Module java.base
Package java.util

Class ArrayDeque<E>

Type Parameters:
E - the type of elements held in this deque
All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, Cloneable, Iterable<E>, Collection<E>, Deque<E>, Queue<E>, SequencedCollection<E>

public class ArrayDeque<E> extends AbstractCollection<E> implements Deque<E>, Cloneable, Serializable
Resizable-array implementation of the Deque interface. Array deques have no capacity restrictions; they grow as necessary to support usage. They are not thread-safe; in the absence of external synchronization, they do not support concurrent access by multiple threads. Null elements are prohibited. This class is likely to be faster than Stack when used as a stack, and faster than LinkedList when used as a queue.

Most ArrayDeque operations run in amortized constant time. Exceptions include remove, removeFirstOccurrence, removeLastOccurrence, contains, iterator.remove(), and the bulk operations, all of which run in linear time.

The iterators returned by this class's iterator method are fail-fast: If the deque is modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own remove method, the iterator will generally throw a ConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.

Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators throw ConcurrentModificationException on a best-effort basis. Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this exception for its correctness: the fail-fast behavior of iterators should be used only to detect bugs.

This class and its iterator implement all of the optional methods of the Collection, SequencedCollection, and Iterator interfaces.

This class is a member of the Java Collections Framework.

See Also: