Module java.base

Class SocketPermission

  • All Implemented Interfaces:
    Serializable, Guard

    public final class SocketPermission
    extends Permission
    implements Serializable
    This class represents access to a network via sockets. A SocketPermission consists of a host specification and a set of "actions" specifying ways to connect to that host. The host is specified as
        host = (hostname | IPv4address | iPv6reference) [:portrange]
        portrange = portnumber | -portnumber | portnumber-[portnumber]
    The host is expressed as a DNS name, as a numerical IP address, or as "localhost" (for the local machine). The wildcard "*" may be included once in a DNS name host specification. If it is included, it must be in the leftmost position, as in "*".

    The format of the IPv6reference should follow that specified in RFC 2732: Format for Literal IPv6 Addresses in URLs:

        ipv6reference = "[" IPv6address "]"
    For example, you can construct a SocketPermission instance as the following:
        String hostAddress = inetaddress.getHostAddress();
        if (inetaddress instanceof Inet6Address) {
            sp = new SocketPermission("[" + hostAddress + "]:" + port, action);
        } else {
            sp = new SocketPermission(hostAddress + ":" + port, action);
        String host = url.getHost();
        sp = new SocketPermission(host + ":" + port, action);

    The full uncompressed form of an IPv6 literal address is also valid.

    The port or portrange is optional. A port specification of the form "N-", where N is a port number, signifies all ports numbered N and above, while a specification of the form "-N" indicates all ports numbered N and below. The special port value 0 refers to the entire ephemeral port range. This is a fixed range of ports a system may use to allocate dynamic ports from. The actual range may be system dependent.

    The possible ways to connect to the host are

    The "listen" action is only meaningful when used with "localhost" and means the ability to bind to a specified port. The "resolve" action is implied when any of the other actions are present. The action "resolve" refers to host/ip name service lookups.

    The actions string is converted to lowercase before processing.

    As an example of the creation and meaning of SocketPermissions, note that if the following permission:

       p1 = new SocketPermission("", "connect,accept");
    is granted to some code, it allows that code to connect to port 7777 on, and to accept connections on that port.

    Similarly, if the following permission:

       p2 = new SocketPermission("localhost:1024-", "accept,connect,listen");
    is granted to some code, it allows that code to accept connections on, connect to, or listen on any port between 1024 and 65535 on the local host.

    Note: Granting code permission to accept or make connections to remote hosts may be dangerous because malevolent code can then more easily transfer and share confidential data among parties who may not otherwise have access to the data.

    See Also:
    Permissions, SocketPermission
    • Constructor Detail

      • SocketPermission

        public SocketPermission​(String host,
                                String action)
        Creates a new SocketPermission object with the specified actions. The host is expressed as a DNS name, or as a numerical IP address. Optionally, a port or a portrange may be supplied (separated from the DNS name or IP address by a colon).

        To specify the local machine, use "localhost" as the host. Also note: An empty host String ("") is equivalent to "localhost".

        The actions parameter contains a comma-separated list of the actions granted for the specified host (and port(s)). Possible actions are "connect", "listen", "accept", "resolve", or any combination of those. "resolve" is automatically added when any of the other three are specified.

        Examples of SocketPermission instantiation are the following:

            nr = new SocketPermission("", "connect");
            nr = new SocketPermission("", "connect");
            nr = new SocketPermission("*", "connect");
            nr = new SocketPermission("*.edu", "resolve");
            nr = new SocketPermission("", "connect");
            nr = new SocketPermission("localhost:1024-65535", "listen");
            nr = new SocketPermission("", "connect");

        host - the hostname or IPaddress of the computer, optionally including a colon followed by a port or port range.
        action - the action string.
    • Method Detail

      • implies

        public boolean implies​(Permission p)
        Checks if this socket permission object "implies" the specified permission.

        More specifically, this method first ensures that all of the following are true (and returns false if any of them are not):

        • p is an instanceof SocketPermission,
        • p's actions are a proper subset of this object's actions, and
        • p's port range is included in this port range. Note: port range is ignored when p only contains the action, 'resolve'.
        Then implies checks each of the following, in order, and for each returns true if the stated condition is true:
        • If this object was initialized with a single IP address and one of p's IP addresses is equal to this object's IP address.
        • If this object is a wildcard domain (such as *, and p's canonical name (the name without any preceding *) ends with this object's canonical host name. For example, * implies *
        • If this object was not initialized with a single IP address, and one of this object's IP addresses equals one of p's IP addresses.
        • If this canonical name equals p's canonical name.
        If none of the above are true, implies returns false.

        Specified by:
        implies in class Permission
        p - the permission to check against.
        true if the specified permission is implied by this object, false if not.
      • equals

        public boolean equals​(Object obj)
        Checks two SocketPermission objects for equality.
        Specified by:
        equals in class Permission
        obj - the object to test for equality with this object.
        true if obj is a SocketPermission, and has the same hostname, port range, and actions as this SocketPermission object. However, port range will be ignored in the comparison if obj only contains the action, 'resolve'.
        See Also:
        Object.hashCode(), HashMap
      • getActions

        public String getActions()
        Returns the canonical string representation of the actions. Always returns present actions in the following order: connect, listen, accept, resolve.
        Specified by:
        getActions in class Permission
        the canonical string representation of the actions.
      • newPermissionCollection

        public PermissionCollection newPermissionCollection()
        Returns a new PermissionCollection object for storing SocketPermission objects.

        SocketPermission objects must be stored in a manner that allows them to be inserted into the collection in any order, but that also enables the PermissionCollection implies method to be implemented in an efficient (and consistent) manner.

        newPermissionCollection in class Permission
        a new PermissionCollection object suitable for storing SocketPermissions.