Module java.base
Package java.util

Class Random

All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, RandomGenerator
Direct Known Subclasses:
SecureRandom, ThreadLocalRandom

public class Random extends Object implements RandomGenerator, Serializable
An instance of this class is used to generate a stream of pseudorandom numbers; its period is only 248. The class uses a 48-bit seed, which is modified using a linear congruential formula. (See Donald E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 2, Third edition: Seminumerical Algorithms, Section 3.2.1.)

If two instances of Random are created with the same seed, and the same sequence of method calls is made for each, they will generate and return identical sequences of numbers. In order to guarantee this property, particular algorithms are specified for the class Random. Java implementations must use all the algorithms shown here for the class Random, for the sake of absolute portability of Java code. However, subclasses of class Random are permitted to use other algorithms, so long as they adhere to the general contracts for all the methods.

The algorithms implemented by class Random use a protected utility method that on each invocation can supply up to 32 pseudorandomly generated bits.

Many applications will find the method Math.random() simpler to use.

Instances of java.util.Random are threadsafe. However, the concurrent use of the same java.util.Random instance across threads may encounter contention and consequent poor performance. Consider instead using ThreadLocalRandom in multithreaded designs.

Instances of java.util.Random are not cryptographically secure. Consider instead using SecureRandom to get a cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator for use by security-sensitive applications.

See Also: