5 Overview of PDB Creation

A CDB supports multiple techniques for creating PDBs.

The created PDB automatically includes a full data dictionary including metadata and internal links to system-supplied objects in the CDB root. You must define every PDB from a single root: either the CDB root or an application root.

Each PDB has a globally unique identifier (GUID). The PDB GUID is primarily used to generate names for directories that store the PDB's files, including both Oracle Managed Files directories and non-Oracle Managed Files directories.

5.1 Techniques for Creating a PDB

You can create a PDB with various techniques, all of which require the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

Creating a PDB is the process of associating it with a CDB or an application container.

The following graphic depicts the options for creating a PDB.

Figure 5-1 Options for Creating a PDB

Description of Figure 5-1 follows
Description of "Figure 5-1 Options for Creating a PDB"

The following table describes the creation techniques. An additional technique, which is not covered in this manual, is to use the DUPLICATE command in Recovery Manager to copy a PDB from one CDB to another CDB.

Table 5-1 Techniques for Creating a PDB

Technique Description More Information

Create a PDB from scratch

Create a PDB in a CDB using the files of the PDB seed or application seed. This technique copies the files associated with the seed to a new location and associates the copied files with the new PDB. This is the default creation mechanism. The other techniques require either a source database (PDB or non-CDB) or XML.

"Creating a PDB from Scratch"

Clone an existing PDB or non-CDB

Create a PDB by cloning a source PDB or non-CDB. A source can be a PDB in the local CDB, a PDB in a remote CDB, a PDB in a local or remote application container, or a non-CDB. This technique copies the files associated with the source to a new location and associates the copied files with the new PDB.

"Cloning a PDB or Non-CDB"

Relocate a PDB to a different CDB

Create a PDB by relocating it from one CDB to another. This technique moves the files associated with the PDB to a new location.

"Relocating a PDB"

Plug an unplugged PDB into a CDB

Create a PDB by using the XML metadata file that describes the PDB and the files associated with the PDB to plug it into the CDB.

"Plugging In an Unplugged PDB"

Reference a PDB as a proxy PDB

Create a PDB as a proxy PDB by referencing a different PDB with a database link. The referenced PDB can be in the same CDB as the proxy PDB, or it can be in a different CDB.

"Creating a PDB as a Proxy PDB"

Create a PDB from a non-CDB, and then plug the PDB into a CDB

Create a PDB by adopting a non-CDB into a PDB. You can use the DBMS_PDB package to create an unplugged PDB from an Oracle Database 12c non-CDB. You can then plug the unplugged PDB into the CDB.

"Options for Creating a PDB from a Non-CDB"

You can unplug a PDB when you want to plug it into a different CDB. You can unplug or drop a PDB when you no longer need it. An unplugged PDB is not usable until it is plugged into a CDB.

See Also:

5.1.1 Current Container and PDB Creation

You can use the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement to create PDBs, application containers, application seeds, and application PDBs.

When you create a PDB, the current container—CDB root or application root—determines the association of the PDB. The SQL statements that create PDBs and application PDBs are the same. For example, when you run CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement in the CDB root, the PDB belongs to the CDB root. When you run CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement in an application root, the application PDB belongs to the application root.

When the CDB root is the current container, create an application root by running a CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement with the AS APPLICATION CONTAINER clause. When cloning, relocating, or plugging in a PDB to an application container, the application name and version of the PDB must match the application name and version of the application container.

5.1.2 Options for Creating a PDB from a Non-CDB

You have multiple options for moving a non-CDB into a PDB.

You can accomplish this task in the following ways:

  • Clone a non-CDB

    This is the simplest way to create a PDB using a non-CDB, but it requires copying the files of the non-CDB to a new location.

    Both the CDB and the non-CDB must be running Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2) or later. If your current non-CDB uses an Oracle Database release before Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), then you must upgrade the non-CDB to a later release to use this technique.

  • Generate an XML metadata file by using the DBMS_PDB package

    The XML metadata file describes the database files of the non-CDB so that you can plug it into a CDB.

    This method requires more steps than creating a PDB by cloning a non-CDB, but it enables you to create a PDB using a non-CDB without moving the non-CDB files in some situations.

    To use this technique, the non-CDB must run Oracle Database 12c or later. If your current non-CDB uses a release before Oracle Database 12c, then you must upgrade to a later release.

  • Export the data from the non-CDB and import it into a PDB using Oracle Data Pump

    When you import, specify the connect identifier for the PDB after the user name. For example, if the connect identifier for the PDB is hrpdb, then enter the following when you run the Oracle Data Pump Import utility:

    impdp user_name@hrpdb ...
    

    If the Oracle Database release of the non-CDB is Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) or later, then you can use full transportable export/import to move the data. When transporting a non-CDB from an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) or later Oracle Database 11g database to Oracle Database 12c or later, the VERSION Data Pump export parameter must be set to 12.0.0.0.0 or higher.

    If the Oracle Database release of the non-CDB is before Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), then you can use transportable tablespaces to move the data, or you can perform a full database export/import.

  • Replicate data from the non-CDB to a PDB using GoldenGate

    When the PDB catches up with the non-CDB, you fail over to the PDB.

    See the Oracle GoldenGate documentation.

See Also:

5.2 PDB Storage

However you choose to create a PDB, you must decide on the tablespaces and files that will store the data.

5.2.1 Storage Limits

The optional STORAGE clause of the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement specifies storage limits for PDBs.

The STORAGE clause specifies the following limits:

  • The amount of storage that can be used by all tablespaces that belong to the PDB

    Use MAXSIZE and a size clause to specify a limit, or set MAXSIZE to UNLIMITED to indicate no limit.

  • The amount of storage that can be used by unified audit OS spillover (.bin format) files in the PDB

    Use MAX_AUDIT_SIZE and a size clause to specify a limit, or set MAX_AUDIT_SIZE to UNLIMITED to indicate no limit.

  • The amount of diagnostics (trace files and incident dumps) in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) that can be used by the PDB

    Use MAX_DIAG_SIZE and a size clause to specify a limit, or set MAX_DIAG_SIZE to UNLIMITED to indicate no limit.

If STORAGE UNLIMITED is set, or if there is no STORAGE clause, then there are no storage limits for the PDB.

The following are examples that use the STORAGE clause.

Example 5-1 STORAGE Clause That Specifies a Storage Limit

This STORAGE clause specifies that the storage used by all tablespaces that belong to the PDB must not exceed 2 gigabytes.

STORAGE (MAXSIZE 2G)

Example 5-2 STORAGE Clause That Specifies Unlimited Storage

This STORAGE clause specifies unlimited storage for all tablespaces that belong to the PDB.

STORAGE (MAXSIZE UNLIMITED)

See Also:

Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for the syntax of the STORAGE clause

5.2.2 Default Tablespace

The DEFAULT TABLESPACE clause of the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement specifies the default tablespace for the new PDB.

Oracle Database will assign the default tablespace to any non-SYSTEM users who do not have a different permanent tablespace specified.

When you create the PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed and specify the DEFAULT TABLESPACE clause, Oracle Database creates a smallfile tablespace and sets it as the default tablespace for the PDB. When you create the PDB using a method other than the using the PDB seed or application seed, such as cloning a PDB or plugging in an unplugged PDB, the default tablespace must be a tablespace that already exists in the source PDB.

Example 5-3 DEFAULT TABLESPACE Clause

DEFAULT TABLESPACE sales

5.2.3 User Tablespaces

The USER_TABLESPACES clause of the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement specifies which tablespaces are available in the new PDB.

You can use this clause to separate the data for multiple schemas into different PDBs. For example, when you move a non-CDB to a PDB, and the non-CDB had several schemas that each supported a different application, you can use this clause to separate the data belonging to each schema into a separate PDB. This technique assumes that each schema used a separate tablespace in the non-CDB.

You can use this clause to specify one of the following options:

  • List one or more tablespaces to include.

  • Specify ALL, the default, to include all tablespaces.

  • Specify ALL EXCEPT to include all tablespaces, except for the tablespaces listed.

  • Specify NONE to exclude all tablespaces.

  • If the creation mode of the user tablespaces must be different from the creation mode for the Oracle-supplied tablespaces (such as SYSTEM and SYSAUX), then specify one of the following in the USER_TABLESPACES clause:

    • COPY: The files of the tablespaces are copied to a new location.

    • MOVE: The files of the tablespaces are moved to a new location.

    • NOCOPY: The files of the tablespaces are not copied or moved.

    • SNAPSHOT COPY: The tablespaces are cloned with storage snapshots.

    • NO DATA: The data model definition of the tablespaces is cloned but not the tablespaces’ data.

When the compatibility level of the CDB is 12.2.0 or higher, the tablespaces that are excluded by this clause are created offline in the new PDB, and they have no data files associated with them. When the compatibility level of the CDB is lower than 12.2.0, the tablespaces that are excluded by this clause are offline in the new PDB, and all data files that belong to these tablespaces are unnamed and offline.

This clause does not apply to the SYSTEM, SYSAUX, or TEMP tablespaces. Do not include these tablespaces in a tablespace list for this clause.

The following are examples that use the USER_TABLESPACES clause.

Example 5-4 USER_TABLESPACES Clause That Includes One Tablespace

Assume that the non-CDB or PDB from which a PDB is being created includes the following tablespaces: tbs1, tbs2, and tbs3. This USER_TABLESPACES clause includes the tbs2 tablespace, but excludes the tbs1 and tbs3 tablespaces.

USER_TABLESPACES=('tbs2')

Example 5-5 USER_TABLESPACES Clause That Includes a List of Tablespaces

Assume that the non-CDB or PDB from which a PDB is being created includes the following tablespaces: tbs1, tbs2, tbs3, tbs4, and tbs5. This USER_TABLESPACES clause includes the tbs1, tbs4, and tbs5 tablespaces, but excludes the tbs2 and tbs3 tablespaces.

USER_TABLESPACES=('tbs1','tbs4','tbs5')

Example 5-6 USER_TABLESPACES Clause That Includes All Tablespaces Except for Listed Ones

Assume that the non-CDB or PDB from which a PDB is being created includes the following tablespaces: tbs1, tbs2, tbs3, tbs4, and tbs5. This USER_TABLESPACES clause includes the tbs2 and tbs3 tablespaces, but excludes the tbs1, tbs4, and tbs5 tablespaces.

USER_TABLESPACES=ALL EXCEPT('tbs1','tbs4','tbs5')

Example 5-7 USER_TABLESPACES in a Different Creation Mode

This example shows a full CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement that plugs in a non-CDB and only includes the tbs3 user tablespace from the non-CDB. The example copies the files for Oracle-supplied tablespaces (such as SYSTEM and SYSAUX) to a new location, but moves the files of the tbs3 user tablespace.

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE ncdb USING '/disk1/oracle/ncdb.xml'
  COPY
  FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/disk1/oracle/dbs/', '/disk2/oracle/ncdb/')
  USER_TABLESPACES=('tbs3') MOVE;

5.2.4 PDB File Locations

In the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement, you can specify the locations of files used by the new PDB.

The term "file name" means both the name and the location of a file. The CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement has the following clauses that indicate the file names of the new PDB being created:

  • The FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause specifies the names of the PDB's files after the PDB is created.

    Use this clause when the files are not yet at their ultimate destination, and you want to copy or move them during PDB creation. You can use this clause in any CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

  • The CREATE_FILE_DEST clause specifies the default Oracle Managed Files file system directory or Oracle ASM disk group for the PDB's files.

    Use this clause to enable Oracle Managed Files for the new PDB, independent of any Oracle Managed Files default location specified in the root for the CDB. You can use this clause in any CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

When necessary, you can use both clauses in the same CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement. In addition, the following initialization parameters can control the location of the new PDB files:

  • The DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter set in the root

    This initialization parameter specifies the default location for Oracle Managed Files for the CDB. When this parameter is set in a PDB, it specifies the default location for Oracle Managed Files for the PDB.

  • The PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameter

    This initialization parameter maps names of existing files to new file names when processing a CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

The following table shows the precedence order when both clauses are used in the same CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement, and both initialization parameters are set. For each clause and initialization parameter, the table also shows whether the files created by the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement will use Oracle Managed Files or not.

Table 5-2 Summary of File Location Clauses and Initialization Parameters

Clause or Initialization Parameter Precedence Order Will the Files Created by CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE Use Oracle Managed Files?
FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause 1 No
CREATE_FILE_DEST clause 2 Yes
DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter 3 Yes
PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameter 4 No

Regarding the use of Oracle Managed Files, the table only applies to files created by the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement. Files created for the PDB after the PDB has been created might or might not use Oracle Managed Files.

In addition, if FILE_NAME_CONVERT and CREATE_FILE_DEST are both specified in the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement, then the FILE_NAME_CONVERT setting is used for the files being placed during PDB creation, and the CREATE_FILE_DEST setting is used to set the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter in the PDB. In this case, Oracle Managed Files controls the location of the files for the PDB after PDB creation.

Note:

The PATH_PREFIX clause does not affect files created by Oracle Managed Files.

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference to learn more about DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST and PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT

5.2.4.1 FILE_NAME_CONVERT Clause

If the PDB will not use Oracle Managed Files, then the FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause of the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement specifies how to generate the names of files (such as data files) using the names of existing files.

You can use this clause to specify one of the following options:

  • One or more file name patterns and replacement file name patterns, in the following form:

    'string1' , 'string2' , 'string3' , 'string4' , ...
    

    The string2 file name pattern replaces the string1 file name pattern, and the string4 file name pattern replaces the string3 file name pattern. You can use as many pairs of file name pattern and replacement file name pattern strings as required.

    If you specify an odd number of strings (the last string has no corresponding replacement string), then an error is returned. Do not specify more than one pattern/replace string that matches a single file name or directory.

  • NONE when no files should be copied or moved during PDB creation. Omitting the FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause is the same as specifying NONE.

You can use the FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause in any CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

When the FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause is not specified in a CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement, either Oracle Managed Files or the PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameter specifies how to generate the names of the files. If you use both Oracle Managed Files and the PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameter, then Oracle Managed Files takes precedence. The FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause takes precedence when it is specified.

File name patterns specified in the FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause cannot match files or directories managed by Oracle Managed Files.

Example 5-8 FILE_NAME_CONVERT Clause

This FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause generates file names for the new PDB in the /oracle/pdb5 directory using file names in the /oracle/dbs directory.

FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/oracle/dbs/', '/oracle/pdb5/')

See Also:

5.2.4.2 CREATE_FILE_DEST Clause

The CREATE_FILE_DEST clause of the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement enables Oracle Managed Files for the PDB and specifies the default file system directory or Oracle ASM disk group for the PDB files.

The PDB data files and temp files are restricted to the specified directory and its subdirectories. If a file system directory is specified as the default location in this clause, then the directory must exist. Also, the user who runs the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement must have the appropriate privileges to create files in the specified directory. Alternatively, you can specify the name of a directory object that exists in the CDB root (CDB$ROOT). The directory object points to the file system directory used by CREATE_FILE_DEST.

If there is a default Oracle Managed Files location for the CDB set in the CDB root, then the CREATE_FILE_DEST setting overrides the CDB root’s setting, and the specified CREATE_FILE_DEST setting is used for the PDB.

If CREATE_FILE_DEST=NONE is specified, then Oracle Managed Files is disabled for the PDB.

When the CREATE_FILE_DEST clause is set to a value other than NONE, the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter is set implicitly in the PDB with SCOPE=SPFILE.

If the CDB root uses Oracle Managed Files, and this clause is not specified, then the PDB inherits the Oracle Managed Files default location from the CDB root.

Note:

This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).

Example 5-9 CREATE_FILE_DEST Clause

This CREATE_FILE_DEST clause specifies /oracle/pdb2/ as the default Oracle Managed Files file system directory for the new PDB.

CREATE_FILE_DEST = '/oracle/pdb2/'
5.2.4.3 Restrictions on PDB File Locations

The PATH_PREFIX clause of the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement ensures that all directory object paths associated with the PDB are restricted to the specified directory or its subdirectories.

This clause also ensures that the following files associated with the PDB are restricted to the specified directory: the Oracle XML repository for the PDB, files created with a CREATE PFILE statement, and the export directory for Oracle wallets. Use this clause when you want to ensure that a PDB's files reside in a specific directory and its subdirectories.

You can use this clause to specify one of the following options:

  • An absolute path that is used as a prefix for all file paths associated with the PDB.

  • The name of a directory object that exists in the CDB root (CDB$ROOT). The directory object points to the absolute path to be used for PATH_PREFIX.

  • NONE to indicate that there are no restrictions for the file paths. Omitting the PATH_PREFIX clause is the same as specifying NONE.

After a PDB is created, its PATH_PREFIX setting cannot be modified.

You can use the PATH_PREFIX clause in any CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

Example 5-10 PATH_PREFIX Clause

This PATH_PREFIX clause ensures that all file paths associated with the PDB are restricted to the /disk1/oracle/dbs/salespdb/ directory.

PATH_PREFIX = '/disk1/oracle/dbs/salespdb/'

Be sure to specify the path name so that it is properly formed when file names are appended to it. For example, on UNIX systems, be sure to end the path name with a forward slash (/).

Note:

  • After the PATH_PREFIX clause is specified for a PDB, existing directory objects might not work as expected, since the PATH_PREFIX string is always added as a prefix to all local directory objects in the PDB.

  • The PATH_PREFIX clause does not affect files created by Oracle Managed Files.

  • The PATH_PREFIX clause only applies to user-created directory objects. It does not apply to Oracle-supplied directory objects.

  • The PATH_PREFIX clause does not apply to data files or temporary files. If you are using Oracle Managed Files, then use the CREATE_FILE_DEST clause to restrict the locations of data files and temporary files.

5.3 Service Name Conversion

An important aspect of PDB creation is managing the renaming of database services.

When the service name of a new PDB conflicts with an existing service name in the CDB, plug-in violations can result. The SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT clause of the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement renames the user-defined services of the new PDB based on the service names of the source PDB. Using this clause, you can rename services and avoid plug-in violations.

You can use this clause to specify one of the following options:

  • One or more service names and replacement service names, in the following form:

    'string1' , 'string2' , 'string3' , 'string4' , ...
    

    The string2 service name replaces the string1 service name, and the string4 service name replaces the string3 service name. You can use as many pairs of service names and replacement service names as required.

    If you specify an odd number of strings (the last string has no corresponding replacement string), then an error is returned.

  • NONE when no service names need to be renamed. Omitting the SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT clause is the same as specifying NONE.

You can use the SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT clause in any CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement, except for a CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement that creates a PDB from the PDB seed. The PDB seed cannot have user-defined services. However, you can use this statement for a CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement that creates an application PDB from an application seed in an application container.

Note:

This clause does not apply to the default service for the PDB. The default service has the same name as the PDB.

Example 5-11 SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT Clause

This SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT clause uses renames the salesrep service to salesperson.

SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT = ('salesrep','salesperson')

5.4 Summary of Clauses for Creating a PDB

When you create a PDB with the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement, various clauses are available based on different factors.

One factor is the technique you are using to create the PDB. You can determine which clauses to use by answering a series of questions.

The following table describes which CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE clauses to specify based on different factors.

Table 5-3 Clauses for Creating a PDB

Question Yes No Clause Can Be Used Only When

Do you want to create an application container instead of a PDB?

Specify the AS APPLICATION CONTAINER clause.

Omit the AS APPLICATION CONTAINER clause.

Creating an application container in a CDB

Are you plugging a PDB into a CDB that contains one or more PDBs that were created by plugging in the same PDB?

Specify the AS CLONE clause to ensure that Oracle Database generates a unique PDB DBID, GUID, and other identifiers expected for the new PDB. The PDB is plugged in as a clone of the unplugged PDB to ensure that all of its identifiers are unique.

Omit the AS CLONE clause.

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to create an application seed in an application container?

Specify the AS SEED clause.

Omit the AS SEED clause.

Creating an application seed in an application container

Do you want to use a CREATE_FILE_DEST clause to specify the Oracle Managed Files default location for the PDB files?

When creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed, the source files are the files associated with the seed.

Include a CREATE_FILE_DEST clause that specifies the default file system directory or Oracle ASM disk group for the PDB's files.

Omit the CREATE_FILE_DEST clause.

Use one of these techniques to specify the target locations of the files:

  • FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause

  • Enable Oracle Managed Files for the CDB for it to determine the target locations.

  • Specify the target locations in the PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameter.

See "PDB File Locations".

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to specify a default permanent tablespace for the PDB?

Specify a DEFAULT TABLESPACE clause with the appropriate limits.

Oracle Database will assign to this tablespace any non-SYSTEM users for whom you do not specify a different permanent tablespace.

When creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed, Oracle Database creates a smallfile tablespace and sets it as the default tablespace. When using a technique other than creation from the PDB seed or an application seed, the specified tablespace must exist in the source PDB.

Omit the DEFAULT TABLESPACE clause.

If you do not specify this clause, then the SYSTEM tablespace is the default permanent tablespace for non-SYSTEM users. Using the SYSTEM tablespace for non-SYSTEM users is not recommended.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to use a FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause to specify the target locations of the files?

When creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed, the source files are the files associated with the seed.

Include a FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause that specifies the target locations of the files based on the names of the source files.

Omit the FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause.

Use one of these techniques to specify the target locations of the files:

  • CREATE_FILE_DEST clause

  • Enable Oracle Managed Files for the CDB for it to determine the target locations.

  • Specify the target locations in the PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameter.

See "PDB File Locations".

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Creating a proxy PDB (Only applies to data files in the SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces.)

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Is the PDB a reference PDB with a dependent proxy PDB, and is the host name of its listener changing?

Include a HOST clause and specify the host name of the listener for the PDB being created.

For example, you might have a listener network for the physical host name and default port and configure a second listener bound to a virtual host name and virtual IP address with a nondefault port number.

Omit the HOST clause.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to specify the logging attribute of the tablespaces in the new PDB?

Include the logging_clause.

Omit the logging_clause.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to copy or move the files to a new location?

Specify COPY to copy the files to a new location. COPY is the default. Specify MOVE to move the files to a new location. Use one of these techniques to specify the target location:

  • Include a FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause that specifies the target locations based on the names of the source files.

  • Include a CREATE_FILE_DEST clause that specifies the Oracle Managed Files default location for the PDB's files.

  • Enable Oracle Managed Files for it to determine the target locations.

  • Specify the target locations in the PDB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameter.

See "PDB File Locations".

Specify NOCOPY.

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to specify that the data model definition of the source PDB is cloned but not the data of the source PDB?

Include the NO DATA clause.

Omit the NO DATA clause.

Cloning a PDB

Do you want to use multiple parallel execution servers to parallelize PDB creation?

To let the CDB choose the degree of parallelism, include or omit the PARALLEL clause.

To specify the degree of parallelism, specify the PARALLEL clause with an integer. For example, specify PARALLEL 4 to indicate a degree of parallelism of 4.

Specify PARALLEL 0 or PARALLEL 1.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Do you want to use a PATH_PREFIX clause to restrict file paths for the PDB for the following: directory objects, the Oracle XML repository for the PDB, files created with a CREATE PFILE statement, and the export directory for Oracle wallets?

The PATH_PREFIX clause does not affect files created by Oracle Managed Files.

Include a PATH_PREFIX clause that specifies an absolute path.

Set the PATH_PREFIX clause to NONE or omit it.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Is the PDB a reference PDB with a dependent proxy PDB, and is the port number of its listener changing to a value other than 1521?

Include a PORT clause and specify the port number of the listener for the PDB being created.

For example, you might have a listener network for the physical host name and default port and configure a second listener bound to a virtual host name and virtual IP address with a nondefault port number.

Omit the PORT clause.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to be able to refresh the PDB to propagate changes from the source PDB to the clone PDB?

A refreshable PDB must be opened in read-only mode.

Include a REFRESH MODE MANUAL or REFRESH MODE EVERY minutes clause.

Omit the REFRESH MODE clause or include a REFRESH MODE NONE clause.

Cloning a PDB

Do you want to grant predefined Oracle roles to the PDB_DBA role locally in the PDB?

The new administrator for the PDB is granted the PDB_DBA common role locally in the PDB. By default, the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement does not grant the administrator or the role any privileges.

Include the ROLES clause and specify the predefined Oracle roles to grant to the PDB_DBA role. The specified roles are granted to the PDB_DBA role locally in the PDB. The user who runs the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement does not need to be granted the specified roles. See Oracle Database Security Guide for information about predefined Oracle roles.

Omit the ROLES clause.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Creating a proxy PDB

Do you want to use a SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT clause to rename the user-defined services of the new PDB based on the service names of the source PDB?

Include a SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT clause that specifies the new name of a service and the service name it is replacing. Specify multiple service names and replacement service names if necessary.

Omit the SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT clause.

Creating a PDB from the application seed, but not a PDB seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Creating a proxy PDB (Only applies to data files in the SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces.)

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to clone a PDB using a storage snapshot?

Specify a SNAPSHOT COPY clause to indicate that cloning is to be performed using storage snapshots.

Creating a PDB clone with storage snapshots is nearly instantaneous because it does not require copying the data files of the source PDB. SNAPSHOT COPY is supported only if the underlying file system supports storage snapshots.

Omit the SNAPSHOT COPY clause.

Cloning a PDB

Do you want to enable PDB snapshots for the new PDB?

Specify a SNAPSHOT MODE clause and specify MANUAL or EVERY snapshot_interval [MINUTES|HOURS].

Omit the SNAPSHOT MODE clause or specify SNAPSHOT MODE NONE.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Creating a proxy PDB (Only applies to data files in the SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces.)

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Are all source files in a single directory with new file names that would require multiple SOURCE_FILE_NAME_CONVERT entries?

Specify the SOURCE_FILE_DIRECTORY with the full absolute path to the source files.

Omit the SOURCE_FILE_DIRECTORY clause.

Plugging in an unplugged PDB using an XML file directly.

This clause does not apply to plugging in an unplugged PDB with a .pdb archive file.

Do the contents of the XML file accurately describe the locations of the source files?

Omit the SOURCE_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause.

Use the SOURCE_FILE_NAME_CONVERT clause to specify the source file locations.

Plugging in an unplugged PDB using an XML file directly.

This clause does not apply to plugging in an unplugged PDB with a .pdb archive file.

Do you want to include the new PDB in one or more standby CDBs?

Specify ALL, ALL EXCEPT, or a list of standby CDBs.

When creating a remote clone, you can set the initialization parameter STANDBY_PDB_SOURCE_FILE_DBLINK to the name of the database link that points to the source PDB data files. The operation copies the data files only if the source PDB is open read-only.

Omit the STANDBYS clause or specify NONE.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to limit the amount of storage that the PDB can use?

Specify a STORAGE clause with the appropriate limits.

Omit the STORAGE clause, or specify unlimited storage using the STORAGE clause.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to reuse the temp file if a temp file exists in the target location?

Include the TEMPFILE REUSE clause.

Omit the TEMPFILE REUSE clause.

Ensure that there is no file with the same name as the new temp file in the target location.

Creating a PDB from the PDB seed or an application seed

Cloning a PDB

Relocating a PDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to specify which tablespaces are included in the new PDB and which tablespaces are excluded from the new PDB?

Include the USER_TABLESPACES clause and specify the tablespaces that are included in the new PDB.

Omit the USER_TABLESPACES clause.

Cloning a non-CDB

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to plug an unplugged PDB into a CDB?

Include the USING filename clause.

If you are plugging in a PDB to a primary CDB in a Data Guard scenario, then set the STANDBY_PDB_SOURCE_FILE_DIRECTORY initialization parameter to a standby location that contains the source data files for instantiating the PDB. If not found, then the standby database tries to locate the files in the OMF location. If not found in the OMF location, then copy the data files to the OMF location, and restart redo apply on the standby database.

Omit the USING filename clause.

Plugging in an unplugged PDB

Do you want to create a new PDB based on a PDB snapshot?

Include the USING SNAPSHOT clause and specify either the PDB snapshot name, SCN, or timestamp.

Exclude the USING SNAPSHOT clause.

Cloning a PDB snapshot

Do you want to clone a PDB that resides in Oracle ASM by splitting a mirror?

Include the USING MIRROR COPY clause and specify the name of the mirror copy and the source PDB.

Omit the USING MIRROR COPY clause.

Cloning a PDB that uses Oracle ASM storage

5.5 General Prerequisites for PDB Creation

Before creating a PDB, you must meet certain prerequisites.

Ensure that the following prerequisites are met before creating a PDB.

Table 5-4 Prerequisites for Creating PDBs

Prerequisite See Also

The CDB must exist.

"Creating and Configuring a CDB"

The CDB must be in read/write mode.

"Modifying the Open Mode of PDBs"

The current user must be a common user whose current container is the CDB root or an application container.

"Common Users in a CDB"

The current user must have the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE system privilege.

"How Commonly Granted System Privileges Work"

You must decide on a unique container name for each container. Each container name must be unique in a single CDB, and each container name must be unique within the scope of all the CDBs whose instances are reached through a specific listener.

The PDB name distinguishes a PDB from other PDBs in the CDB. PDB names follow the same rules as service names, which includes being case-insensitive.

Oracle Database Net Services Reference to learn the rules for service names

If you are creating a PDB in an Oracle Data Guard configuration with a physical standby database, then you must complete additional tasks before creating a PDB.

Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for more information

If you are creating a PDB that includes data that was encrypted with Transparent Data Encryption, then you must complete additional tasks.

Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for instructions

If you are creating a Database Vault-enabled PDB, then you must complete additional tasks.

Oracle Database Vault Administrator’s Guide for instructions

If you are creating a PDB by cloning a non-CDB, and if you want the ability to recover the new PDB using backups of the source non-CDB, then you must execute DBMS_PDB.EXPORTRMANBACKUP before cloning. When the source database is opened in read-write mode, execute the procedure as the last step before cloning. This procedure captures all backup metadata in the data dictionary.

When relocating a PDB to a different CDB, executing DBMS_PDB.EXPORTRMANBACKUP is not necessary. Unplugging the PDB automatically exports the backup metadata.

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User’s Guide for instructions

See Also: