Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

Overview of the simplemessage Example

The simplemessage Application Client

Running the simplemessage Example

Administered Objects for the simplemessage Example

To Run the simplemessage Application Using NetBeans IDE

To Run the simplemessage Application Using Ant

Removing the Administered Objects for the simplemessage Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



The Message-Driven Bean Class

The code for the SimpleMessageBean class illustrates the requirements of a message-driven bean class:

  • It must be annotated with the @MessageDriven annotation if it does not use a deployment descriptor.

  • The class must be defined as public.

  • The class cannot be defined as abstract or final.

  • It must contain a public constructor with no arguments.

  • It must not define the finalize method.

It is recommended, but not required, that a message-driven bean class implement the message listener interface for the message type it supports. A bean that supports the JMS API implements the javax.jms.MessageListener interface.

Unlike session beans and entities, message-driven beans do not have the remote or local interfaces that define client access. Client components do not locate message-driven beans and invoke methods on them. Although message-driven beans do not have business methods, they may contain helper methods that are invoked internally by the onMessage method.

For the GlassFish Server, the @MessageDriven annotation typically contains a mappedName element that specifies the JNDI name of the destination from which the bean will consume messages. For complex message-driven beans, there can also be an activationconfig element containing @ActivationConfigProperty annotations used by the bean.

A message-driven bean can also inject a MessageDrivenContext resource. Commonly you use this resource to call the setRollbackOnly method to handle exceptions for a bean that uses container-managed transactions.

Therefore, the first few lines of the SimpleMessageBean class look like this:

@MessageDriven(mappedName="jms/Queue", activationConfig =  {
        @ActivationConfigProperty(propertyName = "acknowledgeMode",
                                  propertyValue = "Auto-acknowledge"),
        @ActivationConfigProperty(propertyName = "destinationType",
                                  propertyValue = "javax.jms.Queue")
public class SimpleMessageBean implements MessageListener {
    private MessageDrivenContext mdc;

NetBeans IDE typically creates a message-driven bean with a default set of @ActivationConfigProperty settings. You can delete those you do not need, or add others. Table 25-1 lists commonly used properties.

Table 25-1 @ActivationConfigProperty Settings for Message-Driven Beans

Property Name



Acknowledgment mode; see Controlling Message Acknowledgment for information


Either javax.jms.Queue or javax.jms.Topic


For durable subscribers, set to Durable; see Creating Durable Subscriptions for information


For durable subscribers, the client ID for the connection


For durable subscribers, the name of the subscription


A string that filters messages; see JMS Message Selectors for information, and see An Application That Uses the JMS API with a Session Bean for an example


Remote system or systems with which to communicate; see An Application Example That Consumes Messages from a Remote Server for an example

The onMessage Method

When the queue receives a message, the EJB container invokes the message listener method or methods. For a bean that uses JMS, this is the onMessage method of the MessageListener interface.

A message listener method must follow these rules:

  • The method must be declared as public.

  • The method must not be declared as final or static.

The onMessage method is called by the bean’s container when a message has arrived for the bean to service. This method contains the business logic that handles the processing of the message. It is the message-driven bean’s responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic.

The onMessage method has a single argument: the incoming message.

The signature of the onMessage method must follow these rules:

  • The return type must be void.

  • The method must have a single argument of type javax.jms.Message.

In the SimpleMessageBean class, the onMessage method casts the incoming message to a TextMessage and displays the text:

public void onMessage(Message inMessage) {
    TextMessage msg = null;

    try {
        if (inMessage instanceof TextMessage) {
            msg = (TextMessage) inMessage;
  "MESSAGE BEAN: Message received: " +
        } else {
            logger.warning("Message of wrong type: " +
    } catch (JMSException e) {
    } catch (Throwable te) {