This appendix contains information about administering Oracle Database on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit).
It includes the following topics:
C.1 Memory and Paging
This section contains the following topics:
C.1.1 Kernel Parameters
Oracle recommends to use the default AIX kernel settings. You must adjust the kernel settings as appropriately recommended by IBM support only.
Note:Adjusting the Restricted Tunables parameter without the guidance from IBM support can have an undesirable impact on the system stability and performance.
C.1.2 Allocating Sufficient Paging Space
Inadequate paging space (swap space) usually causes the system to stop responding or show very slow response times. On IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), you can dynamically add paging space on raw disk partitions. The amount of paging space you should configure depends on the amount of physical memory present and the paging space requirements of the applications. Use the
lsps command to monitor paging space use and the
vmstat command to monitor system paging activities. To increase the paging space, use the
smit pgsp command.
If paging space is preallocated, then Oracle recommends that you set the paging space to a value larger than the amount of RAM. But on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), paging space is not allocated until required. The system uses swap space only if it runs out of real memory. If the memory is sized correctly, then there is no paging and the page space can be small. Workloads where the demand for pages does not fluctuate significantly perform well with a small paging space. Workloads likely to have peak periods of increased paging require enough paging space to handle the peak number of pages.
As a general rule, an initial setting for the paging space is half the size of RAM plus 4 GB, up to the size of a single internal disk. Monitor the paging space use with the
lsps -a command, and monitor the system paging activities using the
vmstat command. The metric percent used in the output of
lsps -a is typically less than 25 percent on a healthy system. A properly sized deployment requires very little paging space because an excessive amount of swapping severely impacts performance. Excessive use of paging space and swapping indicates that the RAM on the system may be undersized.
Do not undersize the paging space. If you do, then the system terminates active processes when it runs out of space. However, oversizing the paging space has little or no negative impact.
Oracle documentation suggests the following values as a starting point for an Oracle Database:
|Between 1 GB and 2 GB||1.5 times the size of RAM|
|Between 2 GB and 16 GB||Equal to the size of RAM|
|More than 16 GB||16 GB|
The RAM and swap space values for Oracle Grid Infrastructure are as follows:
Between 4 GB RAM and 16 GB RAM, the swap space must be equal to the size of RAM.
For more than 16 GB RAM, the swap space must be equal to 16 GB.
Because the individual server environment varies, some additional memory may be warranted in an Oracle Database 12.1 environment, based on the increased 12.1 memory footprint and increasing page size from 4 KB to 64 KB. The workload may need to be rebalanced to reduce paging, which impacts system performance.
C.1.3 Controlling Paging
Constant and excessive paging indicates that the real memory is over-committed. In general, you should:
Avoid constant paging unless the system is equipped with very fast expanded storage that makes paging between memory and expanded storage much faster than Oracle Database can read and write data between the SGA and disks.
Allocate limited memory resource to where it is most beneficial to system performance. It is sometimes a recursive process of balancing the memory resource requirements and trade-offs.
If memory is not adequate, then build a prioritized list of memory-requiring processes and elements of the system. Assign memory to where the performance gains are the greatest. A prioritized list may look like the following:
Operating System and RDBMS kernels (to include SGA and its components, buffer cache, and shared pool)
User and application processes
For example, suppose you query Oracle Database dynamic performance tables and views and find that both the shared pool and database buffer cache require more memory. Then, assigning the limited spare memory to the shared pool may be more beneficial than assigning it to the database block buffer caches. These choices depend on the nature or shape of the database load.
The following IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) commands provide paging status and statistics:
C.1.4 Setting the Database Block Size
You can configure Oracle Database block size for better Input-Output throughput. On IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), you can set the value of the
DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter to between 2 KB and 32 KB, with a default of 4 KB. If Oracle Database is installed on a journaled file system, then the block size should be a multiple of the file system block size (4 KB on JFS, 16 KB to 1 MB on IBM Spectrum Scale (GPFS)). For databases on raw partitions, Oracle Database block size is a multiple of the operating system physical block size (512 bytes on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit)).
Oracle recommends smaller Oracle Database block sizes (2 KB or 4 KB) for online transaction processing or mixed workload environments and larger block sizes (8 KB, 16 KB, or 32 KB) for decision support system workload environments.
C.1.5 Tuning the Log Archive Buffers
By increasing the
LOG_BUFFER size, you may be able to improve the speed of archiving the database, particularly if transactions are long or numerous. Monitor the log file Input-Output activity and system throughput to determine the optimum
LOG_BUFFER size. Tune the
LOG_BUFFER parameter carefully to ensure that the overall performance of normal database activity does not degrade.
For improved performance, create separate file systems for redo logs and control files (or a single file system for both), with an
agblksize of 512 bytes rather than the default of 4 KB.
C.1.6 Input-Output Buffers and SQL*Loader
For high-speed data loading, such as using the SQL*Loader direct path option in addition to loading data in parallel, the CPU spends most of its time waiting for Input-Output to complete. By increasing the number of buffers, you can maximize CPU usage, and by doing this, increase overall throughput.
The number of buffers (set by the SQL*Loader
BUFFERS parameter) you choose depends on the amount of available memory and how much you want to maximize CPU usage.
The performance gains depend on CPU usage and the degree of parallelism that you use when loading data.
C.2 Disk Input-Output Issues
Disk Input-Output contention can result from poor memory management (with subsequent paging and swapping), or poor distribution of tablespaces and files across disks.
Ensure that the Input-Output activity is distributed evenly across multiple disk drives by using IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) utilities such as
iostat, and other performance tools to identify disks with high Input-Output activity.
This section contains the following topics:
C.2.1 IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-Bit) Logical Volume Manager
The IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) Logical Volume Manager can stripe data across multiple disks to reduce disk contention. The primary objective of striping is to achieve high performance when reading and writing large sequential files. With improved storage subsystems, it is no longer recommended to use LVM striping. Oracle recommends to use the default striping by the storage subsystems. The operating system is no longer aware about where the data resides physically as the LUNs presented to an AIX partition are logical and not physical.
C.2.2 Using Journaled File Systems Compared to Raw Logical Volumes
Address the following considerations when deciding whether to use journaled file systems or raw logical volumes:
File systems are continually being improved, as are various file system implementations.
Different vendors implement the file system layer in different ways to capitalize on the strengths of different disks. This makes it difficult to compare file systems across platforms.
The Direct Input-Output and Concurrent Input-Output features included in IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) improve file system performance to a level comparable to raw logical volumes.
In earlier versions of IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), file systems supported only buffered read and write and added extra contention because of imperfect inode locking. These two issues are solved by the JFS2 Concurrent Input-Output feature and the Spectrum Scale (GPFS)Direct Input-Output feature.
The introduction of more powerful Logical Volume Manager interfaces substantially reduces the tasks of configuring and backing up logical disks based on raw logical volumes.
Oracle ASM works best when you add raw disk devices to disk groups. If you are using Oracle ASM, then do not use Logical Volume Manager for striping. Oracle ASM implements striping and mirroring.
To use the Oracle RAC option, you must place data files on an Oracle ASM disk group or on a Spectrum Scale (GPFS) file system. You cannot use JFS or JFS2. Direct Input-Output is implicitly enabled when you use Spectrum Scale (GPFS).
File System Options
IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) includes Direct Input-Output and Concurrent Input-Output support. Direct Input-Output and Concurrent Input-Output support enables database files to exist on file systems while bypassing the operating system buffer cache and removing inode locking operations that are redundant with the features provided by Oracle Database.
The following table lists file systems available on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) and the recommended setting:
Concurrent Input-Output is not available on JFS. Direct Input-Output is available, but performance is degraded compared to JFS2 with Concurrent Input-Output.
JFS large file
Oracle does not recommend using JFS large file for Oracle Database because its 128 KB alignment constraint prevents you from using Direct Input-Output.
Concurrent Input-Output is a better setting than Direct Input-Output on JFS2, because it provides support for multiple concurrent readers and writers on the same file. However, due to IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) restrictions on JFS2/CIO, Concurrent Input-Output is intended to be used only with Oracle data files, control files, and log files. It should be applied only to file systems that are dedicated to such a purpose. For the same reason, the Oracle home directory is not supported on a JFS2 file system mounted with the
Note: For Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (188.8.131.52) and later, on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) 6.1 systems and newer, Oracle recommends that you do not use the
Spectrum Scale (GPFS)
Oracle Database silently enables Direct Input-Output on Spectrum Scale for optimum performance. Spectrum Scale Direct Input-Output already supports multiple readers and writers on multiple nodes. Therefore, Direct Input-Output and Concurrent Input-Output are the same thing on Spectrum Scale.
Considerations for JFS and JFS2
If you are placing Oracle Database logs on a JFS2 file system, then the optimal configuration is to create the file system using the
agblksize=512 option and to mount it with the
Before Oracle Database 12c, Direct Input-Output and Concurrent Input-Output could not be enabled at the file level on JFS/JFS2. Therefore, the Oracle home directory and data files had to be placed in separate file systems for optimal performance. The Oracle home directory was placed on a file system mounted with default options, with the data files and logs on file systems mounted using the
With Oracle Database 12c, you can enable Direct Input-Output and Concurrent Input-Output on JFS/JFS2 at the file level. You can do this by setting the
FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS parameter in the server parameter file to
DIRECTIO. This enables Concurrent Input-Output on JFS2 and Direct Input-Output on JFS for all data file Input-Output. Because the
DIRECTIO setting disables asynchronous Input-Output it should normally not be used. As a result of this 12c feature, you can place data files on the same JFS/JFS2 file system as the Oracle home directory and still use Direct Input-Output or Concurrent Input-Output for improved performance. As mentioned earlier, you should still place Oracle Database logs on a separate JFS2 file system for optimal performance.
See Also:Oracle Architecture and Tuning on AIX v2.30 for more information
Considerations for Spectrum Scale
If you are using Spectrum Scale (GPFS), then you can use the same file system for all purposes. This includes using it for the Oracle home directory and for storing data files and logs. For optimal performance, you should use a large Spectrum Scale block size (typically, at least 512 KB). Spectrum Scale is designed for scalability, and there is no requirement to create multiple Spectrum Scale file systems as long as the amount of data fits in a single Spectrum Scale file system.
C.2.3 Using Asynchronous Input-Output
Oracle Database takes full advantage of asynchronous Input-Output provided by IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), resulting in faster database access.
IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) support asynchronous Input-Output for database files created on file system partitions. When using asynchronous Input-Output on file systems, the kernel database processes (
aioserver) control each request from the time a request is taken off the queue to the time it is completed. The number of
aioserver servers determines the number of asynchronous Input-Output requests that can be processed in the system concurrently. There is no need to adjust the AIO tunables as the defaults for AIO tunables have been significantly increased.
C.2.4 Input-Output Slaves
Input-Output Slaves are specialized Oracle processes that perform only Input-Output. They are rarely used on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), because asynchronous Input-Output is the default and recommended way for Oracle to perform Input-Output operations on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit). Input-Output Slaves are allocated from shared memory buffers. Input-Output Slaves use the initialization parameters listed in the following table:
|Parameter||Range of Values||Default Value|
0 - 999
Generally, you do not adjust the parameters in the preceding table. However, on large workloads, the database writer may become a bottleneck. If it does, then increase the value of
DB_WRITER_PROCESSES. As a general rule, do not increase the number of database writer processes above one for each pair of CPUs in the system or partition.
There are times when you must turn off asynchronous I/O. For example, if instructed to do so by Oracle Support for debugging. You can use the
TAPE_ASYNCH_IO parameters to switch off asynchronous I/O for disk or tape devices.
TAPE_ASYNCH_IO support is only available when the Media Manager software supports it and for Recovery Manager, if
BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVES is true.
DBWR_IO_SLAVES parameter to greater than 0 only if the
DISK_ASYNCH_IO parameter is set to
false. Otherwise, the database writer process becomes a bottleneck. In this case, the optimal value on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) for the
DBWR_IO_SLAVES parameter is 4.
C.2.5 Using the DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT Parameter
When using Direct Input-Output or Concurrent Input-Output with Oracle Database 12c, the IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) file system does not perform any read-ahead on sequential scans. For this reason the
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT value in the server parameter file should be increased when Direct Input-Output or Concurrent Input-Output is enabled on Oracle data files. The read ahead is performed by Oracle Database as specified by the
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT initialization parameter.
Setting a large value for the
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT initialization parameter usually yields better Input-Output throughput on sequential scans. On IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), this parameter ranges from 1 to 512, but using a value higher than 16 usually does not provide additional performance gain.
Set this parameter so that its value when multiplied by the value of the
DB_BLOCK_SIZE parameter produces a number larger than the Logical Volume Manager stripe size. Such a setting causes more disks to be used.
C.2.6 Tuning Disk Input-Output Pacing
Disk Input-Output pacing is an IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) mechanism that enables the system administrator to limit the number of pending Input-Output requests to a file. This prevents disk Input-Output intensive processes from saturating the CPU. Therefore, the response time of interactive and CPU-intensive processes does not deteriorate.
You can achieve disk Input-Output pacing by adjusting two system parameters: the high-water mark and the low-water mark. When a process writes to a file that already has a pending high-water mark Input-Output request, the process is put to sleep. The process wakes up when the number of outstanding Input-Output requests falls lower than or equals the low-water mark.
C.2.7 Resilvering with Oracle Database
If you disable mirror write consistency for an Oracle data file allocated on a raw logical volume, then the Oracle Database crash recovery process uses resilvering to recover after a system failure. This resilvering process prevents database inconsistencies or corruption.
During crash recovery, if a data file is allocated on a logical volume with multiple copies, then the resilvering process performs a checksum on the data blocks of all the copies. It then performs one of the following:
If the data blocks in a copy have valid checksums, then the resilvering process uses that copy to update the copies that have invalid checksums.
If all copies have blocks with invalid checksums, then the resilvering process rebuilds the blocks using information from the redo log file. It then writes the data file to the logical volume and updates all the copies.
On IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit), the resilvering process works only for data files allocated on raw logical volumes for which mirror write consistency is disabled. Resilvering is not required for data files on mirrored logical volumes with mirror write consistency enabled, because mirror write consistency ensures that all copies are synchronized.
If the system fails while you are upgrading an earlier release of Oracle Database that used data files on logical volumes for which mirror write consistency was disabled, then run the
syncvg command to synchronize the mirrored logical volume before starting Oracle Database. If you do not synchronize the mirrored logical volume before starting the database, then Oracle Database may read incorrect data from a logical volume copy.
If a disk drive fails, then resilvering does not occur. You must run the
syncvg command before you can reactivate the logical volume.
Oracle supports resilvering for data files only. Do not disable mirror write consistency for redo log files.
C.3 CPU Scheduling and Process Priorities
The CPU is another system component for which processes may contend. Although the IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit) kernel allocates CPU effectively most of the time, many processes compete for CPU cycles. If the system has multiple CPU (SMP), then there may be different levels of contention on each CPU.
C.4 AIXTHREAD_SCOPE Environment Variable
Oracle recommends using IBM AIX 7.1 version and IBM AIX 6.1 default (system wide scope) setting of the
AIXTHREAD_SCOPE environment variable to
See Also:Thread tuning for additional information about thread tuning
C.5 Network Information Service external naming support
Network Information Service external naming adapter is supported on IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64-bit). To configure and use Network Information Service external naming, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
C.6 Configuring IBM Java Secure Socket Extension Provider with Oracle JDBC Thin Driver
IBM Java 1.6 SR 16 is shipped with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1). If you want to configure SSL on IBM JDK, then you may face the following issues:
IBM JSSE does not support
SSLv2HelloSSL protocol. However, it accepts the
SSLv2Hellomessage from the client encapsulating
For SSL clients using Thin JDBC connectors, you must set
oracle.net.ss1_versionsystem property to select
TLSv1SSL protocol or
SSLv3SSL protocol since
SSLv3is not recommended anymore after the
POODLEsecurity issue. System property recommendation is to set
SSLv3, or the connection will fail.
IBM JSSE does not allow anonymous ciphers
For SSL clients using anonymous ciphers, you must replace the Default Trust Manager with a Custom Trust Manager that accepts anonymous ciphers.
Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption (POODLE) security vulnerability for more information
IBM JSSE documentation for more information about creating and installing Custom Trust Manager