Changes in This Release for Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide

This preface contains the following.


Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (

The following are changes in Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (


Native JPEG 2000 Compression

GeoRaster can be natively stored in JPEG 2000 Compression now (see JPEG 2000 Compression of GeoRaster Objects). GDAL can be used to load and export JPEG 2000 files with or without decompression (see Loading JPEG and JPEG 2000 Images Without Decompression).

GeoRaster includes two new procedures for JPEG 2000 compression and decompression: SDO_GEOR.compressJP2and SDO_GEOR.decompressJP2. Most GeoRaster functions support reading or writing of JP2 compressed GeoRaster objects, including key operations such as SDO_GEOR.getRasterSubset, SDO_GEOR.subset, SDO_GEOR.rectify, large scale mosaicking, virtual mosaic, and raster algebra.

New Image Processing Capabilities

Mosaicking supports new color balancing methods: statistic matching and histogram matching either using a reference image or automatically detecting and using overlapping area (see Color Balancing During Mosaicking and the STATISTICMATCHING and HISTOGRAMMATCHING values for colorBalance in the mosaicParam Keywords table for SDO_GEOR_AGGR.mosaicSubset). The previous limit of eight overlapping GeoRaster objects for a pixel in mosaicking operation is removed.

GeoRaster includes a new image processing package, SDO_GEOR_IP, which supports linear stretching, piecewise stretching, equalization, normalization, histogram matching, dodging, and filtering. See SDO_GEOR_IP Package Reference for details about the subprograms in that package.

GeoRaster also supports warping (see Image Warping and SDO_GEOR.warp) and affine transformation (see SDO_GEOR.affineTransform).

All new functions are parallelized.

New Raster Algebra Capabilities

GeoRaster adds over 25 new operators to the Raster Algebra language, including conditionalExpr (IF-THEN-ELSE), ^ (XOR), % (MODULO), POWER, FACTORIAL, and local statistical operators.

GeoRaster provides new raster algebra functions: SDO_GEOR_RA.stack to perform stack statistical analysis, and SDO_GEOR_RA.diff and SDO_GEOR_RA.over to perform logical operations.

The previous limit of eight GeoRaster objects in one raster algebra operation is removed.

New Core Subprograms and Enhancements

Several new core functions and enhancements are provided:

Java API, Client-Side Viewer, and ETL Enhancements

All Release 12.2 server-side new functions and procedures are supported in the GeoRaster Java API. See Oracle Spatial and Graph Java API Reference for details.

GeoRaster also provides a new Virtual Mosaic Java API to enable faster integration and support advanced visualization applications. See Oracle Spatial and Graph Java API Reference for details.

The GeoRaster ETL and Viewer are integrated into one tool for ease of deployment and use. The virtual mosaic display is significantly enhanced in the Viewer. The GeoRaster Tool provides a new GUI to automate some PL/SQL tasks, such as creating GeoRaster tables, generating pyramids, and rectifying images for demonstration purposes.

Also, GDAL is distributed with Oracle Spatial and Graph. See Using GDAL from the Spatial and Graph Installation.

Web Coverage Service (WCS) 2.0.1 Support

In addition to WMS, GeoRaster supports the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Services (WCS). You can use WCS to publish GeoRaster objects in the database and allow users to retrieve the raster data over the web, including subsetting, reprojection, and support for many file formats. ( See GeoRaster Spatial Web Services.)


The SDO_GEOR_IP package contains subprograms for performing some image processing operations on GeoRaster objects. For reference and usage information about the subprograms, see SDO_GEOR_IP Package Reference.

Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (

The following are changes in Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (


GeoRaster Not Enabled by Default

By default the GeoRaster feature is disabled after the Oracle Spatial and Graph is initially installed. To enable GeoRaster, follow these steps:

  1. Connect to the database as SYS AS SYSDBA.

  2. Enter the following statement:

    EXECUTE MDSYS.enableGeoRaster;

For more information, see Section A.2, "Ensuring That GeoRaster Works Properly After an Installation or Upgrade" in Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide.

JAVA API Supports All Release 12c New Features

The GeoRaster Java API is updated to support all new packages, functions, procedures and other features in Release 12.1. These include raster algebra, advanced image processing, relational RDT tables, and new metadata. The GeoRaster Java API is included in Oracle Spatial and Graph Java API Reference.

Third-Party Plug-in Installation Change

Before you install the LizardTech plug-in, you must follow some new steps to prepare for the installation. For more information, see Third-Party Plug-ins for Compression.

GDAL-Based ETL Tool Enhancements

The user interface of the GDAL-based ETL tool is enhanced to improve usability and some new loading options are added. It is also updated with the latest GDAL version. For more information, see the updated user's guide ($ORACLE_HOME/md/demo/georaster/tool/georaster_etl_user_guide.pdf).

SDO_GEOR_AGGR Package Enhancements

The SDO_GEOR_AGGR.mosaicSubset and SDO_GEOR_AGGR.getMosaicSubset procedures accept the new resFilter keyword to the mosaicParam parameter to control the usage of the resolution filter. In addition, HIGHRES is a new commonPointRule keyword option to select the highest resolution image at the overlapping area in the mosaic. These keywords are included in Table 9-1.

Other Changes for Release

The following changes are made in this book:

Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (

The following are changes in Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (


New Features

The following features are new in this release.


Raster Algebra and Analytics

This release includes support for raster algebra and analytics, which are used in raster data analysis and GIS modeling to define raster analyses as algebraic expressions, so that users can easily apply algebraic functions on raster data to derive new results. For more information, see Raster Algebra and Analytics.

Support for raster algebra and analytics includes the following:

Advanced Image Processing and Virtual Mosaic

This release includes support for advanced image processing and virtual mosaic. For more information, see Image Processing and Virtual Mosaic.

Support for advanced image processing and virtual mosaic includes the following:

GeoRaster Core Enhancements

This release includes the following enhancements to GeoRaster core capabilities:

  • Parallel processing capabilities, which can lead to significant improvements in performance, added into mosaicking, pyramiding, and all raster algebra functions and procedures (see Parallel Processing in GeoRaster)

  • Operation progress reporting added into many new subprograms, and many new utility procedures and functions are added for this purpose (see Reporting Operation Progress in GeoRaster)

  • Support for relational RDT tables as an additional raster data storage (see Raster Data Table)

  • Ability to specify default alpha channel and pyramid level in the metadata (defined in GeoRaster Metadata XML Schema)

  • New biquadratic interpolation method to interpolate cell value for any point in the grid; biquadratic interpolation method also added as a new resampling type in image operations and pyramiding (see Resampling and Interpolation)

  • "OTHER" resampling type added to indicate an unknown or external pyramid resampling type imported from files (see Resampling and Interpolation)

  • Significant performance improvements for pyramiding, reprojection, and scaling

Other New Server-Side Subprograms and Features

The following other new server-side subprograms and features are added:

New and Enhanced Client-Side Tools and Java API

The following new and enhanced client-side tools and Java API features are added:


The new SDO_GEOR_AGGR package contains subprograms to support virtual mosaic, large-scale physical mosaicking, and appending operations on GeoRaster objects. For reference and usage information about the subprograms, see SDO_GEOR_AGGR Package Reference.


The new SDO_GEOR_RA package contains subprograms for raster algebra and analytic operations related to GeoRaster. For reference and usage information about the subprograms, see SDO_GEOR_RA Package Reference.

Deprecated Features

The following features are deprecated in this release, and will be desupported in a future release:

  • Support for JPEG-B compression in GeoRaster

    You are encouraged to use the JPEG-F support, as explained in JPEG-B Support Deprecated.

Other Changes

The following are additional changes in the release:

  • The new Raster Algebra and Analytics describes the raster algebra language (PL/SQL and algebraic expressions) and related raster operations, including conditional queries, cell value-based updates or edits, mathematical operations, classify, on-the-fly statistical analysis, and their applications in cartographic modeling.

  • The new Image Processing and Virtual Mosaic describes the advanced image processing capabilities, including advanced georeferencing, reprojection, rectification, orthorectification, raster update, raster appending, large scale physical mosaicking, virtual mosaic, and on-the-fly spatial queries over virtual mosaics.