You can use Oracle Label Security auditing if you have not configured your database to use unified auditing.
About Oracle Label Security Auditing
Oracle Label Security auditing supplements standard Oracle Database auditing by tracking use of its own administrative operations and policy privileges.
You can use either the
SA_AUDIT_ADMIN package or Oracle Enterprise Manager to set and change the auditing options for an Oracle Label Security policy.
When you create a new policy, a label column for that policy is added to the database audit trail. The label column is created regardless of whether auditing is enabled or disabled, and independent of whether database auditing or operating system auditing is used. Whenever a record is written to the audit table, each policy provides a label for that record to indicate the session label. The administrator can create audit views to display these labels. Note that in the audit table, the label does not control access to the row, instead it only records the sensitivity of the row.
The auditing options that you specify apply only to subsequent sessions, not to the current session. You can specify audit options even if auditing is disabled. No overhead is created by making only these specifications. When you do enable Oracle Label Security auditing, the options come into effect, and overhead is created beyond that created by standard Oracle Database auditing.
Note that Oracle Label Security does not provide labels for audit data written to the operating system audit trial. All Oracle Label Security audit records are written directly to the database audit trail, even if operating system auditing is enabled. If auditing is disabled, then no Oracle Label Security audit records are generated.
If you are using traditional auditing (not unified auditing), then the traditional audit trail lists only the action numbers. To find the corresponding audit action names, you can query the
LABACSYS.OLS$AUDIT_ACTIONS system table. You must have the
policy_DBA role to query this table.
Systemwide Auditing: AUDIT_TRAIL Initialization Parameter
If you have not yet enabled unified auditing, for Oracle Label Security to generate audit records, you must first enable system-wide auditing.
To enable system-wide auditing, you can set the Oracle Database
AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter in the database's parameter file.
You can set the
AUDIT_TRAIL parameter to one of the following values:
Table 13-1 AUDIT_TRAIL Parameter Settings
Enables database auditing and directs all audit records to the database audit trail. This approach is recommended by Oracle.
Note that even with
Does all actions of
Enables operating system auditing. This directs most of your Oracle Database audit records to the operating system, rather than to the database; the records will not contain Oracle Label Security labels. By contrast, any Oracle Label Security auditing will go to the database, with labels.
If you set
Disables auditing. This is the default.
After you have edited the parameter file, restart the database instance to enable or disable database auditing as specified.
AUDIT_TRAIL parameter before you set audit options. If you do not set this parameter, then you are still able to set audit options. However, audit records are not written to the database until the parameter is set and the database instance is restarted.
Oracle Database Security Guide for information about enabling and disabling systemwide auditing, setting audit options, and managing the audit trail
Oracle Database Reference or information about editing initialization parameter
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details about systemwide
How Oracle Label Security Auditing Is Enabled or Disabled
After you have enabled systemwide auditing, you can enable or disable Oracle Label Security auditing.
To use Oracle Label Security auditing, you must have the
_DBA role and use the
SA_AUDIT_ADMIN PL/SQL package procedures.
Oracle Label Security and Unified Auditing
Oracle Database uses the unified audit trail to capture information from various audit sources, including Oracle Label Security.
You can configure OLS auditing using audit policies. Oracle Label Security auditing in Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1) enables you to audit additional events such as enabling and disabling of OLS policies.
If you have upgraded your database to Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1), but have not configured it to use unified auditing, then you must use the pre-12c OLS auditing described in this chapter.
The Oracle Database audit facility lets you hold database users accountable for the operations they perform. It can track specific database objects, operations, users, and privileges. Oracle Label Security supplements this by tracking use of its own administrative operations and policy privileges. It provides the
SA_AUDIT_ADMIN package to set and change the policy auditing options.
Oracle Label Security Auditing Tips
Oracle provides a set of tips for auditing Oracle Label Security.
Strategy for Setting SA_AUDIT_ADMIN Options
Before setting any audit options, you must devise an auditing strategy that monitors events of interest, without recording extraneous events.
You should periodically review this strategy, because applications, user base, configurations, and other external factors can change.
The Oracle Label Security options, and those provided by the Oracle Database audit facility, might not directly address all of your specific or application-dependent auditing requirements. However, through use of database triggers, you can audit specific events and record specific information that you cannot audit and record using the more generic audit facility.
Oracle Database Concepts for more information about using triggers for auditing