Oracle9i Database Administrator's Guide
Release 1 (9.0.1)

Part Number A90117-01
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This guide is for people who administer the operation of an Oracle database system. Referred to as database administrators (DBAs), they are responsible for creating Oracle databases, ensuring their smooth operation, and monitoring their use.

This preface contains these topics:


Readers of this guide are assumed to be familiar with relational database concepts. They are also assumed to be familiar with the operating system environment under which they are running Oracle.

Readers Interested in Installation and Migration Information

Administrators frequently participate in installing the Oracle server software and migrating existing Oracle databases to newer formats (for example, version 8 databases to Oracle9i format). This guide is not an installation or migration manual.

If your primary interest is installation, see your operating system specific Oracle installation guide.

If your primary interest is database or application migration, see the Oracle9i Database Migration manual.

Readers Interested in Application Design Information

In addition to administrators, experienced users of Oracle and advanced database application designers might also find information in this guide useful.

However, database application developers should also see the Oracle9i Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals and the documentation for the tool or language product they are using to develop Oracle database applications.


This document contains:

Part I: Basic Database Administration

Chapter 1, "The Oracle Database Administrator"

This chapter serves as a general introduction to typical tasks performed by database administrators, such as installing software and planning a database.

Chapter 2, "Creating an Oracle Database"

This chapter discusses considerations for creating a database and takes you through the steps of creating one. Consult this chapter when in the database planning and creation stage.

Chapter 3, "Using Oracle-Managed Files"

This chapter describes how you can direct the Oracle database server to create and manage your:

Chapter 4, "Starting Up and Shutting Down"

Consult this chapter when you wish to start up a database, alter its availability, or shut it down. Parameter files related to starting up and shutting down are also described here.

Part II: Oracle Server Processes and Storage Structure

Chapter 5, "Managing Oracle Processes"

This chapter helps you to identify different Oracle processes, such as dedicated server processes and shared server processes. Consult this chapter when configuring, modifying, tracking and managing processes.

Chapter 6, "Managing Control Files"

This chapter describes all aspects of managing control files: naming, creating, troubleshooting, and dropping control files.

Chapter 7, "Managing the Online Redo Log"

This chapter describes all aspects of managing the online redo log: planning, creating, renaming, dropping, or clearing online redo log files.

Chapter 8, "Managing Archived Redo Logs"

Consult this chapter for information about archive modes and tuning archiving.

Chapter 9, "Using LogMiner to Analyze Redo Log Files"

This chapter describes the use of LogMiner to analyze redo log files.

Chapter 10, "Managing Job Queues"

Consult this chapter before working with job queues. All aspects of submitting, removing, altering, and fixing job queues are described.

Chapter 11, "Managing Tablespaces"

This chapter provides guidelines to follow as you manage tablespaces, and describes how to create, manage, alter, drop and move data between tablespaces.

Chapter 12, "Managing Datafiles"

This chapter provides guidelines to follow as you manage datafiles, and describes how to create, change, alter, rename and view information about datafiles.

Chapter 13, "Managing Undo Space"

Consult this chapter to learn how to manage undo space, either by using an undo tablespace or rollback segments.

Part III: Schema Objects

Chapter 14, "Managing Space for Schema Objects"

Consult this chapter for descriptions of common tasks, such as setting storage parameters, deallocating space and managing space.

Chapter 15, "Managing Tables"

Consult this chapter for general table management guidelines, as well as information about creating, altering, maintaining and dropping tables.

Chapter 16, "Managing Indexes"

Consult this chapter for general guidelines about indexes, including creating, altering, monitoring and dropping indexes.

Chapter 17, "Managing Partitioned Tables and Indexes"

Consult this chapter to learn about partitioned tables and indexes and how to create and manage them.

Chapter 18, "Managing Clusters"

Consult this chapter for general guidelines to follow when creating, altering, or dropping clusters.

Chapter 19, "Managing Hash Clusters"

Consult this chapter for general guidelines to follow when creating, altering, or dropping hash clusters.

Chapter 20, "Managing Views, Sequences, and Synonyms"

This chapter describes all aspects of managing views, sequences and synonyms.

Chapter 21, "General Management of Schema Objects"

This chapter covers more varied aspects of schema management. The operations described in this chapter are not unique to any one type of schema objects. Consult this chapter for information about analyzing objects, truncation of tables and clusters, database triggers, integrity constraints, and object dependencies.

Chapter 22, "Detecting and Repairing Data Block Corruption"

This chapter describes methods for detecting and repairing data block corruption.

Part IV: Database Security

Chapter 23, "Establishing Security Policies"

This chapter describes all aspects of database security, including system, data and user security policies, as well as specific tasks associated with password management.

Chapter 24, "Managing Users and Resources"

This chapter describes session and user licensing, user authentication, and provides specific examples of tasks associated with managing users and resources.

Chapter 25, "Managing User Privileges and Roles"

This chapter contains information about all aspects of managing user privileges and roles. Consult this chapter to find out how to grant and revoke privileges and roles.

Chapter 26, "Auditing Database Use"

This chapter describes how to create, manage and view audit information.

Part V: Database Resource Management

Chapter 27, "Using the Database Resource Manager"

This chapter describes how to use the Database Resource Manager to allocate resources.

Part VI: Distributed Database Management

Chapter 28, "Distributed Database Concepts"

This chapter describes the basic concepts and terminology of Oracle's distributed database architecture.

Chapter 29, "Managing a Distributed Database"

This chapter describes how to manage and maintain a distributed database system.

Chapter 30, "Developing Applications for a Distributed Database System"

This chapter describes considerations important when developing an application to run in a distributed database system.

Chapter 31, "Distributed Transactions Concepts"

This chapter describes what distributed transactions are and how Oracle maintains their integrity.

Chapter 32, "Managing Distributed Transactions"

This chapter describes how to manage and troubleshoot distributed transactions.

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This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:

Conventions in Text

Conventions in Code Examples

Conventions in Text

We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention  Meaning  Example 


Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both. 

When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table.  


Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis. 

Oracle9i Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk. 

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width font) 

Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, datatypes, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles. 

You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.


lowercase monospace (fixed-width font) 

Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executables, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names, and connect identifiers, as well as user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown. 

Enter sqlplus to open SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the datafiles and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods. 

lowercase monospace (fixed-width font) italic 

Lowercase monospace italic font represents placeholders or variables. 

You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run Uold_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading. 

Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example:

SELECT username FROM dba_users WHERE username = 'MIGRATE';

The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention  Meaning  Example 

[ ] 

Brackets enclose one or more optional items. Do not enter the brackets. 

DECIMAL (digits [ , precision ]) 

{ } 

Braces enclose two or more items, one of which is required. Do not enter the braces. 


A vertical bar represents a choice of two or more options within brackets or braces. Enter one of the options. Do not enter the vertical bar. 




Horizontal ellipsis points indicate either:

  • That we have omitted parts of the code that are not directly related to the example

  • That you can repeat a portion of the code


CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery;

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM employees; 



Vertical ellipsis points indicate that we have omitted several lines of code not directly related to the example. 


Other notation 

You must enter symbols other than brackets, braces, vertical bars, and ellipsis points as shown. 

acctbal NUMBER(11,2);

acct CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3; 


Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values. 

CONNECT SYSTEM/system_password

DB_NAME = database_name 


Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. However, because these terms are not case sensitive, you can enter them in lowercase. 

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;


DROP TABLE hr.employees; 


Lowercase typeface indicates programmatic elements that you supply. For example, lowercase indicates names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown. 

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;

sqlplus hr/hr


Documentation Accessibility

Oracle's goal is to make our products, services, and supporting documentation accessible to the disabled community with good usability. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For additional information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

JAWS, a Windows screen reader, may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, JAWS may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

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