DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_CONTEXT or DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE_AND_CONTEXT for the type argument. Only SYS_CONTEXT expressions with relational operators(==, >, >=, <, <=, <>, BETWEEN, and IN) are permitted in this Boolean expression.

    The condition expression syntax is as follows:

    predicate::= SYS_CONTEXT(namespace, attribute) relop constant_value |
                 SYS_CONTEXT(namespace, attribute)
                 BETWEEN 
                 constant_value 
                 AND constant_value | SYS_CONTEXT(namespace, attribute) 
                 IN {constant_value (,constant_value)* }
    
    relop::= = | < | <= | > | >= | <>
    
    context_expression::= predicate | (context_expression) 
                 AND (context_expression) | (context_expression) 
                 OR (context_expression )
    

    For example, to use a condition to specify the IP address 192.0.2.1:

    condition => 'SYS_CONTEXT(''USERENV'', ''IP_ADDRESS'')=''192.0.2.1''';
    

* You can add as many constant values as you need (for example, IN {constant_value1}, or IN {constant_value1, constant_value2, constant_value3}).

Remember that after you create the privilege analysis policy, you must enable it, as described in Enabling a Privilege Analysis Policy.

Examples of Privilege Analysis Policies

You can create a variety of privilege analysis policies.

Example: Privilege Analysis of Database-Wide Privileges

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE can be used to analyze database-wide privileges.

Example 4-1 shows how to use the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE package to create and enable a privilege analysis policy to record all privilege use in the database.

Example 4-1 Privilege Analysis of Database-Wide Privileges

BEGIN
 DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
  name          => 'db_wide_capture_pol',
  description   => 'Captures database-wide privileges',
  type          => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_DATABASE);
END;
/
EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE ('db_wide_capture_pol');
Example: Privilege Analysis of Privilege Usage of Two Roles

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE procedure can be used to analyze the privilege usage of multiple roles.

Example 4-2 shows how to analyze the privilege usage of two roles.

Example 4-2 Privilege Analysis of Privilege Usage of Two Roles

BEGIN
 DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
  name          => 'dba_roles_capture_pol',
  description   => 'Captures DBA and LBAC_DBA role use',
  type          => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE,
  roles         => role_name_list('dba', 'lbac_dba'));
END;
/
EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE ('dba_roles_capture_pol');
Example: Privilege Analysis of Privileges During SQL*Plus Use

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE procedure can be used to capture privileges for analysis.

Example 4-3 shows how to analyze privileges used to run SQL*Plus.

Example 4-3 Privilege Analysis of Privileges During SQL*Plus Use

BEGIN
 DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
  name             => 'sqlplus_capture_pol',
  description      => 'Captures privilege use during SQL*Plus use',
  type             => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_CONTEXT,
  condition        => 'SYS_CONTEXT(''USERENV'', ''MODULE'')=''sqlplus''');
END;
/
EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE ('sqlplus_capture_pol');
Example: Privilege Analysis of PSMITH Privileges During SQL*Plus Access

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE can be used to analyze user access when the user is running SQL*Plus.

Example 4-4 shows how to analyze the privileges used by session user PSMITH when running SQL*Plus.

Example 4-4 Privilege Analysis of PSMITH Privileges During SQL*Plus Access

BEGIN
 DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
  name         => 'psmith_sqlplus_analysis_pol',
  description  => 'Analyzes PSMITH role priv use for SQL*Plus module',
  type         => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_CONTEXT,
  condition    => 'SYS_CONTEXT(''USERENV'', ''MODULE'')=''sqlplus'' 
                  AND SYS_CONTEXT(''USERENV'', ''SESSION_USER'')=''PSMITH''');
END;
/
EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE ('psmith_sqlplus_analysis_pol');

Enabling a Privilege Analysis Policy

You can enable a privilege analysis policy using either Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or from SQL*Plus, using the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package.

About Enabling a Privilege Analysis Policy

After you create a privilege analysis policy, you must enable it.

When you enable a privilege analysis policy, you can create a named capture run for the policy’s findings. The capture run defines a period of time from when the capture is enabled (begun) and when it is disabled (stopped). This way, you can create multiple runs and then compare them when you generate the privilege capture results. Tutorial: Using Capture Runs to Analyze ANY Privilege Use provides an example of how you can create and generate multiple capture runs.

The general process for managing multiple named capture runs is as follows:

  1. Create the policy.

  2. Enable the policy for the first run.

  3. After a period time to collect user behavior data, disable this policy and its run.

  4. Generate the results and then query the privilege analysis data dictionary views for information about this capture run.

    If you omit the run_name parameter from the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT procedure, then this procedure looks at all records as a whole and then analyzes them.

  5. Re-enable the policy for the second run. You cannot create a new capture run if the policy has not been disabled first.

  6. After you have collected the user data, disable the policy and the second run.

  7. Generate the results.

  8. Query the privilege analysis data dictionary views. The results from both capture runs are available in the views. If you only want to show the results of one of the capture runs, then you can regenerate the results and requery the privilege analysis views.

Once enabled, the privilege analysis policy will begin to record the privilege usage when the condition is satisfied. At any given time, only one privilege analysis policy in the database can be enabled. The only exception is that a privilege analysis policy of type DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_DATABASE can be enabled at the same time with a privilege analysis of a different type.

When you drop a privilege analysis policy, its associated capture runs are dropped as well and are not reflected in the privilege analysis data dictionary views.

Restarting a database does not change the status of a privilege analysis. For example, if a privilege analysis policy is enabled before a database shutdown, then the policy is still enabled after the database shutdown and restart.

Enabling a Privilege Analysis Policy Using Cloud Control

You can enable a privilege analysis policy using Cloud Control.

  1. Log in to Cloud Control as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege. Oracle Database 2 Day DBA explains how to log in.
  2. From the Security menu, select Privilege Analysis.
  3. Under Policies, select the policy that you want to enable.
  4. Select the Start Capture button.
  5. In the Privilege Analysis: Start Capture dialog box, specify a time to begin the privilege analysis policy.

    To run the policy now, select Immediate. To run the policy later, select Later, and then specify the hour, minute, second, and the time zone for the policy to begin.

  6. Click OK.
Enabling a Privilege Analysis Policy Using DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE procedure enables a privilege policy and creates a capture run name for it.

The run name defines the period of time that the capture took place.
  1. Query the NAME and ENABLED columns of the DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES data dictionary view to find the existing privilege analysis policies and whether they are currently enabled.
  2. Run the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE procedure to enable the policy and optionally create a name for a capture run.

    For example, to enable the privilege analysis policy logon_users_analysis:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE (
        name     => 'logon_users_analysis_pol',
        run_name => 'logon_users_04092016');
    END;
    /

Disabling a Privilege Analysis Policy

You can disable a privilege analysis policy using either Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or from SQL*Plus, using the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package.

About Disabling a Privilege Analysis Policy

You must disable the privilege analysis policy before you can generate a privilege analysis report.

After you disable the policy, then the privileges are no longer recorded. Disabling a privilege analysis policy takes effect immediately for user sessions logged on both before and after the privilege analysis policy is disabled.

Disabling a Privilege Analysis Policy Using Cloud Control

You can disable a privilege analysis policy using Cloud Control.

  1. Log in to Cloud Control as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege. Oracle Database 2 Day DBA explains how to log in.
  2. From the Security menu, select Privilege Analysis.
  3. Under Policies, select the policy that you want to disable.
  4. Select Stop Capture.
  5. In the Privilege Analysis: Stop Capture dialog box, do the following: specify a time to stop the privilege analysis policy.
    1. To stop the policy now, select Immediate. To stop the policy later, select Later, and then specify the hour, minute, second, and the time zone for the policy to stop.
    2. To generate a report, click the Generate Report button. You can view the reports from the Privilege Analysis page by selecting the policy and clicking View Reports.
  6. Click OK.
Disabling a Privilege Analysis Policy Using DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DISABLE_CAPTURE procedure disables a privilege analysis policy.

  1. Query the NAME and ENABLED columns of the DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES data dictionary view to find the existing privilege analysis policies and whether they are currently disabled.
  2. Run the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DISBLE_CAPTURE procedure to enable the policy.

    For example, to disable the privilege analysis policy logon_users_analysis:

    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DISABLE_CAPTURE ('logon_users_analysis_pol');

Generating a Privilege Analysis Report

You can generate a privilege analysis policy report using either Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or from SQL*Plus, using the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package.

About Generating a Privilege Analysis Report

After the privilege analysis policy has been disabled, you can generate a report.

In Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, you can view the reports from the Privilege Analysis page Actions menu, and from there, revoke and regrant roles and privileges as necessary. To view the report results in SQL*Plus, query the data dictionary views in Privilege Analysis Policy and Report Data Dictionary Views. If a privilege is used during the privilege analysis process and then revoked before you generate the report, then the privilege is still reported as a used privilege, but without the privilege grant path.

Generating a Privilege Analysis Report Using Cloud Control

You can generate a privilege analysis report using Cloud Control.

  1. Log in to Cloud Control as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege. Oracle Database 2 Day DBA explains how to log in.
  2. From the Security menu, select Privilege Analysis.
  3. Under Policies, select the policy whose report you want to generate.
  4. Select Generate Report.
  5. In the Privilege Analysis: Generate Report dialog box, specify a time to generate the report.

    To generate the report now, select Immediate. To generate the report later, select Later, and then specify the hour, minute, second, and the time zone for the report to generate.

  6. Click OK.

    In the Privilege Analysis page, a Confirmation message notifies you that a report has been submitted. You can refresh the page until the job is complete. To view the report, select the policy name and then click View Reports.

Accessing Privilege Analysis Reports Using Cloud Control

A privilege analysis report provides information about both used and unused privileges.

  1. Generate the privilege analysis report.
  2. In the Privilege Analysis page, select the policy on which you generated a report.
  3. Select View Reports.

    The Privilege Analysis Reports page appears.

  4. To view the report, do the following:
    • By default, the selected report will appear, but to search for a report for another policy, use the Search region to find a different report, or to select a different grantee for the currently selected policy.
    • To view unused privileges, select the Unused tab; to view the used privileges, select Used. To view a summary of both, select Summary.

    From here, you can select roles to revoke or regrant to users as necessary. To do so, under Grantee, select the role and then click Revoke or Regrant.

Generating a Privilege Analysis Report Using DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT procedure generates a report showing the results of a privilege capture.

  1. Query the NAME and ENABLED columns of the DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES data dictionary view to find the existing privilege analysis policies and whether they are currently disabled.

    The privilege analysis policy must be disabled before you can generate a privilege analysis report on it.

  2. Run the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT procedure using the following syntax:
    DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT(
      name         VARCHAR2,
      run_name     VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL,
      dependency   BOOLEAN DEFAULT NULL);

    In this specification:

    • name: Specifies the name of the privilege analysis policy. The DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES data dictionary view lists the names of existing policies.

    • run_name: Specifies the name for the run name for the privilege capture that must be computed. If you omit this setting, then all runs for the given privilege capture are computed.

    • dependency: Enter Y (yes) or N (no) to specify whether the PL/SQL computation privilege usage should be included in the report.

    For example, to generate a report for the privilege analysis policy logon_users_analysis:

    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT ('logon_users_analysis');
    
  3. Query the used privileges from DBA_USED_* data dictionary views with privilege grant paths.

Dropping a Privilege Analysis Policy

You can drop a privilege analysis policy report using either Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or from SQL*Plus, using the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE PL/SQL package.

About Dropping a Privilege Analysis Policy

Before you can drop a privilege analysis policy, you must first disable it.

Dropping a privilege analysis policy also drops all the used and unused privilege records associated with this privilege analysis. If you created capture runs for the policy, they are dropped when you drop the policy.

Dropping a Privilege Analysis Policy Using Cloud Control

You can drop a privilege analysis policy by using Cloud Control.

  1. Log in to Cloud Control as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege. Oracle Database 2 Day DBA explains how to log in.
  2. From the Security menu, select Privilege Analysis.
  3. Under Policies, select the policy that you want to drop.
  4. Select Delete Capture.
  5. In the Confirmation dialog box, select Yes.
Dropping a Privilege Analysis Policy Using the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE Package

The DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DROP_CAPTURE procedure drops a privilege analysis policy.

  1. Query the NAME and ENABLE columns of the DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES data dictionary view to find the policy and to check if it is enabled or disabled.
  2. If the policy is enabled, then disable it.

    For example:

    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DISABLE_CAPTURE ('logon_users_analysis_pol');
    
  3. Run the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DROP_CAPTURE procedure to drop the policy.

    For example:

    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DROP_CAPTURE ('logon_users_analysis_pol');

    If you had enabled the policy with a capture run, then the capture run is dropped as well. To individually drop a capture run, you can run the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DELETE_RUN procedure, but the policy must exist before you can run this statement.

Creating Roles and Managing Privileges Using Cloud Control

You can create new roles using privileges found in a privilege analysis report and then grant this role to users.

Creating a Role from a Privilege Analysis Report in Cloud Control

You can use the report summary to find the least number of privileges an application needs, and encapsulate these privileges into a role.

  1. Log in to Cloud Control as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege. Oracle Database 2 Day DBA explains how to log in.
  2. On the Privilege Analysis page, select the policy name, and then from Actions menu, click Create Role.
  3. On the Create Role page, provide the following details, and then click OK:
    • Select the policy from which you would like to create a new role.

    • Enter a unique name for the new role that you want to create.

    • Select the Used or Unused check box, depending on what your role must encapsulate. The role can have used or unused system and object privileges and roles.

    • Select the corresponding radio buttons for Directly Granted System Privileges, Directly Granted Object Privileges, and Directly Granted Roles.

      For example, if you select the Used check box, and select:

      • All system privileges, then all the used system privileges captured are included in the new role that you are creating.

      • None for role, then no role that is captured in the policy will be used in the new role.

      • Customize object privileges, then a list of available used objects privileges captured are displayed, you need to select the privileges from the list to assign to the role.

Revoking and Regranting Roles and Privileges Using Cloud Control

You can use Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to revoke and regrant roles and privileges to users.

  1. If Oracle Database Vault is enabled, then ensure that you are authorized as an owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm.

    In SQL*Plus, a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can check the authorization by querying the DBA_DV_REALM_AUTH data dictionary view. To grant the user authorization, use the DBMS_MACADM.ADD_AUTH_TO_REALM procedure.

  2. Generate the privilege analysis report.
  3. In the Privilege Analysis page, select the policy on which you generated a report.
  4. Select View Reports.
  5. In the Privilege Analysis: Reports page, select the Summary tab.
  6. Under Search, ensure that the Policy and Grantee menu options are set.
  7. Under the Grantee area, expand the grantee options.
    For example, for a role privilege analysis report for a role called HR_ADMIN role, you would expand the HR_ADMIN role to show the privileges that are associated with it.
  8. Select each privilege to revoke and then click Revoke, or select Regrant to regrant the privilege to the role.

Generating a Revoke or Regrant Script Using Cloud Control

You can generate a script that revokes or regrants privileges from and to users, based on the results of privilege analysis reports.

About Generating Revoke and Regrant Scripts

You can perform a bulk revoke of unused system and object privileges and roles by using scripts that you can download after you have generated the privilege analysis.

Later on, if you want to regrant these privileges back to the user, you can generate a regrant script. In order to generate the regrant script, you must have a corresponding revoke script.

Execute the revoke scripts in a development or test environment. Be aware that you cannot revoke privileges and roles from Oracle-supplied accounts and roles.

Generating a Revoke Script

You can use Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to generate a script that revokes privileges from users.

  1. If Oracle Database Vault is enabled, then ensure that you are authorized as an owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm.

    In SQL*Plus, a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can check the authorization by querying the DBA_DV_REALM_AUTH data dictionary view. To grant the user authorization, use the DBMS_MACADM.ADD_AUTH_TO_REALM procedure.

  2. In Enterprise Manager, access the target Database home page as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege.

    See Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information.

  3. From the Security menu, select Privilege Analysis.
  4. Ensure that the reports you want have been generated.
  5. In the Privilege Analysis page, from the Actions menu, select Revoke Scripts.
  6. On the Revoke Scripts page, click Generate.

    The generate revoke script details wizard is displayed.

  7. In the Script Details page, do the following: select a policy name from the Policy Name menu against which the revoke script needs to be prepared.
  8. In the Script Name field, enter a unique name and for Description, a description for the script.

    For example, if you want to revoke all the unused privileges, select the All option for all the unused privileges and roles, and click Next.

    Based on your selection, and the available privileges, all the unused system privileges, object privileges, and roles that are going to be revoked are displayed on the respective pages.

  9. For Grantee (user/role), select All or Customize.
  10. Select All, None, or Customize for the Unused System Privileges, Unused Object Privileges, and Unused Roles settings.
  11. Click Next.

    The next pages that appear depend on your selections of All, None, or Customize. If you selected all, the page displays a listing of the privileges. If you selected None, the page is bypassed. If you selected Customize, then you can individually select the privileges to revoke. The last page that appears is the Review page.

  12. Click Save.

    The Revoke Scripts page appears.

  13. In the Revoke Scripts page, select the newly created SQL script, and then click Download Revoke Script to download this script, which contains REVOKE SQL statements for each privilege or role.

    To view the script, click the View Revoke Script button.

  14. To return to the Privilege Analysis page, click Return.
Generating a Regrant Script

You can use Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to generate a script that regrants privileges that have been revoked from users.

  1. If Oracle Database Vault is enabled, then ensure that you are authorized as an owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm.

    In SQL*Plus, a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can check the authorization by querying the DBA_DV_REALM_AUTH data dictionary view. To grant the user authorization, use the DBMS_MACADM.ADD_AUTH_TO_REALM procedure.

  2. In Enterprise Manager, access the target Database home page as a user who has been granted the CAPTURE_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege.

    See Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information.

  3. From the Security menu, select Privilege Analysis.
  4. Ensure that the reports you want have been generated.
  5. In the Privilege Analysis page, select the policy on which the revoke script was based.
  6. From the Actions menu, select Revoke Scripts.
  7. In the Revoke Scripts page, select the policy name that you had created earlier, and then click Download Regrant Script to download this script.

    You can view the scripts that are associated with the policy by selecting the View Revoke Script and View Regrant Script buttons.

Tutorial: Using Capture Runs to Analyze ANY Privilege Use

This tutorial demonstrates how to create capture runs to analyze the use of the READ ANY TABLE system privilege.

Step 1: Create User Accounts

You must create two users, one user to create the policy and a second user whose privilege use will be analyzed.

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role.

    For example:

    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr
    Enter password: password
    

    In a multitenant environment, you must connect to the appropriate pluggable database (PDB).

    For example:

    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    To find the available PDBs, query the DBA_PDBS data dictionary view. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

    If Oracle Database Vault is not enabled, then log into the database instance as a user who has the CREATE USER system privilege.

  2. Create the following users:
    CREATE USER pa_admin IDENTIFIED BY password;
    CREATE USER app_user IDENTIFIED BY password;
    
  3. Connect as a user who has the privileges to grant roles and system privileges to other users, and who has been granted the owner authorization for the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm. (User SYS has these privileges by default.)

    For example:

    CONNECT dba_psmith -- Or, CONNECT dba_psmith@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    In SQL*Plus, a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can check the authorization by querying the DBA_DV_REALM_AUTH data dictionary view. To grant the user authorization, use the DBMS_MACADM.ADD_AUTH_TO_REALM procedure.

  4. Grant the following role and privilege to the users.
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, CAPTURE_ADMIN TO pa_admin;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, READ ANY TABLE TO app_user;
    

    User pa_admin will create the privilege analysis policy that will analyze the READ ANY TABLE query that user app_user will perform.

Step 2: Create and Enable a Privilege Analysis Policy

The user pa_admin must create and enable the privilege analysis policy.

  1. Connect as user pa_admin.
    CONNECT pa_admin -- Or, CONNECT pa_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Create the following privilege analysis policy:
    BEGIN
     DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
      name           => 'ANY_priv_analysis_pol',
      description    => 'Analyzes system privilege use',
      type           => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_CONTEXT,
      condition      => 'SYS_CONTEXT(''USERENV'', ''SESSION_USER'')=''APP_USER''');
    END;
    /
    

    In this example:

    • type specifies the type of capture condition that is defined by the condition parameter, described next. In this policy, the type is a context-based condition.

    • condition specifies condition using a Boolean expression that must evaluate to TRUE for the policy to take effect. In this case, the condition checks if the session user is app_user.

  3. Enable the policy and create a capture run for it.
    BEGIN
      DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE (
       name       => 'ANY_priv_analysis_pol',
       run_name   => 'ANY_priv_pol_run_1');
    END;
    /
    

    At this point, the policy is ready to start recording the actions of user app_user.

Step 3: Use the READ ANY TABLE System Privilege

User app_user uses the READ ANY TABLE system privilege.

  1. Connect as user app_user.
    CONNECT app_user -- Or, CONNECT app_user@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Query the HR.EMPLOYEES table.
    SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, SALARY FROM HR.EMPLOYEES WHERE SALARY > 12000 ORDER BY SALARY DESC;
    
    FIRST_NAME           LAST_NAME                     SALARY
    -------------------- ------------------------- ----------
    Steven               King                           24000
    Neena                Kochhar                        17000
    Lex                  De Haan                        17000
    John                 Russell                        14000
    Karen                Partners                       13500
    Michael              Hartstein                      13000
    Shelley              Higgins                        12008
    Nancy                Greenberg                      12008

Step 4: Disable the Privilege Analysis Policy

You must disable the policy before you can generate a report that captures the actions of user app_user.

  1. Connect as user pa_admin.
    CONNECT pa_admin -- Or, CONNECT pa_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Disable the ANY_priv_analysis_pol privilege policy.
    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DISABLE_CAPTURE ('ANY_priv_analysis_pol');

Step 5: Generate and View a Privilege Analysis Report

With the privilege analysis policy disabled, user pa_admin then can generate and view a privilege analysis report.

  1. As user pa_admin, generate the privilege analysis results.
    BEGIN
      DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT (
        name      => 'ANY_priv_analysis_pol',
        run_name  => 'ANY_priv_pol_run_1');
    END;
    /
    

    The generated results are stored in the privilege analysis data dictionary views, which are described in Privilege Analysis Policy and Report Data Dictionary Views.

  2. Enter the following commands to format the data dictionary view output:
    col username format a10
    col sys_priv format a16
    col object_owner format a13
    col object_name format a23
    col run_name format a27
  3. Find the system privileges that app_user used and the objects on which he used them during the privilege analysis period.
    SELECT SYS_PRIV, OBJECT_OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, RUN_NAME FROM DBA_USED_PRIVS WHERE USERNAME = 'APP_USER';
    

    Output similar to the following appears. The first row shows that app_user used the READ ANY TABLE privilege on the HR.EMPLOYEES table.

    SYS_PRIV         OBJECT_OWNER  OBJECT_NAME             RUN_NAME
    ---------------- ------------- ----------------------- ------------------
                     SYSTEM        PRODUCT_PRIVS           ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYS           DUAL                    ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYS           DUAL                    ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
    CREATE SESSION                                         ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYS           DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO   ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
    READ ANY TABLE   HR            EMPLOYEES               ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
At this stage, the privilege analysis results remain available in the privilege analysis data dictionary views, even if you create additional capture runs in the future.

Step 6: Create a Second Capture Run

Next, you are ready to create a second capture run for the ANY_priv_analysis_pol privilege analysis policy.

  1. As user pa_admin, enable the ANY_priv_analysis_pol privilege analysis policy to use capture run ANY_priv_pol_run_1.
    BEGIN
      DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE (
       name       => 'ANY_priv_analysis_pol',
       run_name   => 'ANY_priv_pol_run_2');
    END;
    /
    
  2. Connect as user app_user.
    CONNECT app_user -- Or, CONNECT app_user@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  3. Query the HR.JOBS table.
    SELECT MAX_SALARY FROM HR.JOBS WHERE MAX_SALARY > 20000;
  4. Connect as user pa_admin.
    CONNECT pa_admin -- Or, CONNECT pa_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
  5. Disable the ANY_priv_analysis_pol privilege policy.
    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DISABLE_CAPTURE ('ANY_priv_analysis_pol');
  6. Generate a second privilege analysis report.
    BEGIN
      DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT (
        name      => 'ANY_priv_analysis_pol',
        run_name  => 'ANY_priv_pol_run_2');
    END;
    /
    
  7. Find the system privileges that app_user used and the objects on which he used them during the privilege analysis period.
    SELECT SYS_PRIV, OBJECT_OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, RUN_NAME FROM DBA_USED_PRIVS WHERE USERNAME = 'APP_USER' ORDER BY RUN_NAME;
    

    Output similar to the following appears, which now shows the results of both of the capture runs that user pa_admin created.

    SYS_PRIV         OBJECT_OWNER  OBJECT_NAME             RUN_NAME
    ---------------- ------------- ----------------------- ----------------------
    READ ANY TABLE   HR            EMPLOYEES               ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYS           DUAL                    ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
    CREATE SESSION                                         ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYS           DUAL                    ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYSTEM        PRODUCT_PRIVS           ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYS           DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO   ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_1
                     SYS           DUAL                    ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_2
                     SYS           DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO   ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_2
                     SYSTEM        PRODUCT_PRIVS           ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_2
                     SYS           DUAL                    ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_2
    READ ANY TABLE   HR            JOBS                    ANY_PRIV_POL_RUN_2

Step 7: Remove the Components for This Tutorial

You can remove the components that you created for this tutorial if you no longer need them.

  1. As user pa_admin, drop the ANY_priv_analysis_pol privilege analysis policy and its associated capture runs.
    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DROP_CAPTURE ('ANY_priv_analysis_pol');
    

    Any capture runs that are associated with this policy are dropped automatically when you run the DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DROP_CAPTURE procedure.

    Even though in the next steps you will drop the pa_admin user, including any objects created in this user's schema, you must manually drop the ANY_priv_analysis_pol privilege analysis policy because this object resides in the SYS schema.

  2. Connect as the user who created the user accounts. If Oracle Database Vault is enabled, then connect as the Oracle Database Vault Account Manager.

    For example:

    CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr -- Or, CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  3. Drop the users pa_admin and app_user.
    DROP USER pa_admin;
    DROP USER app_user;

Tutorial: Analyzing Privilege Use by a User Who Has the DBA Role

This tutorial demonstrates how to analyze the privilege use of a user who has the DBA role and performs database tuning operations.

Step 1: Create User Accounts

You must create two users, one to create the privilege analysis policy and a second user whose privilege use will be analyzed.

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role.

    For example:

    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr
    Enter password: password
    

    In a multitenant environment, you must log into the appropriate pluggable database (PDB).

    For example:

    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    To find the available PDBs, query the DBA_PDBS data dictionary view. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

    If Oracle Database Vault is not enabled, then log into the database instance as a user who has the CREATE USER system privilege.

  2. Create the following users:
    CREATE USER pa_admin IDENTIFIED BY password;
    CREATE USER tjones IDENTIFIED BY password;
    

    Follow the guidelines in Oracle Database Security Guide to replace password with a password that is secure.

  3. Connect as a user who has the privileges to grant roles and system privileges to other users, and who has been granted the owner authorization for the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm. (User SYS has these privileges by default.)

    For example:

    CONNECT dba_psmith -- Or, CONNECT dba_psmith@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    In SQL*Plus, a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can check the authorization by querying the DBA_DV_REALM_AUTH data dictionary view. To grant the user authorization, use the DBMS_MACADM.ADD_AUTH_TO_REALM procedure.

  4. Grant the following roles and privileges to the users.
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, CAPTURE_ADMIN TO pa_admin;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, DBA TO tjones;
    

    User pa_admin will create the privilege analysis policy that will analyze the database tuning operations that user tjones will perform.

Step 2: Create and Enable a Privilege Analysis Policy

User pa_admin must create the and enable the privilege analysis policy.

  1. Connect as user pa_admin.
    CONNECT pa_admin -- Or, CONNECT pa_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    

    If Oracle Database Vault is enabled, then log in as the Database Vault Account Manager, who has the DV_ACCTMGR role. Ensure that you are the owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm.

  2. Create the following privilege analysis policy:
    BEGIN
     DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE(
      name             => 'dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol',
      description      => 'Analyzes DBA tuning privilege use',
      type             => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_CONTEXT,
      condition        => 'SYS_CONTEXT(''USERENV'', ''SESSION_USER'')=''TJONES''');
    END;
    /
    

    In this example:

    • type specifies the type of capture condition that is defined by the condition parameter, described next. In this policy, the type is a context-based condition.

    • condition specifies condition using a Boolean expression that must evaluate to TRUE for the policy to take effect. In this case, the condition checks if the session user is tjones.

  3. Enable the policy.
    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.ENABLE_CAPTURE ('dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol');
    

    At this point, the policy is ready to start recording the actions of user tjones.

Step 3: Perform the Database Tuning Operations

User tjones uses the DBA role to perform database tuning operations.

  1. Connect as user tjones.
    CONNECT tjones -- Or, CONNECT tjones@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Run the following script to create the PLAN_TABLE table.
    @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlxplan.sql
    

    The location of this script may vary depending on your operating system. This script creates the PLAN_TABLE table in the tjones schema.

  3. Run the following EXPLAIN PLAN SQL statement on the HR.EMPLOYEES table:
    EXPLAIN PLAN
     SET STATEMENT_ID = 'Raise in Tokyo' 
     INTO PLAN_TABLE
     FOR UPDATE HR.EMPLOYEES
     SET SALARY = SALARY * 1.10
     WHERE DEPARTMENT_ID = 
      (SELECT DEPARTMENT_ID FROM HR.DEPARTMENTS WHERE LOCATION_ID = 110);
    

    Next, user tjones will analyze the HR.EMPLOYEES table.

  4. Run either of the following scripts to create the CHAINED_ROWS table
    @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlchain.sql
    

    Or

    @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlchn1.sql
    
  5. Run the ANALYZE TABLE statement on the HR.EMPLOYEES table.
    ANALYZE TABLE HR.EMPLOYEES LIST CHAINED ROWS INTO CHAINED_ROWS;

Step 4: Disable the Privilege Analysis Policy

You must disable the policy before you can generate a report that captures the actions of user tjones.

  1. Connect as user pa_admin.
    CONNECT pa_admin -- Or, CONNECT pa_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Disable the dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol privilege policy.
    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DISABLE_CAPTURE ('dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol');

Step 5: Generate and View Privilege Analysis Reports

With the privilege analysis policy disabled, user pa_admin can generate and view privilege analysis reports.

  1. As user pa_admin, generate the privilege analysis results.
    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT ('dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol');
    

    The generated results are stored in the privilege analysis data dictionary views, which are described in Privilege Analysis Policy and Report Data Dictionary Views.

  2. Enter the following commands to format the data dictionary view output:
    col username format a8
    col sys_priv format a18
    col used_role format a20
    col path format a150
    col obj_priv format a10
    col object_owner format a10
    col object_name format a10
    col object_type format a10
    
  3. Find the system privileges and roles that user tjones used during the privilege analysis period.
    SELECT USERNAME, SYS_PRIV, USED_ROLE, PATH
     FROM DBA_USED_SYSPRIVS_PATH
     WHERE USERNAME = 'TJONES'
     ORDER BY 1, 2, 3;
    

    Output similar to the following appears:

    USERNAME SYS_PRIV           USED_ROLE
    -------- ------------------ --------------------
    PATH
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TJONES   ANALYZE ANY        IMP_FULL_DATABASE
    GRANT_PATH('TJONES', 'DBA')
    
    TJONES   ANALYZE ANY        IMP_FULL_DATABASE
    GRANT_PATH('TJONES', 'DBA', 'IMP_FULL_DATABASE')
    
    TJONES   ANALYZE ANY        IMP_FULL_DATABASE
    GRANT_PATH('TJONES', 'DBA', 'DATAPUMP_IMP_FULL_DATABASE', 'IMP_FULL_DATABASE')
    ...
  4. Find the object privileges and roles that user tjones used during the privilege analysis period.
    col username format a9
    col used_role format a10
    col object_name format a22
    col object_type format a12
    
    SELECT USERNAME, OBJ_PRIV, USED_ROLE,
     OBJECT_OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_TYPE
     FROM DBA_USED_OBJPRIVS 
     WHERE USERNAME = 'TJONES'
     ORDER BY 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6;
    

    Output similar to the following appears:

    USERNAME  OBJ_PRIV   USED_ROLE  OBJECT_OWN OBJECT_NAME            OBJECT_TYPE
    --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------------------- ------------
    TJONES    EXECUTE    PUBLIC     SYS        DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO  PACKAGE
    TJONES    SELECT     PUBLIC     SYS        DUAL                   TABLE
    TJONES    SELECT     PUBLIC     SYS        DUAL                   TABLE
    TJONES    SELECT     PUBLIC     SYSTEM     PRODUCT_PRIVS          VIEW
    ...
    
  5. Find the unused system privileges for user tjones.
    col username format a9
    col sys_priv format a35
    
    SELECT USERNAME, SYS_PRIV
     FROM DBA_UNUSED_SYSPRIVS
     WHERE USERNAME = 'TJONES'
     ORDER BY 1, 2;
    
    USERNAME SYS_PRIV
    -------- ------------------------------
    TJONES   ADMINISTER ANY SQL TUNING SET
    TJONES   ADMINISTER DATABASE TRIGGER
    TJONES   ADMINISTER RESOURCE MANAGER
    TJONES   ADMINISTER SQL TUNING SET
    TJONES   ALTER ANY ASSEMBLY
    TJONES   ON COMMIT REFRESH
    ...

Step 6: Remove the Components for This Tutorial

You can remove the components that you created for this tutorial if you no longer need them.

  1. As user pa_admin, drop the dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol privilege analysis policy.
    EXEC DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.DROP_CAPTURE ('dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol');
    

    Even though in the next steps you will drop the pa_admin user, including any objects created in this user's schema, you must manually drop the dba_tuning_priv_analysis_pol privilege analysis policy because this object resides in the SYS schema.

  2. Connect as the user who created the user accounts. If Oracle Database Vault is enabled, then connect as the Oracle Database Vault Account Manager.

    For example:

    CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr -- Or, CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  3. Drop the users pa_admin and tjones.
    DROP USER pa_admin;
    DROP USER tjones CASCADE;

Privilege Analysis Policy and Report Data Dictionary Views

Oracle Database provides a set of data dictionary views that provide information about analyzed privileges.

Table 4-1 lists these data dictionary views.

Table 4-1 Data Dictionary Views That Display Privilege Analysis Information

View Description

DBA_PRIV_CAPTURES

Lists information about existing privilege analysis policies

DBA_USED_PRIVS

Lists the privileges and capture runs that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies

DBA_UNUSED_GRANTS

Lists the privilege grants that have not been used

DBA_UNUSED_PRIVS

Lists the privileges and capture runs that have not been used for reported privilege analysis policies

DBA_USED_OBJPRIVS

Lists the object privileges and capture runs that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It does not include the object grant paths.

DBA_UNUSED_OBJPRIVS

Lists the object privileges and capture runs that have not been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It does not include the object privilege grant paths.

DBA_USED_OBJPRIVS_PATH

Lists the object privileges and capture runs that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It includes the object privilege grant paths.

DBA_UNUSED_OBJPRIVS_PATH

Lists the object privileges and capture runs that have not been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It includes the object privilege grant paths.

DBA_USED_SYSPRIVS

Lists the system privileges and capture runs that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It does not include the system privilege grant paths.

DBA_UNUSED_SYSPRIVS

Lists the system privileges and capture runs that have not been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It does not include the system privilege grant paths.

DBA_USED_SYSPRIVS_PATH

Lists the system privileges and capture runs that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It includes the system privilege grant paths.

DBA_UNUSED_SYSPRIVS_PATH

Lists the system privileges and capture runs that have not been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It includes system privilege grant paths

DBA_USED_PUBPRIVS

Lists all the privileges and capture runs for the PUBLIC role that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies

DBA_USED_USERPRIVS

Lists the user privileges and capture runs that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It does not include the user privilege grant paths.

DBA_UNUSED_USERPRIVS

Lists the user privileges and capture runs that have not been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It does not include the user privilege grant paths.

DBA_USED_USERPRIVS_PATH

Lists the user privileges and capture runs that have been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It includes the user privilege grant paths.

DBA_UNUSED_USERPRIVS_PATH

Lists the privileges and capture runs that have not been used for reported privilege analysis policies. It includes the user privilege grant paths.

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference for a detailed description of these data dictionary views