Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

Creating Custom Constraints

Using the Built-In Constraints to Make a New Constraint

Customizing Validator Messages

The ValidationMessages Resource Bundle

Localizing Validation Messages

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Grouping Constraints

Constraints may be added to one or more groups. Constraint groups are used to create subsets of constraints so only certain constraints will be validated for a particular object. By default, all constraints are included in the Default constraint group.

Constraint groups are represented by interfaces.

public interface Employee {}

public interface Contractor {}

Constraint groups can inherit from other groups.

public interface Manager extends Employee {}

When a constraint is added to an element, the constraint declares the groups to which that constraint belongs by specifying the class name of the group interface name in the groups element of the constraint.

Phone workPhone;

Multiple groups can be declared by surrounding the groups with angle brackets ({ and }) and separating the groups' class names with commas.

@NotNull(groups={ Employee.class, Contractor.class })
Phone workPhone;

If a group inherits from another group, validating that group results in validating all constraints declared as part of the supergroup. For example, validating the Manager group results in the workPhone field being validated, because Employee is a superinterface of Manager.

Customizing Group Validation Order

By default, constraint groups are validated in no particular order. There are cases where some groups should be validated before others. For example, in a particular class, basic data should be validated before more advanced data.

To set the validation order for a group, add a javax.validation.GroupSequence annotation to the interface definition, listing the order in which the validation should occur.

@GroupSequence({Default.class, ExpensiveValidationGroup.class})
public interface FullValidationGroup {}

When validating FullValidationGroup, first the Default group is validated. If all the data passes validation, then the ExpensiveValidationGroup group is validated. If a constraint is part of both the Default and the ExpensiveValidationGroup groups, the constraint is validated as part of the Default group, and will not be validated on the subsequent ExpensiveValidationGroup pass.