1.1.1 What Are Property Graphs?
A property graph consists of a set of objects or vertices, and a set of arrows or edges connecting the objects. Vertices and edges can have multiple properties, which are represented as keyvalue pairs.
Each vertex has a unique identifier and can have:

A set of outgoing edges

A set of incoming edges

A collection of properties
Each edge has a unique identifier and can have:

An outgoing vertex

An incoming vertex

A text label that describes the relationship between the two vertices

A collection of properties
For vertices and edges, each property is identified with a unique name.
The following figure illustrates a very simple property graph with two vertices and one edge. The two vertices have identifiers 1 and 2. Both vertices have properties name
and age
. The edge is from the outgoing vertex 1 to the incoming vertex 2. The edge has a text label knows
and a property type
identifying the type of relationship between vertices 1 and 2.
A property graph can have selfedges (that is, an edge whose source and destination vertex are the same), as well as multiple edges between the same source and destination vertices.
A property graph can also have different types of vertices and edges in the same graph. For example a graph can have a set of vertices with label Person
and a set of vertices with label Place
, with different properties relevant to these two sets of vertices.
The property graph data model is similar to the W3C standardsbased Resource Description Framework (RDF) graph data model; however, the property graph data model is simpler and less precise than RDF.
The property graph data model features and analytic APIs make property graphs a good candidate for use cases such as these:

Identifying influencers in a social network

Predicting trends and customer behavior

Discovering relationships based on pattern matching

Identifying clusters to customize campaigns
Note:
The property graph data model that Oracle supports at the database side does not allow labels for vertices. However, you can treat the value of a designated vertex property as one or more labels.
Related Topics
Parent topic: Introduction to Property Graphs