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System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems     Oracle Solaris 11 Express 11/10
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Document Information


1.  Managing Removable Media (Overview)

2.  Managing Removable Media (Tasks)

3.  Accessing Removable Media (Tasks)

4.  Writing CDs and DVDs (Tasks)

5.  Managing Devices (Overview/Tasks)

6.  Dynamically Configuring Devices (Tasks)

7.  Using USB Devices (Overview)

8.  Using USB Devices (Tasks)

9.  Using InfiniBand Devices (Overview/Tasks)

10.  Managing Disks (Overview)

11.  Administering Disks (Tasks)

12.  SPARC: Adding a Disk (Tasks)

13.  x86: Adding a Disk (Tasks)

14.  Configuring iSCSI Storage Devices With COMSTAR

15.  Configuring and Managing the Solaris Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS)

16.  Managing Disk Use (Tasks)

17.  The format Utility (Reference)

18.  Managing File Systems (Overview)

What's New in File Systems?

File System Monitoring Tool (fsstat)

Oracle Solaris ZFS File System

Where to Find File System Management Tasks

Overview of File Systems

Types of File Systems

Disk-Based File Systems

The Universal Disk Format (UDFS) File System

Network-Based File Systems

Virtual File Systems

Temporary File System

The Loopback File System

Process File System

Additional Virtual File Systems


Extended File Attributes

Swap Space

Commands for UFS File System Administration

How File System Commands Determine the File System Type

Manual Pages for Generic and Specific File System Commands

Default Solaris File Systems

UFS File System

UFS File System Features

Planning UFS File Systems

64-bit: Support of Multiterabyte UFS File Systems

Features of Multiterabyte UFS File Systems

Limitations of Multiterabyte UFS File Systems

UFS Logging

UFS Snapshots

UFS Direct Input/Output (I/O)

Mounting and Unmounting File Systems

The Mounted File System Table

The Virtual File System Table

The NFS Environment

NFS Version 4

Automounting (autofs)

Determining a File System's Type

How to Determine a File System's Type

19.  Creating ZFS, UFS, TMPFS, and LOFS File Systems (Tasks)

20.  Mounting and Unmounting File Systems (Tasks)

21.  Configuring Additional Swap Space (Tasks)

22.  Copying Files and File Systems (Tasks)

23.  Managing Tape Drives (Tasks)


Overview of File Systems

A file system is a structure of directories that is used to organize and store files. The term file system is used to describe the following:

Usually, you know from the context which meaning is intended.

The Oracle Solaris OS uses the virtual file system (VFS) architecture, which provides a standard interface for different file system types. The VFS architecture enables the kernel to handle basic operations, such as reading, writing, and listing files. The VFS architecture also makes it easier to add new file systems.

Types of File Systems

The Oracle Solaris OS supports three types of file systems:

To identify the file system type, see Determining a File System's Type.

Disk-Based File Systems

Disk-based file systems are stored on physical media such as hard disks, DVDs, and diskettes. Disk-based file systems can be written in different formats. The available formats are described in the following table.

Disk-Based File System
Format Description
UNIX file system (based on the BSD Fat Fast File system that was provided in the 4.3 Tahoe release). UFS is the default disk-based file system for the Oracle Solaris OS.

Before you can create a UFS file system on a disk, you must format the disk and divide it into slices. For information on formatting disks and dividing disks into slices, see Chapter 10, Managing Disks (Overview).

The ZFS file system is available in the Oracle Solaris 11 Express release. For more information, see the Oracle Solaris ZFS Administration Guide.
High Sierra, Rock Ridge, and ISO 9660 file system. High Sierra is the first CD-ROM file system. ISO 9660 is the official standard version of the High Sierra file system. The HSFS file system is used on CD-ROMs, and is a read-only file system. Solaris HSFS supports Rock Ridge extensions to ISO 9660. When present on a CD-ROM, these extensions provide all UFS file system features and file types, except for writability and hard links.
PC file system, which allows read- and write- access to data and programs on DOS-formatted disks that are written for DOS-based personal computers.
The Universal Disk Format (UDFS) file system, the industry-standard format for storing information on the optical media technology called DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc).

Each type of disk-based file system is customarily associated with a particular media device, as follows:

However, these associations are not restrictive. For example, CD-ROMs and diskettes can have UFS file systems created on them.

The Universal Disk Format (UDFS) File System

For information about creating a UDFS file system on removable media, see How to Create a File System on Removable Media.

The UDF file system is the industry-standard format for storing information on DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) optical media.

The UDF file system is provided as dynamically loadable 32-bit and 64-bit modules, with system administration utilities for creating, mounting, and checking the file system on both SPARC and x86 platforms. The Solaris UDF file system works with supported ATAPI and SCSI DVD drives, CD-ROM devices, and disk and diskette drives. In addition, the Solaris UDF file system is fully compliant with the UDF 1.50 specification.

The UDF file system provides the following features:

The following features are not included in the UDF file system:

The UDF file system requires the following:

The Solaris UDF file system implementation provides the following:

Network-Based File Systems

Network-based file systems can be accessed from the network. Typically, network-based file systems reside on one system, typically a server, and are accessed by other systems across the network.

With NFS, you can administer distributed resources (files or directories) by exporting them from a server and mounting them on individual clients. For more information, see The NFS Environment.

Virtual File Systems

Virtual file systems are memory-based file systems that provide access to special kernel information and facilities. Most virtual file systems do not use file system disk space. Also, some virtual file systems, such as the temporary file system (TMPFS), use the swap space on a disk.

Temporary File System

The temporary file system (TMPFS) uses local memory for file system reads and writes. Typically, using memory for file system reads and writes is much faster than using a UFS file system. Using TMPFS can improve system performance by saving the cost of reading and writing temporary files to a local disk or across the network. For example, temporary files are created when you compile a program. The OS generates a much disk activity or network activity while manipulating these files. Using TMPFS to hold these temporary files can significantly speed up their creation, manipulation, and deletion.

Files in TMPFS file systems are not permanent. These files are deleted when the file system is unmounted and when the system is shut down or rebooted.

TMPFS is the default file system type for the /tmp directory in the Oracle Solaris OS. You can copy or move files into or out of the /tmp directory, just as you would in a UFS file system.

The TMPFS file system uses swap space as a temporary backing store. If a system with a TMPFS file system does not have adequate swap space, two problems can occur:

For information about creating TMPFS file systems, see Chapter 19, Creating ZFS, UFS, TMPFS, and LOFS File Systems (Tasks). For information about increasing swap space, see Chapter 21, Configuring Additional Swap Space (Tasks).

The Loopback File System

The loopback file system (LOFS) lets you create a new virtual file system so that you can access files by using an alternative path name. For example, you can create a loopback mount of the root (/) directory on /tmp/newroot. This loopback mounts make the entire file system hierarchy appear as if it is duplicated under /tmp/newroot, including any file systems mounted from NFS servers. All files will be accessible either with a path name starting from root (/), or with a path name that starts from /tmp/newroot.

For information on how to create LOFS file systems, see Chapter 19, Creating ZFS, UFS, TMPFS, and LOFS File Systems (Tasks).

Process File System

The process file system (PROCFS) resides in memory and contains a list of active processes, by process number, in the /proc directory. Information in the /proc directory is used by commands such as ps. Debuggers and other development tools can also access the address space of the processes by using file system calls.


Caution - Do not delete files in the /proc directory. The deletion of processes from the /proc directory does not kill them. /proc files do not use disk space, so there is no reason to delete files from this directory.

The /proc directory does not require administration.

Additional Virtual File Systems

These additional types of virtual file systems are listed for your information. They do not require administration.

Virtual File System
CTFS (the contract file system) is the interface for creating, controlling, and observing contracts. A contract enhances the relationship between a process and the system resources it depends on by providing richer error reporting and (optionally) a means of delaying the removal of a resource.

The service management facility (SMF) uses process contracts (a type of contract) to track the processes which compose a service, so that a failure in a part of a multi-process service can be identified as a failure of that service.

FIFOFS (first-in first-out)
Named pipe files that give processes common access to data
FDFS (file descriptors)
Provides explicit names for opening files by using file descriptors
Provides read-only access to the table of mounted file systems for the local system
Used mostly by STREAMS for dynamic mounts of file descriptors on top of files
The OBJFS (object) file system describes the state of all modules currently loaded by the kernel. This file system is used by debuggers to access information about kernel symbols without having to access the kernel directly.
Provides read-only access to the table of shared file systems for the local system
SPECFS (special)
Provides access to character special devices and block devices
Used by the kernel for swapping

The mount output on an x86 system might include a loopback mount of a libc_hwcap library, a hardware-optimized implementation of libc. This libc implementation is intended to optimize the performance of 32-bit applications.

This loopback mount requires no administration and consumes no disk space.

Extended File Attributes

The UFS, NFS, and TMPFS file systems have been enhanced to include extended file attributes. Extended file attributes enable application developers to associate specific attributes to a file. For example, a developer of an application used to manage a windowing system might choose to associate a display icon with a file. Extended file attributes are logically represented as files within a hidden directory that is associated with the target file.

You can use the runat command to add attributes and execute shell commands in the extended attribute namespace. This namespace is a hidden attribute directory that is associated with the specified file.

To use the runat command to add attributes to a file, you first have to create the attributes file.

$ runat filea cp /tmp/attrdata attr.1

Then, use the runat command to list the attributes of the file.

$ runat filea ls -l

For more information, see the runat(1) man page.

Many Solaris file system commands have been modified to support file system attributes by providing an attribute-aware option. Use this option to query, copy, or find file attributes. For more information, see the specific man page for each file system command.

Swap Space

The Oracle Solaris OS uses some disk slices for temporary storage rather than for file systems. These slices are called swap slices, or swap space. Swap space is used for virtual memory storage areas when the system does not have enough physical memory to handle current processes.

Since many applications rely on swap space, you should know how to plan for, monitor, and add more swap space, when needed. For an overview about swap space and instructions for adding swap space, see Chapter 21, Configuring Additional Swap Space (Tasks).