1 SQL Statements

This chapter presents the syntax for Oracle SQL statements.

This chapter includes the following section:

Syntax for SQL Statements

SQL statements are the means by which programs and users access data in an Oracle database.

The sections that follow show each SQL statement and its related syntax. Refer to Subclauses for the syntax of the subclauses listed in the syntax for the statements.

See Also:

Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for detailed information about SQL statements

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT
  { keystore_management_clauses
  | key_management_clauses
  | secret_management_clauses
  } ;

ALTER ANALYTIC VIEW

ALTER ANALYTIC VIEW [ schema. ] analytic_view_name 
  { RENAME TO new_av_name | COMPILE };

ALTER ATTRIBUTE DIMENSION

ALTER ATTRIBUTE DIMENSION [ schema. ]
  attr_dim_name { RENAME TO new_attr_dim_name | COMPILE };

ALTER AUDIT POLICY

ALTER AUDIT POLICY policy
  [ ADD [ privilege_audit_clause ] [ action_audit_clause ] [ role_audit_clause ] ]
  [ DROP [ privilege_audit_clause ] [ action_audit_clause ] [ role_audit_clause ] ]
  [ CONDITION { DROP | 'audit_condition' 
    EVALUATE PER { STATEMENT | SESSION | INSTANCE }   } ]
  [ ONLY TOPLEVEL ]
;

ALTER CLUSTER

ALTER CLUSTER [ schema. ] cluster
  { physical_attributes_clause
  | SIZE size_clause
  | [ MODIFY PARTITION partition ] allocate_extent_clause
  | deallocate_unused_clause
  | { CACHE | NOCACHE }
  } ...
  [ parallel_clause ] ;

ALTER DATABASE

ALTER DATABASE [ database ]
  { startup_clauses
  | recovery_clauses
  | database_file_clauses
  | logfile_clauses
  | controlfile_clauses
  | standby_database_clauses
  | default_settings_clauses
  | instance_clauses
  | security_clause
  | prepare_clause
  | drop_mirror_copy
  | lost_write_protection
  | cdb_fleet_clauses
  | property_clause
  } ;

ALTER DATABASE DICTIONARY

ALTER DATABASE DICTIONARY 
{   ENCRYPT CREDENTIALS
  | REKEY CREDENTIALS
  | DELETE CREDENTIALS KEY 
};

ALTER DATABASE LINK

ALTER [ SHARED ] [ PUBLIC ] DATABASE LINK dblink
  { CONNECT TO user IDENTIFIED BY password [ dblink_authentication ]
  | dblink_authentication
  };

ALTER DIMENSION

ALTER DIMENSION [ schema. ] dimension
  { ADD { level_clause
        | hierarchy_clause
        | attribute_clause
        | extended_attribute_clause
        }
  } ...
  |
  { DROP { LEVEL level [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
         | HIERARCHY hierarchy
         | ATTRIBUTE attribute [ LEVEL level [ COLUMN column ] ]...
         }
  } ...
  |
  COMPILE
  ;

ALTER DISKGROUP

ALTER DISKGROUP
  { diskgroup_name
      { { { add_disk_clause | drop_disk_clause }
          [, { add_disk_clause | drop_disk_clause } ]...
        | resize_disk_clause
        } [ rebalance_diskgroup_clause ]
      | replace_disk_clause
      | rename_disk_clause
      | disk_online_clause
      | disk_offline_clause
      | rebalance_diskgroup_clause
      | check_diskgroup_clause
      | diskgroup_template_clauses
      | diskgroup_directory_clauses
      | diskgroup_alias_clauses
      | diskgroup_volume_clauses
      | diskgroup_attributes
      | modify_diskgroup_file
      | drop_diskgroup_file_clause
      | convert_redundancy_clause
      | usergroup_clauses
      | user_clauses
      | file_permissions_clause
      | file_owner_clause
      | scrub_clause
      | quotagroup_clauses
      | filegroup_clauses
      }
    | { diskgroup_name [, diskgroup_name ]...
      | ALL
      } { undrop_disk_clause
        | diskgroup_availability
        | enable_disable_volume
        }
  } ;

ALTER FLASHBACK ARCHIVE

ALTER FLASHBACK ARCHIVE flashback_archive
  { SET DEFAULT
  | { ADD | MODIFY } TABLESPACE tablespace [flashback_archive_quota]
  | REMOVE TABLESPACE tablespace_name
  | MODIFY RETENTION flashback_archive_retention
  | PURGE { ALL | BEFORE { SCN expr | TIMESTAMP expr } }
  | [NO] OPTIMIZE DATA
  };

ALTER FUNCTION

ALTER FUNCTION [ schema. ] function_name
{ function_compile_clause | { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE } }

ALTER HIERARCHY

ALTER HIERARCHY [ schema. ] hierarchy_name 
  { RENAME TO new_hier_name | COMPILE };

ALTER INDEX

ALTER INDEX [ schema. ]index
  { { deallocate_unused_clause
    | allocate_extent_clause
    | shrink_clause
    | parallel_clause
    | physical_attributes_clause
    | logging_clause
    | partial_index_clause
    } ...
  | rebuild_clause [ { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE } INVALIDATION ]
  | PARAMETERS ( 'ODCI_parameters' )
  | COMPILE
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE }
  | UNUSABLE [ ONLINE ] [ { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE } INVALIDATION ]
  | VISIBLE | INVISIBLE
  | RENAME TO new_name
  | COALESCE [ CLEANUP ] [ ONLY ] [ parallel_clause ]
  | { MONITORING | NOMONITORING } USAGE
  | UPDATE BLOCK REFERENCES
  | alter_index_partitioning
  }
  ;

ALTER INDEXTYPE

ALTER INDEXTYPE [ schema. ] indextype
  { { ADD | DROP } [ schema. ] operator ( parameter_types ) 
      [ , { ADD | DROP } [schema. ] operator ( parameter_types ) ]... [ using_type_clause ]
  | COMPILE
  }
  [ WITH LOCAL [ RANGE ] PARTITION ] [ storage_table_clause ]
  ;

ALTER INMEMORY JOIN GROUP

ALTER INMEMORY JOIN GROUP [ schema. ] join_group
  { ADD | REMOVE } ( [ schema. ] table ( column ) ) ;

ALTER JAVA

ALTER JAVA
  { SOURCE | CLASS } [ schema. ]object_name 
  [ RESOLVER 
      ( ( match_string [, ] { schema_name | - } )... )
  ]
  { { COMPILE | RESOLVE }
  | invoker_rights_clause
  } ;

ALTER LIBRARY

ALTER LIBRARY [ schema. ] library_name
{ library_compile_clause | { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE } }

ALTER LOCKDOWN PROFILE

ALTER LOCKDOWN PROFILE
  { lockdown_features
  | lockdown_options
  | lockdown_statements
  } ;

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW
  [ schema. ] materialized_view
  [ physical_attributes_clause
  | modify_mv_column_clause
  | table_compression
  | inmemory_table_clause
  | LOB_storage_clause [, LOB_storage_clause ]...
  | modify_LOB_storage_clause [, modify_LOB_storage_clause ]...
  | alter_table_partitioning
  | parallel_clause
  | logging_clause
  | allocate_extent_clause
  | deallocate_unused_clause
  | shrink_clause
  | { CACHE | NOCACHE }
  ]
  [ alter_iot_clauses ]
  [ USING INDEX physical_attributes_clause ]
  [ MODIFY scoped_table_ref_constraint
  | alter_mv_refresh
  ]
  [ evaluation_edition_clause ]
  [ { ENABLE | DISABLE } ON QUERY COMPUTATION ]
  [ alter_query_rewrite_clause
  | COMPILE
  | CONSIDER FRESH
  ] ;

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG [ FORCE ]
  ON [ schema. ]table
  [ physical_attributes_clause
  | add_mv_log_column_clause
  | alter_table_partitioning
  | parallel_clause
  | logging_clause
  | allocate_extent_clause
  | shrink_clause
  | move_mv_log_clause
  | { CACHE | NOCACHE }
  ] [ mv_log_augmentation ] [  mv_log_purge_clause ] [ for_refresh_clause ]
  ;

ALTER MATERIALIZED ZONEMAP

ALTER MATERIALIZED ZONEMAP [ schema. ] zonemap_name
  { alter_zonemap_attributes
  | zonemap_refresh_clause
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE } PRUNING
  | COMPILE
  | REBUILD
  | UNUSABLE
  } ;

ALTER OPERATOR

ALTER OPERATOR [ schema. ] operator
  { add_binding_clause
  | drop_binding_clause
  | COMPILE
  } ;

ALTER OUTLINE

ALTER OUTLINE [ PUBLIC | PRIVATE ] outline
  { REBUILD
  | RENAME TO new_outline_name
  | CHANGE CATEGORY TO new_category_name
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE }
  } ...
  ;

ALTER PACKAGE

ALTER PACKAGE [ schema. ] package_name
{ package_compile_clause | { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE } }

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE
  { pdb_unplug_clause
  | pdb_settings_clauses
  | pdb_datafile_clause
  | pdb_recovery_clauses
  | pdb_change_state
  | pdb_change_state_from_root
  | application_clauses
  | snapshot_clauses
  | prepare_clause
  | drop_mirror_copy
  | lost_write_protection
  } ;

ALTER PROCEDURE

ALTER PROCEDURE [ schema. ] procedure_name
{ procedure_compile_clause | { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE } }

ALTER PROFILE

ALTER PROFILE profile LIMIT
  { resource_parameters | password_parameters } ...
  [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ] ;

ALTER RESOURCE COST

ALTER RESOURCE COST
  { { CPU_PER_SESSION
    | CONNECT_TIME
    | LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION
    | PRIVATE_SGA
    } integer
  } ...
  ;

ALTER ROLE

ALTER ROLE role
  { NOT IDENTIFIED
  | IDENTIFIED
      { BY password
      | USING [ schema. ] package
      | EXTERNALLY
      | GLOBALLY AS domain_name_of_directory_group
      }
  }
  [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ] ;

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT rollback_segment
  { ONLINE
  | OFFLINE
  | storage_clause
  | SHRINK [ TO size_clause ]
  };

ALTER SEQUENCE

ALTER SEQUENCE [ schema. ] sequence
  { INCREMENT BY integer
  | { MAXVALUE integer | NOMAXVALUE }
  | { MINVALUE integer | NOMINVALUE }
  |  RESTART
  | { CYCLE | NOCYCLE }
  | { CACHE integer | NOCACHE }
  | { ORDER | NOORDER }
  | { KEEP | NOKEEP }
  | { SCALE {EXTEND | NOEXTEND} | NOSCALE }
  | { SHARD {EXTEND | NOEXTEND} | NOSHARD }
  | { SESSION | GLOBAL }
  } ...
;

ALTER SESSION

 ALTER SESSION
  { ADVISE { COMMIT | ROLLBACK | NOTHING }
  | CLOSE DATABASE LINK dblink
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE } COMMIT IN PROCEDURE
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE } GUARD
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE | FORCE } PARALLEL
    { DML | DDL | QUERY } [ PARALLEL integer ]
  | { ENABLE RESUMABLE [ TIMEOUT integer ] [ NAME string ]
    | DISABLE RESUMABLE
    }
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE } SHARD DDL
  | SYNC WITH PRIMARY  
  | alter_session_set_clause
  } ;

ALTER SYNONYM

ALTER [ PUBLIC ] SYNONYM [ schema. ] synonym
  { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE | COMPILE } ;

ALTER SYSTEM

ALTER SYSTEM
  { archive_log_clause
  | checkpoint_clause
  | check_datafiles_clause
  | distributed_recov_clauses
  | FLUSH { SHARED_POOL | GLOBAL CONTEXT | BUFFER_CACHE | FLASH_CACHE
          | REDO TO target_db_name [ [ NO ] CONFIRM APPLY ] }
  | end_session_clauses
  | SWITCH LOGFILE
  | { SUSPEND | RESUME }
  | quiesce_clauses
  | rolling_migration_clauses
  | rolling_patch_clauses
  | security_clauses
  | affinity_clauses
  | shutdown_dispatcher_clause
  | REGISTER
  | SET alter_system_set_clause
        [ alter_system_set_clause ]...
  | RESET alter_system_reset_clause
          [ alter_system_reset_clause ]...
  | RELOCATE CLIENT client_id
  | ALTER SYSTEM CANCEL SQL ' session_id serial_number [ @instance_id ] [ sql_id ] '
  | FLUSH PASSWORDFILE_METADATA_CACHE
  } ;

ALTER TABLE

ALTER TABLE [ schema. ] table
  [ memoptimize_read_clause ] [ memoptimize_write_clause ]
  [ alter_table_properties
  | column_clauses
  | constraint_clauses
  | alter_table_partitioning [ { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE } INVALIDATION ]
  | alter_external_table
  | move_table_clause
  | modify_to_partitioned
  | modify_opaque_type
  ]
  [ enable_disable_clause
  | { ENABLE | DISABLE }
    { TABLE LOCK | ALL TRIGGERS | CONTAINER_MAP | CONTAINERS_DEFAULT }
  ] ...
  ;

ALTER TABLESPACE

ALTER TABLESPACE tablespace alter_tablespace_attrs ;

ALTER TABLESPACE SET

ALTER TABLESPACE SET tablespace_set alter_tablespace_attrs ;

ALTER TRIGGER

ALTER TRIGGER [ schema. ] trigger_name
  { trigger_compile_clause
  | { ENABLE| DISABLE }
  | RENAME TO new_name
  | { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE }
  } ;

ALTER TYPE

ALTER TYPE [ schema. ] type_name
{ alter_type_clause | { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE } }

ALTER USER

ALTER USER
  { user
    { IDENTIFIED
      { BY password [ REPLACE old_password ]
      | EXTERNALLY [ AS 'certificate_DN' | AS 'kerberos_principal_name' ]
      | GLOBALLY [ AS '[directory_DN]' ]
      }
    | NO AUTHENTICATION
    | DEFAULT COLLATION collation_name
    | DEFAULT TABLESPACE tablespace
    | [ LOCAL ] TEMPORARY TABLESPACE { tablespace | tablespace_group_name }
    | { QUOTA { size_clause
              | UNLIMITED
              } ON tablespace
      } ...
    | PROFILE profile
    | DEFAULT ROLE { role [, role ]...
                   | ALL [ EXCEPT role [, role ]... ]
                   | NONE
                   }
    | PASSWORD EXPIRE
    | ACCOUNT { LOCK | UNLOCK }
    | ENABLE EDITIONS [ FOR object_type [, object_type ]... ] [ FORCE ]
    | [HTTP] DIGEST { ENABLE | DISABLE }
    | CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL }
    | container_data_clause
    } ...
  | user [, user ]... proxy_clause
  } ;

ALTER VIEW

ALTER VIEW [ schema. ] view
  { ADD out_of_line_constraint
  | MODIFY CONSTRAINT constraint
      { RELY | NORELY }
  | DROP { CONSTRAINT constraint
         | PRIMARY KEY
         | UNIQUE (column [, column ]...)
         }
  | COMPILE
  | { READ ONLY | READ WRITE }
  | { EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE }
  } ;

ANALYZE

ANALYZE
  { { TABLE [ schema. ] table
    | INDEX [ schema. ] index
    } [ partition_extension_clause ]
  | CLUSTER [ schema. ] cluster
  }
  { validation_clauses
  | LIST CHAINED ROWS [ into_clause ]
  | DELETE [ SYSTEM ] STATISTICS
  } ;

ASSOCIATE STATISTICS

ASSOCIATE STATISTICS WITH
  { column_association | function_association }
  [ storage_table_clause ] ;

AUDIT (Traditional Auditing)

AUDIT
  { audit_operation_clause [ auditing_by_clause | IN SESSION CURRENT ]
  | audit_schema_object_clause
  | NETWORK
  | DIRECT_PATH LOAD [ auditing_by_clause ]
  } [ BY { SESSION | ACCESS } ]
    [ WHENEVER [ NOT ] SUCCESSFUL ]
    [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ]
;

AUDIT (Unified Auditing)

AUDIT
  { POLICY policy
    [ { BY user [, user]... }
    | { EXCEPT user [, user]... }
    | by_users_with_roles ]
    [ WHENEVER [ NOT ] SUCCESSFUL ]
  }
  |
  { CONTEXT NAMESPACE namespace ATTRIBUTES attribute [, attribute ]...
      [, CONTEXT NAMESPACE namespace ATTRIBUTES attribute [, attribute ]... ]...
    [ BY user [, user]... ]
  } ;

CALL

CALL
  { routine_clause
  | object_access_expression
  }
  [ INTO :host_variable
    [ [ INDICATOR ] :indicator_variable ] ] ;

COMMENT

COMMENT ON
  { AUDIT POLICY policy
  | COLUMN [ schema. ]
      { table. | view. | materialized_view. } column
  | EDITION edition_name
  | INDEXTYPE [ schema. ] indextype
  | MATERIALIZED VIEW materialized_view
  | MINING MODEL [ schema. ] model
  | OPERATOR [ schema. ] operator
  | TABLE [ schema. ] { table | view }
  }
  IS string ;

COMMIT

COMMIT [ WORK ]
  [ [ COMMENT string ]
    | [ WRITE [ WAIT | NOWAIT ] [ IMMEDIATE | BATCH ]
    ]
  | FORCE string [, integer ]
  ] ;

CREATE ANALYTIC VIEW

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ { FORCE | NOFORCE } ] 
   ANALYTIC VIEW [ schema. ] analytic_view 
    [ sharing clause ] 
    [ classification_clause ]...
    using_clause 
    dim_by_clause 
    measures_clause 
    [ default_measure_clause ] 
    [ default_aggregate_clause ]
    [ cache_clause ]
;

CREATE ATTRIBUTE DIMENSION

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ FORCE | NOFORCE ] ATTRIBUTE DIMENSION
  [ schema. ] attr_dimension [ sharing_clause ] [ classification_clause ]... ]
  [ DIMENSION TYPE { STANDARD | TIME } ]
  attr_dim_using_clause
  attributes_clause
  [ attr_dim_level_clause ]...
  [ all_clause ]
;

CREATE AUDIT POLICY

CREATE AUDIT POLICY policy
  [ privilege_audit_clause ] [ action_audit_clause ] [ role_audit_clause ]
  [ WHEN 'audit_condition' EVALUATE PER { STATEMENT | SESSION | INSTANCE } ]
  [ ONLY TOPLEVEL ]
  [ CONTAINER = { ALL | CURRENT } ] ;

CREATE CLUSTER

CREATE CLUSTER [ schema. ] cluster
  (column datatype [ COLLATE column_collation_name ] [ SORT ]
    [, column datatype [ COLLATE column_collation_name ] [ SORT ] ]...
  )
  [ { physical_attributes_clause
    | SIZE size_clause
    | TABLESPACE tablespace
    | { INDEX
      | [ SINGLE TABLE ]
        HASHKEYS integer [ HASH IS expr ]
      }
    }...
  ]
  [ parallel_clause ]
  [ NOROWDEPENDENCIES | ROWDEPENDENCIES ]
  [ CACHE | NOCACHE ] [ cluster_range_partitions ] ;

CREATE CONTEXT

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] CONTEXT namespace
  USING [ schema. ] package
  [ INITIALIZED { EXTERNALLY | GLOBALLY }
  | ACCESSED GLOBALLY
  ] ;

CREATE CONTROLFILE

CREATE CONTROLFILE
  [ REUSE ] [ SET ] DATABASE database
  [ logfile_clause ]
  { RESETLOGS | NORESETLOGS }
  [ DATAFILE file_specification
             [, file_specification ]... ]
  [ MAXLOGFILES integer
  | MAXLOGMEMBERS integer
  | MAXLOGHISTORY integer
  | MAXDATAFILES integer
  | MAXINSTANCES integer
  | { ARCHIVELOG | NOARCHIVELOG }
  | FORCE LOGGING
  | SET STANDBY LOGGING FOR {DATA AVAILABILITY | LOAD PERFORMANCE}
  ]...
  [ character_set_clause ] ;

CREATE DATABASE

CREATE DATABASE [ database ]
  { USER SYS IDENTIFIED BY password
  | USER SYSTEM IDENTIFIED BY password
  | CONTROLFILE REUSE
  | MAXDATAFILES integer
  | MAXINSTANCES integer
  | CHARACTER SET charset
  | NATIONAL CHARACTER SET charset
  | SET DEFAULT
      { BIGFILE | SMALLFILE } TABLESPACE
  | database_logging_clauses
  | tablespace_clauses
  | set_time_zone_clause
  | [ BIGFILE | SMALLFILE ] USER_DATA TABLESPACE tablespace_name
      DATAFILE datafile_tempfile_spec [, datafile_tempfile_spec ]...
  | enable_pluggable_database
  }... ;

CREATE DATABASE LINK

CREATE [ SHARED ] [ PUBLIC ] DATABASE LINK dblink
  [ CONNECT TO
    { CURRENT_USER
    | user IDENTIFIED BY password [ dblink_authentication ]
    }
  | dblink_authentication
  ]...
  [ USING connect_string ] ;

CREATE DIMENSION

CREATE DIMENSION [ schema. ] dimension
  level_clause ...
  { hierarchy_clause
  | attribute_clause
  | extended_attribute_clause
  }...
;

CREATE DIRECTORY

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] DIRECTORY directory
  [ SHARING = { METADATA | NONE } ]
  AS 'path_name' ;

CREATE DISKGROUP

CREATE DISKGROUP diskgroup_name
  [ { HIGH | NORMAL | FLEX | EXTENDED [ SITE site_name ] | EXTERNAL } REDUNDANCY ]
  { [ QUORUM | REGULAR ] [ FAILGROUP failgroup_name ]
    DISK qualified_disk_clause [, qualified_disk_clause ]...
  }...
  [ ATTRIBUTE { 'attribute_name' = 'attribute_value' }
              [, 'attribute_name' = 'attribute_value' ]... ]
;

CREATE EDITION

CREATE EDITION edition
  [ AS CHILD OF parent_edition ]
;

CREATE FLASHBACK ARCHIVE

CREATE FLASHBACK ARCHIVE [DEFAULT] flashback_archive
  TABLESPACE tablespace
  [flashback_archive_quota]
  [ [NO] OPTIMIZE DATA ]
  flashback_archive_retention
;

CREATE FUNCTION

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
FUNCTION plsql_function_source

CREATE HIERARCHY

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ FORCE | NOFORCE ] 
  HIERARCHY [ schema. ] hierarchy 
  [ sharing_clause ]
  [ classification_clause ]... ]
  hier_using_clause
  level_hier_clause
  [ hier_attrs_clause ]
;

CREATE INDEX

CREATE [ UNIQUE | BITMAP ] INDEX [ schema. ] index
  ON { cluster_index_clause
     | table_index_clause
     | bitmap_join_index_clause
     }
[ USABLE | UNUSABLE ]
[ { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE } INVALIDATION ] ;

CREATE INDEXTYPE

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] INDEXTYPE [ schema. ] indextype
  FOR [ schema. ] operator (parameter_type [, parameter_type ]...)
        [, [ schema. ] operator (parameter_type [, parameter_type ]...)
        ]...
  using_type_clause
  [WITH LOCAL [RANGE] PARTITION ]
  [ storage_table_clause ]
;

CREATE INMEMORY JOIN GROUP

CREATE INMEMORY JOIN GROUP [ schema. ] join_group
  ( [ schema. ] table ( column ) , [ schema. ] table ( column )
    [, [ schema. ] table ( column ) ]... ) ;

CREATE JAVA

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ AND { RESOLVE | COMPILE } ] [ NOFORCE ]
  JAVA { { SOURCE | RESOURCE } NAMED [ schema. ] primary_name
       | CLASS [ SCHEMA schema ]
       }
  [ SHARING = { METADATA | NONE } ]
  [ invoker_rights_clause ]
  [ RESOLVER ( (match_string [,] { schema_name | - })...) ]
  { USING { BFILE (directory_object_name, server_file_name)
          | { CLOB | BLOB | BFILE } subquery
          | 'key_for_BLOB'
          }
  | AS source_char
  } ;

CREATE LIBRARY

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
LIBRARY plsql_library_source

CREATE LOCKDOWN PROFILE

CREATE LOCKDOWN PROFILE profile_name ;

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW [ schema. ] materialized_view
  [ OF [ schema. ] object_type ]
  [ ( { scoped_table_ref_constraint
      | column_alias [ENCRYPT [encryption_spec]]
      }
      [, { scoped_table_ref_constraint
         | column_alias [ENCRYPT [encryption_spec]]
         }
      ]...
    )
  ]
  [ DEFAULT COLLATION collation_name ]
  { ON PREBUILT TABLE
    [ { WITH | WITHOUT } REDUCED PRECISION ]
  | physical_properties materialized_view_props
  }
  [ USING INDEX
    [ physical_attributes_clause
    | TABLESPACE tablespace
    ]...
  | USING NO INDEX
  ]
  [ create_mv_refresh ]
  [ evaluation_edition_clause ]
  [ { ENABLE | DISABLE } ON QUERY COMPUTATION ]
  [ query_rewrite_clause ]
AS subquery ;

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON [ schema. ] table
  [ physical_attributes_clause
  | TABLESPACE tablespace
  | logging_clause
  | { CACHE | NOCACHE }
  ]...
  [ parallel_clause ]
  [ table_partitioning_clauses ]
  [ WITH [ { OBJECT ID
         | PRIMARY KEY
         | ROWID
         | SEQUENCE
         | COMMIT SCN
         }
           [ { , OBJECT ID
             | , PRIMARY KEY
             | , ROWID
             | , SEQUENCE
             | , COMMIT SCN
             }
           ]... ]
    (column [, column ]...)
    [ new_values_clause ]
  ] [ mv_log_purge_clause ] [ for_refresh_clause ]
;

CREATE MATERIALIZED ZONEMAP

{ create_zonemap_on_table | create_zonemap_as_subquery } ;

CREATE OPERATOR

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] OPERATOR
   [ schema. ] operator binding_clause ;

CREATE OUTLINE

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
   [ PUBLIC | PRIVATE ] OUTLINE [ outline ]
   [ FROM [ PUBLIC | PRIVATE ] source_outline ]
   [ FOR CATEGORY category ]
   [ ON statement ] ;

CREATE PACKAGE

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
PACKAGE plsql_package_source

CREATE PACKAGE BODY

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
PACKAGE BODY plsql_package_body_source

CREATE PFILE

CREATE PFILE [= 'pfile_name' ]
   FROM { SPFILE [= 'spfile_name']
        | MEMORY
        } ;

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE
  { { pdb_name [ AS APPLICATION CONTAINER ] } | { AS SEED } }
  {  create_pdb_from_seed | create_pdb_clone | create_pdb_from_xml | create_pdb_from_mirror_copy 
    | using_snapshot_clause | container_map_clause } pdb_snapshot_clause;

CREATE PROCEDURE

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
PROCEDURE plsql_procedure_source

CREATE PROFILE

CREATE PROFILE profile
  LIMIT { resource_parameters
        | password_parameters
        }...
  [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ] ;

CREATE RESTORE POINT

CREATE [ CLEAN ] RESTORE POINT restore_point
   [ FOR PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name ]
   [ AS OF {TIMESTAMP | SCN} expr ]
   [ PRESERVE
   | GUARANTEE FLASHBACK DATABASE
   ];

CREATE ROLE

CREATE ROLE role
   [ NOT IDENTIFIED
   | IDENTIFIED { BY password
                | USING [ schema. ] package
                | EXTERNALLY
                | GLOBALLY AS domain_name_of_directory_group                   }
   ] [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ];

CREATE ROLLBACK SEGMENT

CREATE [ PUBLIC ] ROLLBACK SEGMENT rollback_segment
  [ TABLESPACE tablespace | storage_clause ]...];

CREATE SCHEMA

CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION schema
   { create_table_statement
   | create_view_statement
   | grant_statement
   }...
;

CREATE SEQUENCE

CREATE SEQUENCE [ schema. ] sequence
   [ SHARING = { METADATA | DATA | NONE } ]
   [ { INCREMENT BY | START WITH } integer
   | { MAXVALUE integer | NOMAXVALUE }
   | { MINVALUE integer | NOMINVALUE }
   | { CYCLE | NOCYCLE }
   | { CACHE integer | NOCACHE }
   | { ORDER | NOORDER }
   | { KEEP | NOKEEP }
   | { SCALE {EXTEND | NOEXTEND} | NOSCALE }
   | { SHARD {EXTEND | NOEXTEND} | NOSHARD }
   | { SESSION | GLOBAL }
   ]...
;

CREATE SPFILE

CREATE SPFILE [= 'spfile_name' ]
  FROM { PFILE [= 'pfile_name' ] [ AS COPY ]
       | MEMORY
       } ;

CREATE SYNONYM

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
  [ PUBLIC ] SYNONYM
  [ schema. ] synonym
  [ SHARING = { METADATA | NONE } ]
  FOR [ schema. ] object [ @ dblink ] ;

CREATE TABLE

CREATE [ { GLOBAL | PRIVATE } TEMPORARY | SHARDED | DUPLICATED ] TABLE
  [ schema. ] table
    [ SHARING = { METADATA | DATA | EXTENDED DATA | NONE } ]
  { relational_table | object_table | XMLType_table }
  [ MEMOPTIMIZE FOR READ ]
  [ MEMOPTIMIZE FOR WRITE ]
  [ PARENT [ schema. ] table ] [ MEMOPTIMIZE FOR READ ];

CREATE TABLESPACE

CREATE
   [ BIGFILE | SMALLFILE ]
   { permanent_tablespace_clause
   | temporary_tablespace_clause
   | undo_tablespace_clause
   } ;

CREATE TABLESPACE SET

CREATE TABLESPACE SET tablespace_set
  [ IN SHARDSPACE shardspace ]
  [ USING TEMPLATE 
    ( { DATAFILE [, file_specification ]... ] permanent_tablespace_attrs )
  ] ;

CREATE TRIGGER

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
TRIGGER plsql_trigger_source

CREATE TYPE

CREATE [OR REPLACE]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
TYPE plsql_type_source

CREATE TYPE BODY

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ]
[ EDITIONABLE | NONEDITIONABLE ]
TYPE BODY plsql_type_body_source

CREATE USER

CREATE USER user
   IDENTIFIED
        { BY password [ [HTTP] DIGEST { ENABLE | DISABLE } ]
        | EXTERNALLY [ AS 'certificate_DN' | AS 'kerberos_principal_name' ]
        | GLOBALLY [ AS '[ directory_DN ]' ]
        }
   | NO AUTHENTICATION
   [ DEFAULT COLLATION collation_name
   | DEFAULT TABLESPACE tablespace
   | [ LOCAL ] TEMPORARY TABLESPACE { tablespace | tablespace_group_name }
   | { QUOTA { size_clause | UNLIMITED } ON tablespace }...
   | PROFILE profile
   | PASSWORD EXPIRE
   | ACCOUNT { LOCK | UNLOCK }
     [ DEFAULT TABLESPACE tablespace
     | TEMPORARY TABLESPACE
          { tablespace | tablespace_group_name }
     | { QUOTA { size_clause | UNLIMITED } ON tablespace }...
     | PROFILE profile
     | PASSWORD EXPIRE
     | ACCOUNT { LOCK | UNLOCK }
     | ENABLE EDITIONS
     | CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL }
     ]...
  ] ;

CREATE VIEW

CREATE [OR REPLACE]
  [[NO] FORCE]
  [ EDITIONING | EDITIONABLE [ EDITIONING ] | NONEDITIONABLE ]
  VIEW [schema.] view
  [ SHARING = { METADATA | DATA | EXTENDED DATA | NONE } ]
  [ ( { alias [ VISIBLE | INVISIBLE ] [ inline_constraint... ]
      | out_of_line_constraint
      }
        [, { alias [ VISIBLE | INVISIBLE ] [ inline_constraint...]
           | out_of_line_constraint
           }
        ]
    )
  | object_view_clause
  | XMLType_view_clause
  ]
  [ DEFAULT COLLATION collation_name ]
  [ BEQUEATH { CURRENT_USER | DEFINER } ]
  AS subquery [ subquery_restriction_clause ]
  [ CONTAINER_MAP | CONTAINERS_DEFAULT ] ;

DELETE

DELETE [ hint ]
   [ FROM ]
   { dml_table_expression_clause
   | ONLY (dml_table_expression_clause)
   } [ t_alias ]
     [ where_clause ]
     [ returning_clause ]
     [error_logging_clause];

DISASSOCIATE STATISTICS

DISASSOCIATE STATISTICS FROM
   { COLUMNS [ schema. ]table.column
               [, [ schema. ]table.column ]...
   | FUNCTIONS [ schema. ]function
                 [, [ schema. ]function ]...
   | PACKAGES [ schema. ]package
                [, [ schema. ]package ]...
   | TYPES [ schema. ]type
             [, [ schema. ]type ]...
   | INDEXES [ schema. ]index
               [, [ schema. ]index ]...
   | INDEXTYPES [ schema. ]indextype
                  [, [ schema. ]indextype ]...
   }
   [ FORCE ] ;

DROP ANALYTIC VIEW

DROP ANALYTIC VIEW [ schema. ] analytic_view_name;

DROP ATTRIBUTE DIMENSION

DROP ATTRIBUTE DIMENSION [ schema. ] attr_dimension_name;

DROP AUDIT POLICY

DROP AUDIT POLICY policy ;

DROP CLUSTER

DROP CLUSTER [ schema. ] cluster
   [ INCLUDING TABLES [ CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ] ] ;

DROP CONTEXT

DROP CONTEXT namespace ;

DROP DATABASE

DROP DATABASE ;

DROP DATABASE LINK

DROP [ PUBLIC ] DATABASE LINK dblink ;

DROP DIMENSION

DROP DIMENSION [ schema. ] dimension ;

DROP DIRECTORY

DROP DIRECTORY directory_name ;

DROP DISKGROUP

DROP DISKGROUP diskgroup_name
   [  FORCE INCLUDING CONTENTS
   | { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } CONTENTS
   ];

DROP EDITION

DROP EDITION edition [CASCADE];

DROP FLASHBACK ARCHIVE

DROP FLASHBACK ARCHIVE flashback_archive;

DROP FUNCTION

DROP FUNCTION [ schema. ] function_name ;

DROP HIERARCHY

DROP HIERARCHY [ schema. ] hierarchy_name;

DROP INDEX

DROP INDEX [ schema. ] index [ ONLINE ] [ FORCE ] [ { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE } INVALIDATION ] ;

DROP INDEXTYPE

DROP INDEXTYPE [ schema. ] indextype [ FORCE ] ;

DROP INMEMORY JOIN GROUP

DROP INMEMORY JOIN GROUP [ schema. ] join_group ;

DROP JAVA

DROP JAVA { SOURCE | CLASS | RESOURCE }
  [ schema. ] object_name ;

DROP LIBRARY

DROP LIBRARY library_name ;

DROP LOCKDOWN PROFILE

DROP LOCKDOWN PROFILE profile_name ;

DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW

DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW [ schema. ] materialized_view
   [ PRESERVE TABLE ] ;

DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG

DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON [ schema. ] table ;

DROP MATERIALIZED ZONEMAP

DROP MATERIALIZED ZONEMAP [ schema. ] zonemap_name ;

DROP OPERATOR

DROP OPERATOR [ schema. ] operator [ FORCE ] ;

DROP OUTLINE

DROP OUTLINE outline ;

DROP PACKAGE

DROP PACKAGE [ BODY ] [ schema. ] package ;

DROP PLUGGABLE DATABASE

DROP PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name
  [ { KEEP | INCLUDING } DATAFILES ] ;

DROP PROCEDURE

DROP PROCEDURE [ schema. ] procedure ;

DROP PROFILE

DROP PROFILE profile [ CASCADE ] ;

DROP RESTORE POINT

DROP RESTORE POINT restore_point [ FOR PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name ] ;

DROP ROLE

DROP ROLE role ;

DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT

DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT rollback_segment ;

DROP SEQUENCE

DROP SEQUENCE [ schema. ] sequence_name ;

DROP SYNONYM

DROP [PUBLIC] SYNONYM [ schema. ] synonym [FORCE] ;

DROP TABLE

DROP TABLE [ schema. ] table
  [ CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ] [ PURGE ] ;

DROP TABLESPACE

DROP TABLESPACE tablespace
  [ { DROP | KEEP } QUOTA ]
  [ INCLUDING CONTENTS [ { AND | KEEP } DATAFILES ] [ CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ] ]
  ;

DROP TABLESPACE SET

DROP TABLESPACE SET tablespace_set
   [ { DROP | KEEP } QUOTA ]
   [ INCLUDING CONTENTS [ { AND | KEEP } DATAFILES ] [ CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ] ]
   ;

DROP TRIGGER

DROP TRIGGER [ schema. ] trigger ;

DROP TYPE

DROP TYPE [ schema. ] type_name [ FORCE | VALIDATE ] ;

DROP TYPE BODY

DROP TYPE BODY [ schema. ] type_name ;

DROP USER

DROP USER user [ CASCADE ] ;

DROP VIEW

DROP VIEW [ schema. ] view [ CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ] ;

EXPLAIN PLAN

EXPLAIN PLAN
   [ SET STATEMENT_ID = string ]
   [ INTO [ schema. ] table [ @ dblink ] ]
FOR statement ;

FLASHBACK DATABASE

FLASHBACK [ STANDBY ] [ PLUGGABLE ] DATABASE [ database ]
   { TO { { SCN | TIMESTAMP } expr
        | RESTORE POINT restore_point
        }
   }
   | { TO BEFORE { { SCN | TIMESTAMP } expr
                 | RESETLOGS
                 }
   } ;

FLASHBACK TABLE

FLASHBACK TABLE
   [ schema. ] table
     [, [ schema. ] table ]...
   TO { { { SCN | TIMESTAMP } expr
        | RESTORE POINT restore_point
        } [ { ENABLE | DISABLE } TRIGGERS ]
      | BEFORE DROP [ RENAME TO table ]
      } ;

GRANT

GRANT
  { { { grant_system_privileges | grant_object_privileges }
      [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ] }
  | grant_roles_to_programs
  } ;

INSERT

INSERT [ hint ]
   { single_table_insert | multi_table_insert } ;

LOCK TABLE

LOCK TABLE [ schema. ] { table | view }
   [ partition_extension_clause
   | @ dblink
   ] [, [ schema. ] { table | view }
      [ partition_extension_clause
      | @ dblink
      ]
     ]...
   IN lockmode MODE
   [ NOWAIT
   | WAIT integer
   ] ;

MERGE

MERGE [ hint ]
   INTO [ schema. ] { table | view } [ t_alias ]
   USING { [ schema. ] { table | view }
         | subquery 
         } [ t_alias ]
   ON ( condition )
   [ merge_update_clause ]
   [ merge_insert_clause ]
   [ error_logging_clause ] ;

NOAUDIT (Traditional Auditing)

NOAUDIT 
   { audit_operation_clause [ auditing_by_clause ]
   | audit_schema_object_clause
   | NETWORK
   | DIRECT_PATH LOAD [ auditing_by_clause ]
   }
   [ WHENEVER [ NOT ] SUCCESSFUL ]
   [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ] ;

NOAUDIT (Unified Auditing)

NOAUDIT
  { POLICY policy [ { BY user [, user]... } | by_users_with_roles ] 
    [ WHENEVER  [ NOT ]  SUCCESSFUL ] }
  |
  { CONTEXT NAMESPACE namespace ATTRIBUTES attribute [, attribute ]...
      [, CONTEXT NAMESPACE namespace ATTRIBUTES attribute [, attribute ]... ]...
    [ BY user [, user]... ]
  } ;

PURGE

PURGE
  { TABLE table
  | INDEX index
  | TABLESPACE tablespace [ USER username ]
  | TABLESPACE SET tablespace_set [ USER username ]
  | RECYCLEBIN
  | DBA_RECYCLEBIN
  } ;

RENAME

RENAME old_name TO new_name ;

REVOKE

REVOKE
  { { revoke_system_privileges | revoke_object_privileges }
    [ CONTAINER = { CURRENT | ALL } ] }
  | revoke_roles_from_programs ;

ROLLBACK

ROLLBACK [ WORK ]
   [ TO [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint
   | FORCE string
   ] ;

SAVEPOINT

SAVEPOINT savepoint ;

SELECT

subquery [ for_update_clause ] ;

SET CONSTRAINT[S]

SET { CONSTRAINT | CONSTRAINTS }
    { constraint [, constraint ]...
    | ALL
    }
    { IMMEDIATE | DEFERRED } ;

SET ROLE

SET ROLE
   { role [ IDENTIFIED BY password ]
     [, role [ IDENTIFIED BY password ] ]...
   | ALL [ EXCEPT role [, role ]... ]
   | NONE
   } ;

SET TRANSACTION

SET TRANSACTION
   { { READ { ONLY | WRITE }
     | ISOLATION LEVEL
       { SERIALIZABLE | READ COMMITTED }
     | USE ROLLBACK SEGMENT rollback_segment
     } [ NAME string ]
   | NAME string
   } ;

TRUNCATE CLUSTER

TRUNCATE CLUSTER [schema.] cluster
  [ {DROP | REUSE} STORAGE ] ;

TRUNCATE TABLE

TRUNCATE TABLE [schema.] table
  [ {PRESERVE | PURGE} MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ]
  [ {DROP [ ALL ] | REUSE} STORAGE ] [ CASCADE ] ;

UPDATE

UPDATE [ hint ]
   { dml_table_expression_clause
   | ONLY (dml_table_expression_clause)
   } [ t_alias ]
   update_set_clause
   [ where_clause ]
   [ returning_clause ]
   [error_logging_clause] ;