Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

Overview of CDI

About Beans

About CDI Managed Beans

Beans as Injectable Objects

Using Qualifiers

Injecting Beans

Overriding the Scope of a Bean at the Point of Injection

Giving Beans EL Names

Adding Setter and Getter Methods

Using a Managed Bean in a Facelets Page

Injecting Objects by Using Producer Methods

Configuring a CDI Application

Using the @PostConstruct and @PreDestroy Annotations With CDI Managed Bean Classes

To Initialize a Managed Bean Using the @PostConstruct Annotation

To Prepare for the Destruction of a Managed Bean Using the @PreDestroy Annotation

Further Information about CDI

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Using Scopes

For a web application to use a bean that injects another bean class, the bean needs to be able to hold state over the duration of the user’s interaction with the application. The way to define this state is to give the bean a scope. You can give an object any of the scopes described in Table 28-1, depending on how you are using it.

Table 28-1 Scopes






A user’s interaction with a web application in a single HTTP request.



A user’s interaction with a web application across multiple HTTP requests.



Shared state across all users’ interactions with a web application.



The default scope if none is specified; it means that an object exists to serve exactly one client (bean) and has the same lifecycle as that client (bean).



A user’s interaction with a JavaServer Faces application, within explicit developer-controlled boundaries that extend the scope across multiple invocations of the JavaServer Faces lifecycle. All long-running conversations are scoped to a particular HTTP servlet session and may not cross session boundaries.

The first three scopes are defined by both JSR 299 and the JavaServer Faces API. The last two are defined by JSR 299.

All predefined scopes except @Dependent are contextual scopes. CDI places beans of contextual scope in the context whose lifecycle is defined by the Java EE specifications. For example, a session context and its beans exist during the lifetime of an HTTP session. Injected references to the beans are contextually aware. The references always apply to the bean that is associated with the context for the thread that is making the reference. The CDI container ensures that the objects are created and injected at the correct time as determined by the scope that is specified for these objects.

You can also define and implement custom scopes, but that is an advanced topic. Custom scopes are likely to be used by those who implement and extend the CDI specification.

A scope gives an object a well-defined lifecycle context. A scoped object can be automatically created when it is needed and automatically destroyed when the context in which it was created ends. Moreover, its state is automatically shared by any clients that execute in the same context.

Java EE components, such as servlets and enterprise beans, and JavaBeans components do not by definition have a well-defined scope. These components are one of the following:

  • Singletons, such as Enterprise JavaBeans singleton beans, whose state is shared among all clients

  • Stateless objects, such as servlets and stateless session beans, which do not contain client-visible state

  • Objects that must be explicitly created and destroyed by their client, such as JavaBeans components and stateful session beans, whose state is shared by explicit reference passing between clients

If, however, you create a Java EE component that is a managed bean, it becomes a scoped object, which exists in a well-defined lifecycle context.

The web application for the Printer bean will use a simple request and response mechanism, so the managed bean can be annotated as follows:

import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.enterprise.context.RequestScoped;

public class Printer {

       @Inject @Informal Greeting greeting;

Beans that use session, application, or conversation scope must be serializable, but beans that use request scope do not have to be serializable.