Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

The @MultipartConfig Annotation

The getParts and getPart Methods

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



The fileupload Example Application

The fileupload example illustrates how to implement and use the file upload feature.

The Duke’s Forest case study provides a more complex example that uploads an image file and stores its content in a database.

Architecture of the fileupload Example Application

The fileupload example application consists of a single servlet and an HTML form that makes a file upload request to the servlet.

This example includes a very simple HTML form with two fields, File and Destination. The input type, file, enables a user to browse the local file system to select the file. When the file is selected, it is sent to the server as a part of a POST request. During this process two mandatory restrictions are applied to the form with input type file:

  • The enctype attribute must be set to a value of multipart/form-data.

  • Its method must be POST.

When the form is specified in this manner, the entire request is sent to the server in encoded form. The servlet then handles the request to process the incoming file data and to extract a file from the stream. The destination is the path to the location where the file will be saved on your computer. Pressing the Upload button at the bottom of the form posts the data to the servlet, which saves the file in the specified destination.

The HTML form in tut-install/examples/web/fileupload/web/index.html is as follows:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
        <title>File Upload</title>
        <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
        <form method="POST" action="upload" enctype="multipart/form-data" >
            <input type="file" name="file" id="file" /> <br/>
            <input type="text" value="/tmp" name="destination"/>
            <input type="submit" value="Upload" name="upload" id="upload" />

A POST request method is used when the client needs to send data to the server as part of the request, such as when uploading a file or submitting a completed form. In contrast, a GET request method sends a URL and headers only to the server, whereas POST requests also include a message body. This allows arbitrary-length data of any type to be sent to the server. A header field in the POST request usually indicates the message body’s Internet media type.

When submitting a form, the browser streams the content in, combining all parts, with each part representing a field of a form. Parts are named after the input elements and are separated from each other with string delimiters named boundary.

This is what submitted data from the fileupload form looks like, after selecting sample.txt as the file that will be uploaded to the tmp directory on the local file system:

POST /fileupload/upload HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:8080
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; 
Content-Length: 441
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="file"; filename="sample.txt"
Content-Type: text/plain

Data from sample file
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="destination"

Content-Disposition: form-data; name="upload"


The servlet can be found in the tut-install/examples/web/fileupload/src/java/fileupload/ directory. The servlet begins as follows:

@WebServlet(name = "FileUploadServlet", urlPatterns = {"/upload"})
public class FileUploadServlet extends HttpServlet {

    private final static Logger LOGGER = 

The @WebServlet annotation uses the urlPatterns property to define servlet mappings.

The @MultipartConfig annotation indicates that the servlet expects requests to made using the multipart/form-data MIME type.

The processRequest method retrieves the destination and file part from the request, then calls the getFileName method to retrieve the file name from the file part. The method then creates a FileOutputStream and copies the file to the specified destination. The error-handling section of the method catches and handles some of the most common reasons why a file would not be found. The processRequest and getFileName methods look like this:

protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest request,
        HttpServletResponse response)
        throws ServletException, IOException {

    // Create path components to save the file
    final String path = request.getParameter("destination");
    final Part filePart = request.getPart("file");
    final String fileName = getFileName(filePart);

    OutputStream out = null;
    InputStream filecontent = null;
    final PrintWriter writer = response.getWriter();

    try {
        out = new FileOutputStream(new File(path + File.separator
                + fileName));
        filecontent = filePart.getInputStream();

        int read = 0;
        final byte[] bytes = new byte[1024];

        while ((read = != -1) {
            out.write(bytes, 0, read);
        writer.println("New file " + fileName + " created at " + path);
        LOGGER.log(Level.INFO, "File{0}being uploaded to {1}", 
                new Object[]{fileName, path});
    } catch (FileNotFoundException fne) {
        writer.println("You either did not specify a file to upload or are "
                + "trying to upload a file to a protected or nonexistent "
                + "location.");
        writer.println("<br/> ERROR: " + fne.getMessage());

        LOGGER.log(Level.SEVERE, "Problems during file upload. Error: {0}", 
                new Object[]{fne.getMessage()});
    } finally {
        if (out != null) {
        if (filecontent != null) {
        if (writer != null) {

private String getFileName(final Part part) {
    final String partHeader = part.getHeader("content-disposition");
    LOGGER.log(Level.INFO, "Part Header = {0}", partHeader);
    for (String content : part.getHeader("content-disposition").split(";")) {
        if (content.trim().startsWith("filename")) {
            return content.substring(
                    content.indexOf('=') + 1).trim().replace("\"", "");
    return null;

Running the fileupload Example

You can use either NetBeans IDE or Ant to build, package, deploy, and run the fileupload example.

To Build, Package, and Deploy the fileupload Example Using NetBeans IDE

  1. From the File menu, choose Open Project.
  2. In the Open Project dialog, navigate to:
  3. Select the fileupload folder.
  4. Select the Open as Main Project checkbox.
  5. Click Open Project.
  6. In the Projects tab, right-click fileupload and select Deploy.

To Build, Package, and Deploy the fileupload Example Using Ant

  1. In a terminal window, go to:
  2. Type the following command:
  3. Type the following command:
    ant deploy

To Run the fileupload Example

  1. In a web browser, type the following URL:

    The File Upload page opens.

  2. Click Browse to display a file browser window.
  3. Select a file to upload and click Open.

    The name of the file you selected is displayed in the File field. If you do not select a file, an exception will be thrown.

  4. In the Destination field, type a directory name.

    The directory must have already been created and must also be writable. If you do not enter a directory name, or if you enter the name of a nonexistent or protected directory, an exception will be thrown.

  5. Click Upload to upload the file you selected to the directory you specified in the Destination field.

    A message reports that the file was created in the directory you specified.

  6. Go to the directory you specified in the Destination field and verify that the uploaded file is present.