3 Preparing for an Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation

Oracle Fusion Middleware is a collection of standards-based software products that spans a range of tools and services from J2EE and developer tools, to integration services, business intelligence, collaboration, and content management. Oracle Fusion Middleware offers complete support for development, deployment, and management.

The following topics provide important information about preparing your system and instructions for obtaining, installing, and configuring the latest version of Oracle Fusion Middleware.

The procedures you must follow vary depending on the configuration of your existing system and the environment you want to create at the end of the installation and configuration process.

Obtaining Product Distributions

Oracle Fusion Middleware 12c software is available as a series of product distributions.

About Product Distributions

A distribution is an archive file containing an installer; when you run the installer, the set of Oracle Fusion Middleware products and feature sets that are included with the distribution are installed.

An example of a product distribution is the Oracle WebLogic Server and Coherence Distribution; note that the products and feature sets will differ depending on your Oracle Fusion Middleware product:

Table 3-1 Understanding Distributions, Products, and Features

Distribution Products Feature Sets

Oracle WebLogic Server and Coherence (fmw_12.2.1.3.0_wls_generic.jar)

Core Server

Core Application Server

Coherence Product Files

Web 2.0 HTTP Pub-Sub Server

WebLogic SCA

WebLogic Client JARs

Administrative Tools

Administration Console

Additional Language Help Files

CIE WLS Config

Database Support

Third-Party JDBC Drivers

WebLogic Evaluation Database

Open Source Components

Third-Party Jackson

Third-Party Jersey

Third-Party Maven Apache

Examples

Server Examples

Coherence examples

Oracle Installation Infrastructure

OPatch

nginst_core

A description of each column in this table follows:

  • The Distribution column contains the name and actual file name of the distribution that you can download.

  • The items in the Products column may or may not be installed, depending on the installation type you select when you run the product installer. Most Oracle Fusion Middleware products offer two or three different installation types, and not all products are available with all installation types.

    In this particular example, some Oracle WebLogic Server and Coherence install types include the Examples, while others do not.

  • The Feature Sets column describes what is included with each product.

    You do not have the option of selecting or de-selecting feature sets for installation. All feature sets within a product will be installed.

    In this particular example, if you choose an install type that includes Examples, both Server Examples and Coherence Examples will be installed; you will not have the option of selecting one or the other.

    In situations where the same feature set may exist in multiple products, the existing feature set will not be reinstalled if the same version is already present. If the feature set is a different version and is compatible with the existing feature version, a new version will be installed.

    If there are incompatibilities (for example, due to the version numbers not matching) then the installer will issue an error message and will not overwrite the existing feature set.

Download Sites for Obtaining Product Distributions

Oracle provides multiple locations for downloading Oracle Fusion Middleware and the software it requires.

Table 3-2 Oracle Fusion Middleware Product Download Sites

Oracle Web Site Purpose and Location

Oracle Technology Network

If you are a developer, go to the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) to download Oracle software under the terms of the OTN Developer License.

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/downloads/index.html

Note: Oracle Technology Network requires free registration.

My Oracle Support

If you are a customer with a valid support agreement with Oracle and you want to download software patches, updates and fixes, then go to My Oracle Support:

http://support.oracle.com

Oracle Software Delivery Cloud

If you have purchased an Oracle software license and you want to download software under the terms of that license, or if you want to download Oracle software under the terms of the Oracle Electronic Delivery Trial License, then go to Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:

http://edelivery.oracle.com

Note: For convenience, most of the links provided in this document are to the OTN download pages, but if you have purchased a license, Oracle recommends that you register with Oracle Software Delivery Cloud and use the Software Delivery Cloud as your primary location for obtaining your purchased software.

For specific information on the distributions you need to download for each product, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Download, Installation, and Configuration Readme Files page.

Verifying Certification, System, and Interoperability Requirements

Oracle recommends that you use the certification matrix and system requirements documents with each other to verify that your environment meets the requirements for installation.

  1. Verifying that your environment meets certification requirements:

    Make sure that you install your product on a supported hardware and software configuration. See the certification document for your release on the Oracle Fusion Middleware Supported System Configurations page.

    Oracle has tested and verified the performance of your product on all certified systems and environments. Whenever new certifications are released, they are added to the certification document right away. New certifications can be released at any time. Therefore, the certification documents are kept outside the documentation libraries and are available on Oracle Technology Network.

  2. Using the system requirements document to verify certification:

    Oracle recommends that you use the Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications document to verify that the certification requirements are met. For example, if the certification document indicates that your product is certified for installation on 64-Bit Oracle Linux 6.5, use this document to verify that your system meets the required minimum specifications. These include disk space, available memory, specific platform packages and patches, and other operating system-specific requirements. System requirements can change in the future. Therefore, the system requirement documents are kept outside of the documentation libraries and are available on Oracle Technology Network.

  3. Verifying interoperability among multiple products:

    To learn how to install and run multiple Fusion Middleware products from the same release or mixed releases with each other, see Oracle Fusion Middleware 12c Interoperability and Compatibility in Understanding Interoperability and Compatibility.

About the Software Required for an Oracle Fusion Middleware Product Installation

Before you install Oracle Fusion Middleware, you should understand and verify the database and JDK requirements.

The following topics contain information about the software required for an Oracle Fusion Middleware installation:

About Database Requirements for an Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation

Many Oracle Fusion Middleware products require database schemas prior to configuration. If you do not already have a database where you can install these schemas, you must install and configure a certified database.

Note:

Multi-tenancy feature is supported in 12c, that is, Pluggable Database (PDB) and Container Database (CDB) are supported.

To find a certified database for your operating system, see the certification document for your release on the Oracle Fusion Middleware Supported System Configurations page on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN).

To make sure that your database is properly configured for schema creation, see Repository Creation Utility Requirements in the Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications document.

After your database is properly configured, you use the Repository Creation Utility (RCU) to create product schemas in your database. This tool is available in the Oracle home for your Oracle Fusion Middleware product. See About the Repository Creation Utility in Creating Schemas with the Repository Creation Utility.

Note:

Based on your deployment topology and the work load, it is recommended that you refer to the following note on My Oracle Support, and take appropriate actions for your deployment.

Performance Tuning Guidelines and Diagnostics Collection for Oracle Identity Manager (OIM) (Doc ID 1539554.1)

About JDK Requirements for an Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation

Most Fusion Middleware products are in .jar file format. These distributions do not include a JDK. To run a .jar distribution installer, you must have a certified JDK installed on your system.

Make sure that the JDK is installed outside of the Oracle home. If you install the JDK under the Oracle home, you may encounter problems when you try to perform tasks in the future. Oracle Universal Installer validates that the Oracle home directory is empty; the install does not progress until you specify an empty directory. Oracle recommends that you locate your JDK installation in the /home/oracle/products/jdk directory.

Platform-specific distributions have a .bin (for UNIX operating systems) or .exe (for Windows operating systems) installer; in these cases, a platform-specific JDK is in the distribution and you do not need to install a JDK separately. However, you may need to upgrade this JDK to a more recent version, depending on the JDK versions that are certified.

Always verify the required JDK version by reviewing the certification information on the Oracle Fusion Middleware Supported System Configurations page. For 12c (12.2.1.3.0), the certified JDK is 1.8.0_131 and later.

To download the required JDK, navigate to the following URL and download the Java SE JDK:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html

About the Standard Installation Topology

Each installation guide in 12c (12.2.1.3.0) features one or more standard installation topologies. A standard installation topology is a sample topology and is not the only topology supported for the product.

However, each install guide provides specific instructions for achieving that topology; if your needs differ then links to supporting documentation are provided for your reference.

The standard installation topologies are designed to be easily extended for high availability and security, making them suitable for any production system. The standard installation topologies also serve as the starting point for all upgrade operations.

If your standard installation topology requires having multiple products in the same domain, refer to the important information in Methods for Installing Multiple Products in the Same Domain.

Selecting an Installation User

The user who installs and configures your system must have the required permissions and privileges.

About User Permissions

The user who installs a Fusion Middleware product owns the files and has certain permissions on the files.

  • Read and write permissions on all non-executable files (for example, .jar, .properties, or .xml). All other users in the same group as the file owner have read permissions only.

  • Read, write, and execute permissions on all executable files (for example, .exe, .sh, or .cmd). All other users in the same group as the file owner have read and execute permissions only.

This means that someone other than the person who installs the software can use the installed binaries in the Oracle home directory to configure a domain or set of Fusion Middleware products.

During configuration, the files generated by the configuration process are owned by the user who ran the Configuration Wizard. This user has the same permissions as described above for the installation user. However, security-sensitive files are not created with group permissions. Only the user that created the domain has read and write permissions and can administer the domain.

Consider the following examples:

  • Example 1: A Single User Installs the Software and Configures the Domain

    This example explains the file permissions where the same user installs the software and configures the domain.

    To ensure proper permissions and privileges for all files, Oracle recommends that the same owner perform both tasks: install the Oracle Fusion Middleware product and configure the WebLogic Server domain by using the Configuration Wizard.

    Figure 3-1 Directory Structure when a Single User Installs the Software and Configures the Domain



    If the user who creates the domain is different than the user who installed the software, then both users must have the same privileges, as shown in the next example.

  • Example 2: The Oracle Home Directory and Domain are Created by Different Users

    This example explains the file permissions where one user creates the Oracle home and another user configures the domain.

    Figure 3-2 Directory Structure when Different Users Install the Software and Configure the Domain



Note:

Certain domain files do not have group permissions. For example, cwallet.sso.

Consider the following points before you run the installer:

  • On UNIX operating systems, Oracle recommends that you set umask to 027 on your system before you install the software. This ensures that the file permissions are set properly during installation. Use the following command:

    umask 027

    You must enter this command in the same terminal window from which you plan to run the product installer.

  • On UNIX operating systems, do not run the installation program as a root user. If you run the installer as a root user, the startup validation may fail and you cannot continue the installation.

  • When you manage a product installation (for example, applying patches or starting managed Servers), use the same user ID that you used to install the product.

  • On Windows operating systems, you must have administrative privileges to install the product. See Verifying the Installation User has Administrator Privileges on Windows Operating Systems.

About Non-Default User Permissions on UNIX Operating Systems

Changing the default permission setting reduces the security of the installation and your system. Oracle does not recommend that change the default permission settings.

If other users require access to a particular file or executable, use the UNIX sudo command or other similar commands to change the file permissions.

Refer to your UNIX operating system Administrator's Guide or contact your operating system vendor, if you need further assistance.

Verifying that the Installation User has Administrator Privileges on Windows Operating Systems

To update the Windows Registry, you must have administrator privileges.

By default, users with the administrator privilege sign in to the system with regular privileges, but can request elevated permissions to perform administrative tasks.

To perform a task with elevated privileges:

  1. Find the Command Prompt icon, either from the Start menu or the Windows icon in the lower-left corner.
  2. Right-click Command Prompt and select Run as administrator.
    This opens a new command prompt window, and all actions performed in this window are done with administrator privileges.

    Note:

    If you have User Access Control enabled on your system, you may see an additional window asking you to confirm this action. Confirm and continue with this procedure.

    Note:

    For Oracle Internet Directory, ensure that you have enabled User Account Control (UAC). If you have not done so already, enable UAC by following the instructions in the Enabling User Account Control (UAC) section from the appropriate version of Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications for your installation.

    Note:

    For Oracle Identity and Access Management components, ensure that you have enabled User Account Control (UAC). If you have not done so already, enable UAC by following the instructions in the Enabling User Account Control (UAC) section from the appropriate version of Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications for your installation.
  3. Perform the desired task.

    For example, to start the product installer:

    For a jar file, enter:

    java —jar distribution_name.jar

    For an executable (.exe, .bin, or .sh file), enter:

    distribution_name.exe

About the Directories for Installation and Configuration

During the installation and domain configuration process, you must plan on providing the locations for these directories: Oracle home, Domain home, and the Application home.

About the Recommended Directory Structure

Oracle recommends specific locations for the Oracle Home, Domain Home, and Application Home.

Oracle recommends a directory structure similar to the one shown in Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3 Recommended Oracle Fusion Middleware Directory Structure



A base location (Oracle base) should be established on your system (for example, /home/oracle). From this base location, create two separate branches, namely, the product directory and the config directory. The product directory should contain the product binary files and all the Oracle home directories. The config directory should contain your domain and application data.

Oracle recommends that you do not keep your configuration datain the Oracle home directory; if you upgrade your product to another major release, are required to create a new Oracle home for binaries. You must also make sure that your configuration data exists in a location where the binaries in the Oracle home have access.

The /home/oracle/product (for the Oracle home) and /home/oracle/config (for the application and configuration data) directories are used in the examples throughout the documentation; be sure to replace these directories with the actual directories on your system.

About the Oracle Home Directory

When you install any Oracle Fusion Middleware product, you must use an Oracle home directory.

This directory is a repository for common files that are used by multiple Fusion Middleware products installed on the same machine. These files ensure that Fusion Middleware operates correctly on your system. They facilitate checking of cross-product dependencies during installation. For this reason, you can consider the Oracle home directory a central support directory for all Oracle Fusion Middleware products installed on your system.

Fusion Middleware documentation refers to the Oracle home directory as ORACLE_HOME.

Oracle Home Considerations

Keep the following in mind when you create the Oracle home directory and install Fusion Middleware products:

  • Do not include spaces in the name of your Oracle home directory; the installer displays an error message if your Oracle home directory path contains spaces.

  • You can install only one instance of each Oracle Fusion Middleware product in a single Oracle home directory. If you need to maintain separate versions of a product on the same machine, each version must be in its own Oracle home directory.

    Although you can have several different products in a single Oracle home, only one version of each product can be in the Oracle home.

Multiple Home Directories

Although in most situations, a single Oracle home directory is sufficient, it is possible to create more than one Oracle home directory. For example, you need to maintain multiple Oracle home directories in the following situations:

  • You prefer to maintain separate development and production environments, with a separate product stack for each. With two directories, you can update your development environment without modifying the production environment until you are ready to do so.

  • You want to maintain two different versions of a Fusion Middleware product at the same time. For example, you want to install a new version of a product while keeping your existing version intact. In this case, you must install each product version in its own Oracle home directory.

  • You need to install multiple products that are not compatible with each other. See Oracle Fusion Middleware 12c (12.2.1.3.0) Interoperability and Compatibility in Understanding Interoperability and Compatibility .

Note:

If you create more than one Oracle home directory, you must provide non-overlapping port ranges during the configuration phase for each product.

About the Domain Home Directory

The Domain home is the directory where domains that you configure are created.

The default Domain home location is ORACLE_HOME/user_projects/domains/domain_name. However, Oracle strongly recommends that you do not use this default location. Put your Domain home outside of the Oracle home directory, for example, in /home/oracle/config/domains. The config directory should contain domain and application data. Oracle recommends a separate domain directory so that new installs, patches, and other operations update the ORACLE_HOME only, not the domain configuration.

See About the Recommended Directory Structure for more on the recommended directory structure and locating your Domain home.

Fusion Middleware documentation refers to the Domain home directory as DOMAIN_HOME and includes all folders up to and including the domain name. For example, if you name your domain exampledomain and locate your domain data in the /home/oracle/config/domains directory, the documentation would use DOMAIN_HOME to refer to /home/oracle/config/domains/exampledomain.

About the Application Home Directory

The Application home is the directory where applications for domains you configure are created.

The default Application home location is ORACLE_HOME/user_projects/applications/domain_name. However, Oracle strongly recommends that you locate your Application home outside of the Oracle home directory; if you upgrade your product to another major release, you must create a new Oracle home for binaries.

See About the Recommended Directory Structure for more on the recommended directory structure and locating your Application home..

Fusion Middleware documentation refers to the Application home directory as APPLICATION_HOME and includes all folders up to and including the domain name. For example, if you name your domain exampledomain and you locate your application data in the /home/oracle/config/applications directory, the documentation uses APPLICATION_HOME to refer to /home/oracle/config/applications/exampledomain.

Installing Multiple Products in the Same Domain

There are two methods to install and configure multiple products in one domain. This is also known as extending a domain.

  • Method 1.

    Install and configure Product A, including creating the schemas and starting all servers in the domain to verify a successful domain configuration.

    This is the method used in all installation guides in the Fusion Middleware library. You can repeat this process for as many products as necessary. It allows you to validate one product at a time and add more products incrementally.

    To install Product B in the same domain as Product A:

    1. Stop all servers to prevent any updates to the domain while you add the new product.

      See Starting and Stopping Oracle Fusion Middleware in Administering Oracle Fusion Middleware.

    2. Follow the instructions in the installation guide for Product B, including creating the necessary schemas.

    3. Run the Configuration Wizard to configure the domain.

      During configuration, the Configuration Wizard automatically detects the components that have been installed and offers you the option to extend the existing Product A domain to include Product B.

  • Method 2.

    Install all of the required products, then create the schemas for all of the products. After you create the schemas, configure the domain by using the necessary product templates, then start all the servers.

    This method of creating a multi-product domain may be slightly faster than Method 1; however, the installation guides in the Fusion Middleware library do not provide specific instructions for this method of domain creation.

See Also:

Preparing for Shared Storage

Oracle Fusion Middleware allows you to configure multiple WebLogic Server domains from a single Oracle home. This allows you to install the Oracle home in a single location on a shared volume and reuse the Oracle home for multiple host installations.

If you plan to use shared storage in your environment, see Using Shared Storage in High Availability Guide for more information.

For configuration requirements specific to Managed File Transfer, see High Availability Properties in Using Oracle Managed File Transfer.

About Oracle Configuration Manager

Oracle Configuration Manager continuously tracks key Oracle and system details, providing essential data to help you manage and service your configurations. Collected data is sent via HTTPS to Oracle Support, which maintains a secure view of each configuration.

During installation, you will be asked whether or not you want to configure your system to automatically check for security updates (Security Updates screen). If you choose to do so, Oracle Configuration Manager is installed on your system.

My Oracle Support then provides system health checks, patch advice, and other valuable information about your Oracle products. Configuration manager does NOT collect application data, such as user passwords.

Log into or create a My Oracle Support account at https://support.oracle.com/, then click on the Collector tab.