26 SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
The MDSIS.SDO_GEOM package contains subprograms for working with geometry objects.
This chapter contains descriptions of the geometryrelated PL/SQL subprograms in the SDO_GEOM package, which can be grouped into the following categories:

Relationship (True/False) between two objects: RELATE, WITHIN_DISTANCE

Validation: VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT, VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT, SDO_SELF_UNION

Singleobject operations: SDO_ALPHA_SHAPE, SDO_ARC_DENSIFY, SDO_AREA, SDO_BUFFER, SDO_CENTROID, SDO_CONVEXHULL, SDO_CONCAVEHULL, SDO_CONCAVEHULL_BOUNDARY, SDO_DIAMETER, SDO_DIAMETER_LINE, SDO_LENGTH, SDO_MBC, SDO_MBC_CENTER, SDO_MBC_RADIUS, SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE, SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE, SDO_MBR, SDO_POINTONSURFACE, SDO_TRIANGULATE, SDO_VOLUME, SDO_WIDTH, SDO_WIDTH_LINE

Twoobject operations: SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS, SDO_DISTANCE, SDO_DIFFERENCE, SDO_INTERSECTION, SDO_MAXDISTANCE, SDO_MAXDISTANCE_LINE, SDO_UNION, SDO_XOR
The following usage information applies to the geometry subprograms. (See also the Usage Notes under the reference information for each subprogram.)

Certain combinations of input parameters and operations can return a null value, that is, an empty geometry. For example, requesting the intersection of two disjoint geometry objects returns a null value.

A null value (empty geometry) as an input parameter to a geometry function (for example, SDO_GEOM.RELATE) produces an error.

Certain operations can return a geometry of a different type than one or both input geometries. For example, the intersection of a line and an overlapping polygon returns a line; the intersection of two lines returns a point; and the intersection of two tangent polygons returns a line.

SDO_GEOM subprograms are supported for twodimensional geometries only, except for the following, which are supported for both twodimensional and threedimensional geometries:
Note:
The listed SDO_GEOM subprograms for threedimensional geometries are only supported if Oracle JVM is enabled on your Oracle Autonomous Database Serverless deployments. To enable Oracle JVM, see Use Oracle Java in Using Oracle Autonomous Database Serverless for more information.
SDO_GEOM.RELATE with (A) the ANYINTERACT mask, or (B) the INSIDE mask (3D support for solid geometries only)

 SDO_GEOM.RELATE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_ALPHA_SHAPE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL_BOUNDARY
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER_LINE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE_LINE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_CENTER
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_RADIUS
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_SELF_UNION
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_TRIANGULATE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_VOLUME
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH_LINE
 SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR
 SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT
 SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT
 SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE
Parent topic: Reference Information
26.1 SDO_GEOM.RELATE
Format
SDO_GEOM.RELATE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, mask IN VARCHAR2, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_GEOM.RELATE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, mask IN VARCHAR2, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN VARCHAR2;
Description
Examines two geometry objects to determine their spatial relationship.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  mask

Specifies a list of relationships to check. See the list of keywords in the Usage Notes.
 geom2

Geometry object.
 dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
For better performance, use the SDO_RELATE operator or one of its convenience operator formats (all described in Spatial Operators ) instead of the SDO_GEOM.RELATE
function, unless you need to use the function. For example, the DETERMINE mask keyword does not apply with the SDO_RELATE operator. For more information about performance considerations with operators and functions, see Spatial Operators_ Procedures_ and Functions.
The SDO_GEOM.RELATE
function can return the following types of answers:

If you pass a
mask
listing one or more relationships, the function returns the specifiedmask
value if one or more of the relationships are true for the pair of geometries. If all relationships are false, the procedure returns FALSE. 
If you pass the DETERMINE keyword in
mask
, the function returns the one relationship keyword that best matches the geometries. 
If you pass the ANYINTERACT keyword in
mask
, the function returns TRUE if the two geometries are not disjoint.
The following mask
relationships can be tested:

ANYINTERACT: Returns TRUE if the objects are not disjoint.

CONTAINS: Returns CONTAINS if the second object is entirely within the first object and the object boundaries do not touch; otherwise, returns FALSE.

COVEREDBY: Returns COVEREDBY if the first object is entirely within the second object and the object boundaries touch at one or more points; otherwise, returns FALSE.

COVERS: Returns COVERS if the second object is entirely within the first object and the boundaries touch in one or more places; otherwise, returns FALSE.

DISJOINT: Returns DISJOINT if the objects have no common boundary or interior points; otherwise, returns FALSE.

EQUAL: Returns EQUAL if the boundaries and interior of the objects exactly overlap, including any holes (that is, if the two geometries are topologically equal); otherwise, returns FALSE.

INSIDE: Returns INSIDE if the first object is entirely within the second object and the object boundaries do not touch; otherwise, returns FALSE.

ON: Returns ON if the boundary and interior of a line (the first object) is completely on the boundary of a polygon (the second object); otherwise, returns FALSE.

OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT: Returns OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT if the objects overlap, but their boundaries do not interact; otherwise, returns FALSE.

OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT: Returns OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT if the objects overlap, and their boundaries intersect in one or more places; otherwise, returns FALSE.

TOUCH: Returns TOUCH if the two objects share a common boundary point, but no interior points; otherwise, returns FALSE.
Values for mask
can be combined using the logical Boolean operator OR. For example, 'INSIDE + TOUCH' returns INSIDE+TOUCH
if the relationship between the geometries is INSIDE or TOUCH or both INSIDE and TOUCH; it returns FALSE
if the relationship between the geometries is neither INSIDE nor TOUCH.
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
Examples
The following example finds the relationship between each geometry in the SHAPE column and the cola_b
geometry. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. The output is reformatted for readability.)
SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.RELATE(c.shape, 'determine', c_b.shape, 0.005) relationship FROM cola_markets c, cola_markets c_b WHERE c_b.name = 'cola_b'; NAME RELATIONSHIP  cola_a TOUCH cola_b EQUAL cola_c OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT cola_d DISJOINT
Related Topics

SDO_RELATE operator
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.2 SDO_GEOM.SDO_ALPHA_SHAPE
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_ALPHA_SHAPE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER, radius IN NUMBER DEFALT NULL, flag IN BINARY_INTEGER DEFAULT 0 ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns the alpha shape geometry of the input geometry, based on a specified radius value.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 radius

Radius to be used in calculating the alpha shape. If this parameter is null, the alpha shape is the convex hull of the input geometry.
 flag

Determines whether isolated points and edges are included:
0
(the default) includes isolated points and edges, so that the alpha shape is returned;1
does not include isolated points and edges, so that only the polygon portion of the alpha shape is returned.
Usage Notes
The alpha shape is a generalization of the convex hull. This function takes all coordinates from the input geometry, uses them to compute Delaunay triangulations and the alpha shape.
If you specify a value for the radius
parameter, you may first want to call the SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL function using the format with the radius
output parameter.
An exception is raised if geom
is of point type, has fewer than three points or vertices, or consists of multiple points all in a straight line, or if radius
is less than 0.
With geodetic data, this function is supported by approximations, as explained in Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the alpha shape of cola_c
, which is also the convex hull of cola_c
because the default value for the radius
parameter (null) is used. (This simplified example uses a polygon as the input geometry; this function is normally used with a large set of point data. The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_ALPHA_SHAPE(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_ALPHA_SHAPE(C.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z),  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(4, 5, 3, 3, 6, 3, 6, 5, 4, 5))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.3 SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY params IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER params IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a geometry in which each circular arc in the input geometry is changed into an approximation of the circular arc consisting of straight lines, and each circle is changed into a polygon consisting of a series of straight lines that approximate the circle.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 params

A quoted string containing an arc tolerance value and optionally a unit value. See the Usage Notes for an explanation of the format and meaning.
Usage Notes
If you have geometries in a projected coordinate system that contain circles or circular arcs, you can use this function to densify them into regular polygons. You can then use the resulting straightline polygon geometries for any spatial operations, or you can transform them to any projected or geodetic coordinate system.
The params
parameter is a quoted string that can contain the arc_tolerance
keyword, as well as the unit
keyword to identify the unit of measurement associated with the arc_tolerance
value. For example:
'arc_tolerance=0.05 unit=km'
The arc_tolerance
keyword specifies, for each arc in the geometry, the maximum length of the perpendicular line between the surface of the arc and the straight line between the start and end points of the arc. Figure 261 shows a line whose length is the arc_tolerance
value for the arc between points A and B.
The arc_tolerance
keyword value must be greater than the tolerance value associated with the geometry. (The default value for arc_tolerance
is 20 times the tolerance value.) As you increase the arc_tolerance
keyword value, the resulting polygon has fewer sides and a smaller area; as you decrease the arc_tolerance
keyword value, the resulting polygon has more sides and a larger area (but never larger than the original geometry).
If the unit
keyword is specified, the value must be an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). If the unit
keyword is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the geometry is used. See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.
Examples
The following example returns the geometry that results from the arc densification of cola_d
, which is a circle. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Arc densification of the circle cola_d SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY(c.shape, m.diminfo, 'arc_tolerance=0.05') FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_d'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,'ARC_TOLERANCE=0.05')(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_  cola_d SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(8, 7, 8.76536686, 7.15224093, 9.41421356, 7.58578644, 9.84775907, 8.23463314, 10, 9, 9.84775907, 9.76536686, 9.41421356, 10.4142136, 8.76536686, 10.8477591, 8, 11, 7.23463314, 10.8477591, 6.58578644, 10.4142136, 6.15224093, 9.76536686, 6 , 9, 6.15224093, 8.23463314, 6.58578644, 7.58578644, 7.23463314, 7.15224093, 8, 7))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.4 SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the area of a twodimensional polygon.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=SQ_KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed. For geodetic data, the default unit of measurement is square meters.
 tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
This function works with any polygon, including polygons with holes.
Lines that close to form a ring have no area.
Examples
The following example returns the areas of geometry objects stored in the COLA_MARKETS table. The first statement returns the areas of all objects; the second returns just the area of cola_a
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the areas of all cola markets. SELECT name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA(shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets; NAME SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA(SHAPE,0.005)   cola_a 24 cola_b 16.5 cola_c 5 cola_d 12.5663706  Return the area of just cola_a. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_a'; NAME SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA(C.SHAPE,0.005)   cola_a 24
Related Topics
None.
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.5 SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, dist IN NUMBER [, params IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dist IN NUMBER, tol IN NUMBER [, params IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  dist

Distance value. If the value is positive, the buffer is generated around the geometry; if the value is negative (valid only for polygons), the buffer is generated inside the geometry. The absolute value of this parameter must be greater than the tolerance value, as specified in the dimensional array (
dim
parameter) or in thetol
parameter.  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 params

A quoted string that can contain one or both of the following keywords:

unit
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table. It identifies the unit of measurement associated with thedist
parameter value, and also with the arc tolerance value if thearc_tolerance
keyword is specified. See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification. 
arc_tolerance
and an arc tolerance value. See the Usage Notes for the SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY function in this chapter for more information about thearc_tolerance
keyword.
For example:
'unit=km arc_tolerance=0.05'
If the input geometry is geodetic data and if
arc_tolerance
is not specified, the default value is the tolerance value multiplied by 20. Spatial and Graph uses thearc_tolerance
value to perform arc densification in computing the result. If the input geometry is Cartesian or projected data,arc_tolerance
has no effect and should not be specified.If this parameter is not specified for a Cartesian or projected geometry, or if the
arc_tolerance
keyword is specified for a geodetic geometry but theunit
keyword is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed. 
Usage Notes
This function returns a geometry object representing the buffer polygon.
This function creates a rounded buffer around a point, line, or polygon, or inside a polygon. The buffer within a void is also rounded, and is the same distance from the inner boundary as the outer buffer is from the outer boundary. (For an illustration, see the distance buffers figure in Spatial Relationships and Filtering.)
If the buffer polygon geometry is in a projected coordinate system, it will contain arcs; and if you want to transform that geometry to a geodetic coordinate system, you must first densify it using the SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY function, and then transform the densified geometry.
If the input geometry has more than 50 ordinates, and the buffer width is less than 0.1 percent (0.001) of the rootmeansquare spacing between consecutive coordinates, then the original geometry is returned unchanged.
With geodetic data, this function is supported by approximations, as explained in Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data.
With geodetic data, this function should be used only for relatively small geometries: geometries for which the local tangent plane projection that is used for internal computations does not introduce significant distortions or errors. This limits the applicable domain of source geometries, whether line strings or polygons, to approximately the area of Texas (United States), France, or Manchuria province (China).
Examples
The following example returns a polygon representing a buffer of 1 around cola_a
. Note the rounded corners (for example, at .292893219,.292893219) in the returned polygon. (The example uses the nongeodetic definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Generate a buffer of 1 unit around a geometry. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(c.shape, m.diminfo, 1) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_a'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,1)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z)  cola_a SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1005, 8, 1, 2, 2, 5, 2, 1, 7, 2, 2, 11, 2, 1, 13, 2, 2, 17, 2, 1, 19, 2, 2, 23, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 0, 1, .292893219, .292893219, 1, 0, 5, 0, 5.70710678, .292893219, 6, 1, 6, 7, 5. 70710678, 7.70710678, 5, 8, 1, 8, .292893219, 7.70710678, 0, 7, 0, 1))
The following example returns a polygon representing a buffer of 1 around cola_a
using the geodetic definitions and data from Example of Coordinate System Transformation.
 Generate a buffer of 1 kilometer around a geometry. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(c.shape, m.diminfo, 1, 'unit=km arc_tolerance=0.05') FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_a'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,1,'UNIT=KMARC_TOLERANCE=0.05')(SDO_GTYPE,  cola_a SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8307, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(.991023822, 1.00002073, .992223711, .995486419, .99551726, .99217077, 1.00001 929, .990964898, 4.99998067, .990964929, 5.00448268, .9921708, 5.00777624, .9954 86449, 5.00897618, 1.00002076, 5.00904194, 6.99997941, 5.00784065, 7.00450033, 5 .00454112, 7.00781357, 5.00002479, 7.009034, .999975166, 7.00903403, .995458814, 7.00781359, .992159303, 7.00450036, .990958058, 6.99997944, .991023822, 1.00002 073))
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.6 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a point geometry that is the centroid of a polygon, multipolygon, point, or point cluster. (The centroid is also known as the "center of gravity.")
For an input geometry consisting of multiple objects, the result is weighted by the area of each polygon in the geometry objects. If the geometry objects are a mixture of polygons and points, the points are not used in the calculation of the centroid. If the geometry objects are all points, the points have equal weight.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
The function returns a null value if geom1
is not a polygon, multipolygon, point, or point cluster, as identified by the SDO_GTYPE value in the SDO_GEOMETRY object.
If geom1
is a point, the function returns the point (the input geometry).
With geodetic data, this function is supported by approximations, as explained in Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data.
Depending on the shape and complexity of the input geometry, the returned point might not be on the surface of the input geometry.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the centroid of cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the centroid of a geometry. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID(c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_c'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z)  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 4.73333333, 3.93333333))
Related Topics
None.
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.7 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tolerance IN NUMBER, unit IN VARCHAR2 [, ellipsoidal IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL] ) RETURN SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS_TYPE;
Description
Returns an object containing the computed minimum distance between two geometries and the points (one on each geometry) that are minimum distance apart.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 geom2

Geometry object.
 tolerance

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed.
 ellipsoidal

Specifies if ellipsoidal distance is always used with geodetic data (
true
), or if spherical distance is used in some cases (false
, the default). See Distance: Spherical versus Ellipsoidal with Geodetic Data.
Usage Notes
SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS_TYPE
, that contains the computed minimum distance (DIST
) and the output point geometries (GEOMA
and GEOMB
) associated with the minimum distance. Oracle Spatial defines the object type SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS_TYPE
as:CREATE TYPE sdo_closest_points_type AS OBJECT ( dist NUMBER, geoma SDO_GEOMETRY, geomb SDO_GEOMETRY );
If the distance between the two points is 0 (zero), the output geometries (GEOMA
and GEOMB
) will be as follows:

For twodimensional (2D) geometries, if one of the input geometries is a point geometry, each output geometry is that point; otherwise, each output geometry is the first point in the first element of the intersection of the input geometries.

For threedimensional (3D) geometries, if one of the input geometries is a point geometry, each output geometry is that point; otherwise, the output geometries are null.
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
If the input data is threedimensional and geodetic, a 3D SRID must be used for the geometries; otherwise, the results will be incorrect.
Examples
The following example computes the minimum distance between geometries cola_c
and cola_d
, as well as the one point on each input geometry associated with the minimum distance.
The resulting SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS_TYPE
object, shows the minimum distance of 2.47213595
between the two input geometries along with the two output point geometries. The closest point on cola_c
is at (6,5), and the closest point on cola_d
is at (7.10557281, 7.21114562). (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT sdo_geom.sdo_closest_points (c1.shape, c2.shape, 0.5, null) cp FROM cola_markets c1, cola_markets c2 WHERE c1.name = 'cola_c' AND c2.name = 'cola_d'; CP(DIST, GEOMA(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES), GEOMB(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES))  SDO_CLOSEST_POINTS_TYPE(2.47213595, SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, SDO_POINT_TYPE(6, 5, NULL), NULL, NULL), SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, SDO_POINT_TYPE(7.10557281, 7.21114562, NULL), NULL, NULL))
Related Topics
None.
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.8 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER, radius OUT NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY_ARRAY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY_ARRAY, tol IN NUMBER, radius OUT NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a polygontype object that represents the concave hull of a geometry object or of an array of geometry objects.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object (type SDO_GEOMETRY), or array of geometry objects (type SDO_GEOMETRY_ARRAY, which is defined as
VARRAY OF SDO_GEOMETRY
).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 radius

Output parameter to hold the radius of the circumcircle of the triangles created internally (using Delaunay triangulations) in computing the concave hull.
Usage Notes
The concave hull is a polygon that represents the area of the input geometry, such as a collection of points. With complex input geometries, the concave hull is typically significantly smaller in area than the convex hull.
This function takes all coordinates from the input geometry, uses them to compute Delaunay triangulations, and computes a concave hull. It returns only an exterior ring; any interior rings are discarded.
This function uses the alpha shape in computing the concave hull. By contrast, the SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL_BOUNDARY function uses exterior boundary points.
The format with the radius
parameter returns a radius value that can be useful if you plan to call the SDO_GEOM.SDO_ALPHA_SHAPE function.
An exception is raised if geom
has fewer than three points or vertices, or consists of multiple points all in a straight line.
With geodetic data, this function is supported by approximations, as explained in Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the concave hull of cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.
 Return the concave hull of a polygon. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL(C.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z),  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(6, 3, 6, 5, 4, 5, 3, 3, 6, 3))
The following example returns a geometry that is the concave hull of an array of three geometry objects.
SELECT sdo_geom.sdo_concavehull(SDO_GEOMETRY_ARRAY( SDO_GEOMETRY(2005, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 4), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(6, 3, 6, 5, 4, 5, 3, 3)), SDO_GEOMETRY(2005, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 4), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(16, 13, 16, 15, 14, 15, 13, 13)), SDO_GEOMETRY(2005, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 4), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(26, 23, 26, 25, 24, 25, 23, 23))), 0.000005) FROM dual; SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL(SDO_GEOMETRY_ARRAY(SDO_GEOMETRY(2005,NULL,NULL,SDO_ELEM  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(6, 3, 6, 5, 16, 13, 16, 15, 26, 23, 26, 25, 24, 25, 23, 23, 14, 15, 13, 13, 4 , 5, 3, 3, 6, 3))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.9 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL_BOUNDARY
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL_BOUNDARY( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER, length IN NUMBER DEFAULT NULL ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a polygontype object that represents the concave hull of a geometry object, based on boundary points rather than the alpha shape.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 length

A value to control the size of the concave hull: specifically, computation of the concave hull is stopped when the longest edge in the concave hull is shorter than the
length
value. Thus, the larger thelength
value, the larger the concave hull will probably be. If you do not specify this parameter, computation continues as described in the Usage Notes.
Usage Notes
The concave hull is a polygon that represents the area of the input geometry, such as a collection of points. With complex input geometries, the concave hull is typically significantly smaller in area than the convex hull.
Like the SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL function, this function takes all coordinates from the input geometry, and uses them to compute Delaunay triangulations. But after that, it computes a convex hull, puts all boundary edges into a priority queue based on the lengths of these edges, and then removes edges one by one as long as the shape is still a single connected polygon (unless stopped by a specified length
parameter value). If an edge is removed during the computation, the other two edges of its triangle will be on the boundary.
An exception is raised if geom
has fewer than three points or vertices, or consists of multiple points all in a straight line.
With geodetic data, this function is supported by approximations, as explained in Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the concave hull of cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the concave hull of a polygon. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL_BOUNDARY(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONCAVEHULL_BOUNDARY(C.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(6, 3, 6, 5, 4, 5, 3, 3, 6, 3))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.10 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a polygontype object that represents the convex hull of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
The convex hull is a simple convex polygon that completely encloses the geometry object. Spatial and Graph uses as few straightline sides as possible to create the smallest polygon that completely encloses the specified object. A convex hull is a convenient way to get an approximation of a complex geometry object.
If the geometry (geom1
) contains any arc elements, the function calculates the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) for each arc element and uses these MBRs in calculating the convex hull of the geometry. If the geometry object (geom1
) is a circle, the function returns a square that minimally encloses the circle.
The function returns a null value if geom1
is of point type, has fewer than three points or vertices, or consists of multiple points all in a straight line.
With geodetic data, this function is supported by approximations, as explained in Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the convex hull of cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. This specific example, however, does not produce useful outputâ€”the returned polygon has the same vertices as the input polygonâ€”because the input polygon is already a simple convex polygon.)
 Return the convex hull of a polygon. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL(c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_c'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y,  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(6, 3, 6, 5, 4, 5, 3, 3, 6, 3))
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.11 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the length of the diameter of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed. For geodetic data, the default unit of measurement is meters.
Usage Notes
This function can be used for circle and noncircle geometry objects. The input geometry does not need to contain any curves.
The returned diameter length is the maximum distance between any two points in the geometry object. (For a formal definition of diameter, see a collegelevel mathematics textbook or other appropriate reference source.)
The input geometry can have no more than two dimensions.
If a point geometry is specified, the function returns 0 (zero).
Examples
The following example returns the diameter length of all geometry objects stored in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER(shape, 0.005) Diameter FROM cola_markets; NAME DIAMETER   cola_a 7.21110255 cola_b 6.70820393 cola_c 3.60555128 cola_d 4
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.12 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER_LINE
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER_LINE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER_LINE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns a line string geometry reflecting the length of the diameter of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
This function can be used for circle and noncircle geometry objects. The input geometry does not need to contain any curves.
The returned diameter length is the maximum distance between any two points in the geometry object. (For a formal definition of diameter, see a collegelevel mathematics textbook or other appropriate reference source.)
The input geometry can have no more than two dimensions.
If a point geometry is specified, the function returns 0 (zero).
Examples
The following example returns line strings reflecting diameter length of each geometry object stored in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER_LINE(shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIAMETER_LINE(SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z),  cola_a SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 1, 1, 5, 7)) cola_b SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 8, 1, 5, 7)) cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 3, 3, 6, 5)) cola_d SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 8, 7, 8, 11))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.13 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a geometry object that is the topological difference (MINUS operation) of two geometry objects.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  geom2

Geometry object.
 dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
In Figure 262, the shaded area represents the polygon returned when SDO_DIFFERENCE is used with a square (geom1
) and another polygon (geom2
).
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the topological difference (MINUS operation) of cola_a
and cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the topological difference of two geometries. SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE(c_a.shape, m.diminfo, c_c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c_a, cola_markets c_c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c_a.name = 'cola_a' AND c_c.name = 'cola_c'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE(C_A.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,C_C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(1, 7, 1, 1, 5, 1, 5, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 7, 1, 7)
Note that in the returned polygon, the SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY starts and ends at the same point (1, 7).
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.14 SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY [, unit IN VARCHAR2] [, ellipsoidal IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, unit IN VARCHAR2] [, ellipsoidal IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Computes the minimum distance between two geometry objects, which is the distance between the closest pair of points or segments of the two objects.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object whose distance from
geom2
is to be computed.  dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  geom2

Geometry object whose distance from
geom1
is to be computed.  dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed.
 ellipsoidal

Specifies if ellipsoidal distance is always used with geodetic data (
true
), or if spherical distance is used in some cases (false
, the default). See Distance: Spherical versus Ellipsoidal with Geodetic Data.  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
If the input data is threedimensional and geodetic, a 3D SRID must be used for the geometries; otherwise, the results will be incorrect.
Examples
The following example returns the shortest distance between cola_b
and cola_d
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the distance between two geometries. SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(c_b.shape, c_d.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c_b, cola_markets c_d WHERE c_b.name = 'cola_b' AND c_d.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(C_B.SHAPE,C_D.SHAPE,0.005)  .846049894
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.15 SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a geometry object that is the topological intersection (AND operation) of two geometry objects.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  geom2

Geometry object.
 dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
In Figure 263, the shaded area represents the polygon returned when SDO_INTERSECTION is used with a square (geom1
) and another polygon (geom2
).
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the topological intersection (AND operation) of cola_a
and cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the topological intersection of two geometries. SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION(c_a.shape, c_c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c_a, cola_markets c_c WHERE c_a.name = 'cola_a' AND c_c.name = 'cola_c'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION(C_A.SHAPE,C_C.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_PO  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(4, 5, 3, 3, 5, 3, 5, 5, 4, 5))
Note that in the returned polygon, the SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY starts and ends at the same point (4, 5).
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.16 SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY [, unit IN VARCHAR2] [, count_shared_edges IN NUMBER] ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, unit IN VARCHAR2] [, count_shared_edges IN NUMBER] ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the length or perimeter of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed. For geodetic data, the default unit of measurement is meters.
 count_shared_edges

For threedimensional geometries only: the number of times to count the length of shared parts of edges if the input geometry contains any edges that are fully or partially shared. If specified, must be 1 (count each once) or 2 (count each twice). The default is 1.
This parameter is ignored for twodimensional input geometries.
Usage Notes
If the input polygon contains one or more holes, this function calculates the perimeters of the exterior boundary and all holes. It returns the sum of all perimeters.
Examples
The following example returns the perimeters of geometry objects stored in the COLA_MARKETS table. The first statement returns the perimeters of all objects; the second returns just the perimeter of cola_a
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the perimeters of all cola markets. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH(c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE'; NAME SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)   cola_a 20 cola_b 17.1622777 cola_c 9.23606798 cola_d 12.5663706  Return the perimeter of just cola_a. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH(c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_a'; NAME SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)   cola_a 20
Related Topics
None.
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.17 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, ordinate_pos IN NUMBER ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, ordinate_pos IN NUMBER ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the maximum value for the specified ordinate (dimension) of the minimum bounding rectangle of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  ordinate_pos

Position of the ordinate (dimension) in the definition of the geometry object: 1 for the first ordinate, 2 for the second ordinate, and so on. For example, if
geom
has X, Y ordinates, 1 identifies the X ordinate and 2 identifies the Y ordinate.
Usage Notes
None.
Examples
The following example returns the maximum X (first) ordinate value of the minimum bounding rectangle of the cola_d
geometry in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. The minimum bounding rectangle of cola_d
is returned in the example for the SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR function.)
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE(c.shape, m.diminfo, 1) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,1)  10
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.18 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Computes the maximum distance between two geometry objects. The maximum distance between two geometry objects is the distance between the farthest pair of points or segments of the two objects.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object whose distance from
geom2
is to be computed.  dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  geom2

Geometry object whose distance from
geom1
is to be computed.  dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed.
 tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
The input geometries can have no more than two dimensions.
Examples
The following example returns the maximum distance between cola_b
and cola_d
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE(c_b.shape, c_d.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c_b, cola_markets c_d WHERE c_b.name = 'cola_b' AND c_d.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE(C_B.SHAPE,C_D.SHAPE,0.005)  10.5440037
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.19 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE_LINE
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE_LINE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE_LINE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Computes the maximum distance between two geometry objects, and returns the line string geometry reflecting the maximum distance. The maximum distance between two geometry objects is the distance between the farthest pair of points or segments of the two objects. The returned geometry is a straight line between this farthest pair of points or segments.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object whose distance from
geom2
is to be computed.  dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  geom2

Geometry object whose distance from
geom1
is to be computed.  dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
The input geometries can have no more than two dimensions.
Examples
The following example returns the line string reflecting the maximum distance between cola_b
and cola_d
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE_LINE(c_b.shape, c_d.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c_b, cola_markets c_d WHERE c_b.name = 'cola_b' AND c_d.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAXDISTANCE_LINE(C_B.SHAPE,C_D.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SD  SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 5, 1, 8.70224688, 10.8726584))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.20 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, arc_tolerance IN NUMBER DEFAULT NULL ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER, arc_tolerance IN NUMBER DEFAULT NULL ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a circle object that represents the minimum bounding circle (MBC) of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 arc_tolerance

Arc tolerance value (see the explanation of the
arc_tolerance
keyword in the Usage Notes for SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY). This parameter is mainly used for densifying geodetic arcs.
Usage Notes
The minimum bounding circle is the circle that minimally encloses the geometry.
If the geometry (geom
) contains any arc elements, the function calculates the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) for each arc element and uses these MBRs in calculating the minimum bounding circle of the geometry. Thus, for example, if the input geometry is a circle, the computed MBC will be larger than the input geometry.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the minimum bounding circle of cola_a
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the MBC of cola_a. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_a'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC(C.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELE  cola_a SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 4), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(3, .394448725, 6.60555128, 4, 3, 7.60555128))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.21 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_CENTER
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_CENTER( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_CENTER( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns the center of the minimum bounding circle (MBC) of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
The minimum bounding circle is the circle that minimally encloses the geometry.
If the geometry (geom
) contains any arc elements, the function calculates the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) for each arc element and uses these MBRs in calculating the minimum bounding circle of the geometry.
Examples
The following example returns a point geometry object that is the center of the minimum bounding circle of cola_a
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the MBC center of cola_a. SQL> SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_CENTER(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c 2 WHERE c.name = 'cola_a'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_CENTER(C.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z),  cola_a SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 3, 4))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.22 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_RADIUS
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_RADIUS( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, unit IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_RADIUS( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER, unit IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the length of the radius of the minimum bounding circle (MBC) of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed. For geodetic data, the default unit of measurement is meters.
Usage Notes
The minimum bounding circle is the circle that minimally encloses the geometry.
If the geometry (geom
) contains any arc elements, the function calculates the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) for each arc element and uses these MBRs in calculating the minimum bounding circle of the geometry. Thus, for example, if the input geometry is a circle, the length of the radius of the computed MBC will be greater than that of the input geometry.
Examples
The following example returns the length of the radius of the minimum bounding circle of cola_a
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the MBC radius of cola_a. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_RADIUS(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_a'; NAME SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBC_RADIUS(C.SHAPE,0.005)   cola_a 3.60555128
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.23 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY [, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY] ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns the minimum bounding rectangle of a geometry object, that is, a single rectangle that minimally encloses the geometry.
Note:
SDO_GEOM_MBR is a SQL operator that is functionally identical to this function, but provides better performance. See SDO_GEOM_MBR Operator Alternative for Better Performance under Usage Notes for more information.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).
Usage Notes
This function does not return an MBR geometry if a proper MBR cannot be constructed. Specifically:

If the input geometry is null, the function returns a null geometry.

If the input geometry is a point, the function returns the point.

If the input geometry consists of points all on a straight line, the function returns a twopoint line.

If the input geometry has three dimensions but all Z dimension values are the same, the function returns a threedimensional line.
SDO_GEOM_MBR Operator Alternative for Better Performance
SDO_GEOM_MBR is a SQL operator that is functionally identical to the SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR function, but provides better performance.
The SDO_GEOM_MBR operator must be used within a SQL query, such as:
SELECT sdo_geom_mbr(geom) INTO g FROM DUAL;
You can also use multiple SDO_GEOM_MBR operators in the same query For example:
SELECT sdo_geom_mbr(geom1), sdo_geom_mbr(geom2) INTO g1, g2 FROM DUAL;
See also the example of the SDO_GEOM_MBR operator under Examples.
Examples
The following example returns the minimum bounding rectangle of the cola_d
geometry in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. Because cola_d
is a circle, the minimum bounding rectangle in this case is a square.)
 Return the minimum bounding rectangle of cola_d (a circle). SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR(c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(6, 7, 10, 11))
The following example if functionally identical to the preceding one, except that it uses the SDO_GEOM_MBR operator.
 Return the minimum bounding rectangle of cola_d (a circle). SELECT SDO_GEOM_MBR(c.shape) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM_MBR(C.SHAPE)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SD  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(6, 7, 10, 11))
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.24 SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, ordinate_pos IN NUMBER ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, ordinate_pos IN NUMBER ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the minimum value for the specified ordinate (dimension) of the minimum bounding rectangle of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  ordinate_pos

Position of the ordinate (dimension) in the definition of the geometry object: 1 for the first ordinate, 2 for the second ordinate, and so on. For example, if
geom
has X, Y ordinates, 1 identifies the X ordinate and 2 identifies the Y ordinate.
Usage Notes
None.
Examples
The following example returns the minimum X (first) ordinate value of the minimum bounding rectangle of the cola_d
geometry in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. The minimum bounding rectangle of cola_d
is returned in the example for the SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR function.)
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE(c.shape, m.diminfo, 1) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,1)  6
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.25 SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a point that is guaranteed to be on the surface of a polygon geometry object.
Parameters
 geom1

Polygon geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
This function returns a point geometry object representing a point that is guaranteed to be on the surface of geom1
; however, it is not guaranteed to be an interior point. (That is, it can be on the boundary or edge of geom1
.)
The returned point can be any point on the surface. You should not make any assumptions about where on the surface the returned point is, or about whether the point is the same or different when the function is called multiple times with the same input parameter values.
In most cases this function is less useful than the SDO_UTIL.INTERIOR_POINT function, which returns a point that is guaranteed to be an interior point.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is a point on the surface of cola_a
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return a point on the surface of a geometry. SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE(c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c.name = 'cola_a'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE(C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X,  SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 1, 1))
Related Topics
None.
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.26 SDO_GEOM.SDO_SELF_UNION
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_SELF_UNION( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_SELF_UNION( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a valid geometry object that is the topological self union of one geometry object, which can be invalid.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
This function can be used to fix the following problems that can make a geometry invalid:

Polygon boundary intersecting itself

Incorrect orientation of exterior or interior rings (or both) of a polygon
Examples
The following example returns a valid geometry object that is the topological self union of an invalid polygon.
 Return the topological self union of an invalid geometry. SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_SELF_UNION( SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 1, 1, 4, 4, 4, 4, 1, 1, 1)), 0.00005) FROM dual; SDO_GEOM.SDO_SELF_UNION(SDO_GEOMETRY(2003,NULL,NULL,SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,1  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 4, 1, 1, 4, 1, 4, 4, 1, 4))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.27 SDO_GEOM.SDO_TRIANGULATE
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_TRIANGULATE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a geometry with triangular elements that result from Delaunay triangulation of the input geometry.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
This function takes all coordinates from the input geometry, uses them to compute Delaunay triangulations, and returns a geometry object, each element of which is a triangle.
An exception is raised if geom
has fewer than three points or vertices, or consists of multiple points all in a straight line.
With geodetic data, this function is supported by approximations, as explained in Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that consists of triangular elements (two in this case) comprising the cola_c
polygon geometry. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.
 Return triangles comprising a specified polygon. SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_TRIANGULATE(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_TRIANGULATE(C.SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z),  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2007, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1, 9, 1003, 1), SDO_ ORDINATE_ARRAY(3, 3, 6, 3, 4, 5, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 3, 6, 5, 4, 5))
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.28 SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a geometry object that is the topological union (OR operation) of two geometry objects.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  geom2

Geometry object.
 dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
In Figure 264, the shaded area represents the polygon returned when SDO_UNION is used with a square (geom1
) and another polygon (geom2
).
If it is sufficient to append one geometry to another geometry without performing a topological union operation, and if both geometries are disjoint, using the SDO_UTIL.APPEND function (described in SDO_UTIL Package (Utility)) is faster than using the SDO_UNION function.
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the topological union (OR operation) of cola_a
and cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the topological union of two geometries. SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION(c_a.shape, m.diminfo, c_c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c_a, cola_markets c_c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c_a.name = 'cola_a' AND c_c.name = 'cola_c'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION(C_A.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,C_C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID,  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(5, 5, 5, 7, 1, 7, 1, 1, 5, 1, 5, 3, 6, 3, 6, 5, 5, 5))
Note that in the returned polygon, the SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY starts and ends at the same point (5, 5).
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.29 SDO_GEOM.SDO_VOLUME
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_VOLUME( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the volume of a threedimensional solid.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and volume unit (for example,'unit=CUBIC_FOOT'
or'unit=CUBIC_METER'
). For a list of volume units, enter the following query:SELECT short_name FROM mdsys.sdo_units_of_measure WHERE unit_of_meas_type = 'volume';
See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.
If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed.
Usage Notes
This function works with any solid, including solids with holes.
This function is not supported with geodetic data.
For information about support for threedimensional geometries, see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example returns the volume of a solid geometry object.
 Return the volume of a solid geometry. SELECT p.id, SDO_GEOM.SDO_VOLUME(p.geometry, 0.005) FROM polygons3d p WHERE p.id = 12; ID SDO_GEOM.SDO_VOLUME(P.GEOMETRY,0.005)   12 6
Related Topics
None.
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.30 SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, unit IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns the width of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 unit

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed. For geodetic data, the default unit of measurement is meters.
Usage Notes
For a convex polygon, the width is the minimum distance between parallel lines of support.
For a nonconvex geometry, this function determines its convex geometry and returns the width of that convex geometry.
The input geometry can have no more than two dimensions.
If a point geometry is specified, the function returns 0 (zero).
Examples
The following example returns the width of all geometry objects stored in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH(shape, 0.005) Width FROM cola_markets; NAME WIDTH   cola_a 4 cola_b 3 cola_c 2 cola_d 4
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.31 SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH_LINE
Note:
This feature is available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH(_LINE geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN NUMBER;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH_LINE( geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN NUMBER;
Description
Returns a line string geometry reflecting the width of a geometry object.
Parameters
 geom

Geometry object.
 dim

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
For a convex polygon, the width is the minimum distance between parallel lines of support.
For a nonconvex geometry, this function determines its convex geometry and returns the width of that convex geometry.
The input geometry can have no more than two dimensions.
If a point geometry is specified, the function returns 0 (zero).
Examples
The following example returns line strings reflecting width of each geometry object stored in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH_LINE(shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets; NAME  SDO_GEOM.SDO_WIDTH_LINE(SHAPE,0.005)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SD  cola_a SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 5, 7, 1, 7)) cola_b SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 8, 7, 5, 7)) cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 3, 5, 3, 3)) cola_d SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY( 10, 11, 6, 11))
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.32 SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR
Format
SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR( geom1 IN SDO_XOR, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER ) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Description
Returns a geometry object that is the topological symmetric difference (XOR operation) of two geometry objects.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  geom2

Geometry object.
 dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
Usage Notes
In Figure 265, the shaded area represents the polygon returned when SDO_XOR is used with a square (geom1
) and another polygon (geom2
).
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
Examples
The following example returns a geometry object that is the topological symmetric difference (XOR operation) of cola_a
and cola_c
. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Return the topological symmetric difference of two geometries. SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR(c_a.shape, m.diminfo, c_c.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c_a, cola_markets c_c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c_a.name = 'cola_a' AND c_c.name = 'cola_c'; SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR(C_A.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,C_C.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, S  SDO_GEOMETRY(2007, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1, 19, 1003, 1), SDO _ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 7, 1, 1, 5, 1, 5, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 7, 1, 7, 5, 5, 5, 3 , 6, 3, 6, 5, 5, 5))
Note that the returned polygon is a multipolygon (SDO_GTYPE = 2007), and the SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY describes two polygons: one starting and ending at (1, 7) and the other starting and ending at (5, 5).
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.33 SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT
Format
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT( theGeometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY, theDimInfo IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, conditional IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'TRUE' , flag10g IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'FALSE' ) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT( theGeometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tolerance IN NUMBER, conditional IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'TRUE' , flag10g IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'FALSE' ) RETURN VARCHAR2;
Description
Performs a consistency check for valid geometry types and returns context information if the geometry is invalid. The function checks the representation of the geometry from the tables against the element definitions.
Parameters
 theGeometry

Geometry object.
 theDimInfo

Dimensional information array corresponding to
theGeometry
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tolerance

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 conditional

Conditional flag; relevant only for a threedimensional composite surface or composite solid. A string value of
TRUE
(the default) causes validation to fail if two outer rings are on the same plane and share an edge; a string value ofFALSE
does not cause validation to fail if two outer rings are on the same plane and share an edge.  flag10g

Oracle Database 10g compatibility flag. A string value of
TRUE
causes only validation checks specific to twodimensional geometries to be performed, and no 3Dspecific validation checks to be performed. A string value ofFALSE
(the default) performs all validation checks that are relevant for the geometry. (See the Usage Notes for more information about theflag10g
parameter.)
Usage Notes
You should validate all geometry data, and fix any validation errors, before performing any spatial operations on the data, as explained in Recommendations for Loading and Validating Spatial Data.
If the geometry is valid, this function returns TRUE. (For a userdefined geometry, that is, a geometry with an SDO_GTYPE value of 2000, this function returns the string NULL.)
If the geometry is not valid, this function returns the following:

An Oracle error message number based on the specific reason the geometry is invalid, or FALSE if the geometry fails for some other reason

The context of the error (the coordinate, edge, or ring that causes the geometry to be invalid). (See Context of Errors: Details in this section.)
This function checks for type consistency and geometry consistency.
For type consistency, the function checks for the following:

The SDO_GTYPE is valid.

The SDO_ETYPE values are consistent with the SDO_GTYPE value. For example, if the SDO_GTYPE is 2003, there should be at least one element of type POLYGON in the geometry.

The SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY has valid triplet values.
For geometry consistency, the function checks for the following, as appropriate for the specific geometry type:

Polygons have at least four points, which includes the point that closes the polygon. (The last point is the same as the first.)

Polygons are not selfcrossing.

No two consecutive vertices on a line or polygon are the same.

Polygons are oriented correctly. (Exterior ring boundaries must be oriented counterclockwise, and interior ring boundaries must be oriented clockwise.)

The interior of a polygon is connected.

Line strings have at least two points.

SDO_ETYPE 1digit and 4digit values are not mixed (that is, both used) in defining polygon ring elements.

Points on an arc are not colinear (that is, are not on a straight line) and are not the same point.

Geometries are within the specified bounds of the applicable DIMINFO column value (from the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view).

LRS geometries (see Linear Referencing System) have three or four dimensions and a valid measure dimension position (3 or 4, depending on the number of dimensions).
For COLLECTION type geometries, some of the preceding checks mentioned above are not performed. Specifically, interior ring checks and polygonpolygon overlap checks are not performed for polygon elements of the COLLECTION type geometry.
For multipoint geometries, this function checks for duplicate vertices with threedimensional geometries, but not with twodimensional geometries.
For threedimensional geometries, this function also performs the checks described in Validation Checks for ThreeDimensional Geometries.
In checking for geometry consistency, the function considers the geometry's tolerance value in determining if lines touch or if points are the same.
If the function format with tolerance
is used, no checking is done to validate that the geometry is within the coordinate system bounds as stored in the DIMINFO field of the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view. If this check is required for your usage, use the function format with theDimInfo
.
Setting the flag10g
parameter value to TRUE
causes the validation logic for Oracle Spatial Release 10.2 to be used, irrespective of the dimensionality of the geometry. This can be useful for allowing threedimensional geometries that contain geometries in preRelease 11.1 format to pass the validation check when they would otherwise fail. For example, a threedimensional line is not valid if it contains circular arcs; and setting flag10g
to TRUE
will allow such geometries to avoid being considered invalid solely because of the circular arcs. (You should later make these geometries valid according to the criteria for the current release, such as by densifying the circular arcs.)
You can use this function in a PL/SQL procedure as an alternative to using the SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT procedure. See the Usage Notes for SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT for more information.
Context of Errors: Details
If a geometry is invalid, the result can include information about a combination of the following: coordinates, elements, rings, and edges.

Coordinates: A coordinate refers to a vertex in a geometry. In a twodimensional geometry, a vertex is two numbers (X and Y, or Longitude and Latitude). In a threedimensional geometry, a vertex is defined using three numbers; and in a fourdimensional geometry, a vertex is defined using four numbers. (You can use the SDO_UTIL.GETVERTICES function to return the coordinates in a geometry.)
If you receive a geometry validation error such as 13356 (adjacent points in a geometry are redundant), you can call the SDO_UTIL.GETVERTICES function, specifying a rownum stopping condition to include the coordinate one greater than the coordinate indicated with the error. The last two coordinates shown in the output are the redundant coordinates. These coordinates may be exactly the same, or they may be within the userspecified tolerance and thus are considered the same point. You can remove redundant coordinates by using the SDO_UTIL.REMOVE_DUPLICATE_VERTICES function.

Elements: An element is a point, a line string, or an exterior polygon with zero or more corresponding interior polygons. (That is, a polygon element includes the exterior ring and all interior rings associated with that exterior ring.) If a geometry is a multielement geometry (for example, multiple points, lines, or polygons), the first element is element 1, the second element is element 2, and so on.

Rings: A ring is only used with polygon elements. Exterior rings in a polygon are considered polygon elements, and an exterior ring can include zero or more interior rings (or holes). Each interior ring has its own ring designation, but Ring 1 is associated with the exterior polygon itself. For example, Element 1, Ring 1 refers to the first exterior polygon in a geometry; Element 1, Ring 2 refers to the first interior polygon of the first exterior polygon; and Element 1, Ring 3 refers to the second interior polygon. If the geometry is a multipolygon, Element 2, Ring 1 is used to refers to the second exterior polygon. If there are interior polygons associated with it, Element 2, Ring 2 refers to the first interior polygon of the second exterior polygon.

Edges: An edge refers to a line segment between two coordinates. Edge 1 refers to the segment between coordinate 1 and coordinate 2, Edge 2 refers to the line segment between coordinates 2 and 3, and so on. The most common place to see edge errors when validating geometries is with selfintersecting polygons. (The Open Geospatial Consortium simple features specification does not allow a polygon to selfintersect.) In such cases, Oracle reports error 13349 (polygon boundary crosses itself), including the Element, Ring, and Edge numbers where selfintersection occurs.
If error 13351 (shared edge) is returned for an optimized rectangle that spans more than 119 degrees in longitude, some queries on this rectangle will return correct results, as explained in Geodetic MBRs.
Examples
The following example validates a geometry (deliberately created as invalid) named cola_invalid_geom
.
 Validate; provide context if invalid SELECT c.name, SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT(c.shape, 0.005) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_invalid_geom'; NAME  SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT(C.SHAPE,0.005)  cola_invalid_geom 13349 [Element <1>] [Ring <1>][Edge <1>][Edge <3>]
In the output for this example, 13349 indicates the error ORA13349: polygon boundary crosses itself
. The first ring of the first element has edges that intersect. The edges that intersect are edge 1 (the first and second vertices) and edge 3 (the third and fourth vertices).
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.34 SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT
Format
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT( geom_table IN VARCHAR2, geom_column IN VARCHAR2, result_table IN VARCHAR2, commit_interval IN NUMBER DEFAULT 1, conditional IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'TRUE' , flag10g IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT 'FALSE', geom_schema IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL);
Description
Examines a geometry column to determine if the stored geometries follow the defined rules for geometry objects, and returns context information about any invalid geometries.
Parameters
 geom_table

Spatial geometry table. Can be specified in schema.table format (for example,
scott.shapes
), unless thegeom_schema
parameter is specified.  geom_column

Geometry object column to be examined.
 result_table

Result table to hold the validation results. A row is added to
result_table
for each invalid geometry. If there are no invalid geometries, one or more (depending on thecommit_interval
value) rows with a result of DONE are added.  commit_interval

Number of geometries to validate before Spatial and Graph performs an internal commit operation and writes a row with a result of DONE to
result_table
(if no rows for invalid geometries have been written since the last commit operation). Ifcommit_interval
is not specified, no internal commit operations are performed during the validation.The
commit_interval
option is helpful if you want to look at the contents ofresult_table
while the validation is in progress.  conditional

Conditional flag; relevant only for a threedimensional composite surface or composite solid. A string value of
TRUE
(the default) causes validation to fail if two outer rings are on the same plane and share an edge; a string value ofFALSE
does not cause validation to fail if two outer rings are on the same plane and share an edge.  flag10g

Oracle Database 10g compatibility flag. A string value of
TRUE
causes only validation checks specific to twodimensional geometries to be performed, and no 3Dspecific validation checks to be performed. A string value ofFALSE
(the default) performs all validation checks that are relevant for the geometries. (See the Usage Notes for the SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT function for more information about theflag10g
parameter.)  geom_schema

Specifies the schema of the
geom_table
table, if it differs from the current schema. Ifgeom_schema
is specified, thegeom_table
parameter cannot be specified in schema.table format.
Usage Notes
You should validate all geometry data, and fix any validation errors, before performing any spatial operations on the data, as explained in Recommendations for Loading and Validating Spatial Data.
This procedure loads the result table with validation results.
An empty result table (result_table
parameter) should be created before calling this procedure. The format of the result table is: (sdo_rowid ROWID, result VARCHAR2(2000)). If result_table
is not empty, it is automatically truncated by the procedure before any rows are added.
The result table contains one row for each invalid geometry. A row is not written if a geometry is valid, except as follows:

If
commit_interval
is not specified (or if thecommit_interval
value is greater than the number of geometries in the layer) and no invalid geometries are found, a single row with a RESULT value of DONE is written. 
If
commit_interval
is specified and if no invalid geometries are found between an internal commit and the previous internal commit (or start of validation for the first internal commit), a single row with the primary key of the last geometry validated and a RESULT value of DONE is written. (If there have been no invalid geometries since the last internal commit operation, this row replaces the previous row that had a result of DONE.)
In each row for an invalid geometry, the SDO_ROWID column contains the ROWID value of the row containing the invalid geometry, and the RESULT column contains an Oracle error message number and the context of the error (the coordinate, edge, or ring that causes the geometry to be invalid). You can then look up the error message for more information about the cause of the failure.
This procedure performs the following checks on each geometry in the layer (geom_column
):

All type consistency and geometry consistency checks that are performed by the SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT function (see the Usage Notes for that function).

The geometry's SRID value (coordinate system) is the same as the one specified in the applicable DIMINFO column value (from the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view, which is described in Geometry Metadata Views).
Examples
The following example validates the geometry objects stored in the SHAPE column of the COLA_MARKETS table. The example includes the creation of the result table. For this example, a deliberately invalid geometry was inserted into the table before the validation was performed.
 Is a layer valid? (First, create the result table.) CREATE TABLE val_results (sdo_rowid ROWID, result varchar2(1000));  (Next statement must be on one command line.) CALL SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT('COLA_MARKETS','SHAPE','VAL_RESULTS'); Call completed. SQL> SELECT * from val_results; SDO_ROWID  RESULT  Rows Processed <12> AAABXNAABAAAK+YAAC 13349 [Element <1>] [Ring <1>][Edge <1>][Edge <3>]
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)
26.35 SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE
Format
SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY, dist IN NUMBER, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY [, units IN VARCHAR2] [, ellipsoidal IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE( geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, dist IN NUMBER, geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY, tol IN NUMBER [, units IN VARCHAR2] [, ellipsoidal IN VARCHAR2] ) RETURN VARCHAR2;
Description
Determines if two spatial objects are within some specified distance from each other.
Parameters
 geom1

Geometry object.
 dim1

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom1
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  dist

Distance value.
 geom2

Geometry object.
 dim2

Dimensional information array corresponding to
geom2
, usually selected from one of the xxx_SDO_GEOM_METADATA views (described in Geometry Metadata Views).  tol

Tolerance value (see Tolerance).
 units

Unit of measurement: a quoted string with
unit=
and an SDO_UNIT value from the MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS table (for example, 'unit=KM'). See Unit of Measurement Support for more information about unit of measurement specification.If this parameter is not specified, the unit of measurement associated with the data is assumed. For geodetic data, the default unit of measurement is meters.
 ellipsoidal

Specifies if ellipsoidal distance is always used with geodetic data (
true
), or if spherical distance is used in some cases (false
, the default). See Distance: Spherical versus Ellipsoidal with Geodetic Data.
Usage Notes
For better performance, use the SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE operator (described in Spatial Operators ) instead of the SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE
function. For more information about performance considerations with operators and functions, see Spatial Operators_ Procedures_ and Functions.
This function returns TRUE for object pairs that are within the specified distance, and FALSE otherwise.
The distance between two extended objects (for example, nonpoint objects such as lines and polygons) is defined as the minimum distance between these two objects. Thus the distance between two adjacent polygons is zero.
An exception is raised if geom1
and geom2
are based on different coordinate systems.
Examples
The following example checks if cola_b
and cola_d
are within 1 unit apart at the shortest distance between them. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
 Are two geometries within 1 unit of distance apart? SELECT SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE(c_b.shape, m.diminfo, 1, c_d.shape, m.diminfo) FROM cola_markets c_b, cola_markets c_d, user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE' AND c_b.name = 'cola_b' AND c_d.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE(C_B.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO,1,C_D.SHAPE,M.DIMINFO)  TRUE
Related Topics
Parent topic: SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)