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|Oracle Solaris 10 1/13 Installation Guide: Network-Based Installations Oracle Solaris 10 1/13 Information Library|
Table 11-1 System Requirements for WAN Boot Installation
The web server software you use on your WAN boot server and install server must meet the following requirements:
Operating system requirements – WAN boot provides a CGI program (wanboot-cgi) that converts data and files into a specific format that the client machine expects. To perform a WAN boot installation with these scripts, the web server software must run on the Solaris 9 12/03 OS or a compatible version.
File size limitations – Your web server software might limit the size of the files you can transmit over HTTP. Check your web server documentation to make sure the software can transmit files that are the size of a flash archive.
Note - The flarcreate command no longer has size limitations on individual files. You can create a flash archive that contains individual files over 4 GB.
You can customize the configuration of the servers that are required by WAN boot to meet your network needs. You can host all the servers on one system, or place the servers on multiple systems.
Single server – If you want to centralize the WAN boot data and files on one system, you can host all the servers on the same machine. You can administer all your different servers on one system, and you only need to configure one system as a web server. However, a single server might not be able to support the volume of traffic that is required for a large number of simultaneous WAN boot installations.
Multiple servers – If you want to distribute the installation data and files across your network, you can host these servers on multiple machines. You might set up a central WAN boot server and configure multiple install servers to host flash archives across your network. If you host the install server and logging server on independent machines, you must configure those servers as web servers.
WAN boot miniroot
To enable the wanboot-cgi program to transmit these files, you must store these files in a directory that is accessible to the web server software. One way to make these files accessible is to place these files in the document root on your web server.
The document root, or primary document directory, is the directory on your web server where you store files you want to make available to clients. You can name and configure this directory in your web server software. See your web server documentation for more information about setting up the document root directory on your web server.
You might want to create different subdirectories of the document root directory to store your different installation and configuration files. For example, you might want to create specific subdirectories for each group of clients that you want to install. If you plan to install several different releases of the Oracle Solaris OS across your network, you might create subdirectories for each release.
The following figure shows a basic sample structure for a document root directory. In this example, the WAN boot server and install server are on the same machine. The server is running the Apache web server software.
Figure 11-1 Sample Structure for Document Root Directory
This sample document directory uses the following structure:
The /opt/apache/htdocs directory is the document root directory.
The flash (flash) directory contains the JumpStart files that are required to install the client and the subdirectory archives. The archives directory contains the current Oracle Solaris release flash archive.
Note - If the WAN boot server and the install server are different systems, you might want to store the flash directory on the install server. Ensure that these files and directories are accessible to the WAN boot server.
For information about how to create the document root directory, see your web server documentation. For detailed instructions about how to create and store these installation files, see Creating the JumpStart Installation Files.
The /etc/netboot directory contains the configuration information, private key, digital certificate, and certificate authority that are required for a WAN boot installation. This section describes the files and directories you can create in the /etc/netboot directory to customize your WAN boot installation.
During the installation, the wanboot-cgi program searches for the client information in the /etc/netboot directory on the WAN boot server. The wanboot-cgi program converts this information into the WAN boot file system, and then transmits the WAN boot file system to the client. You can create subdirectories within the /etc/netboot directory to customize the scope of the WAN installation. Use the following directory structures to define how configuration information is shared among the clients that you want to install:
Network-specific configuration – If you want only those machines on a specific subnet to share configuration information, store the configuration files that you want to share in a subdirectory of /etc/netboot. The subdirectory naming convention should be:
net-IP is the IP address of the client's subnet. For example, if you want all systems on the subnet with the IP address of 192.168.255.0 to share configuration files, create a /etc/netboot/192.168.255.0 directory. Then, store the configuration files in this directory.
Client-specific configuration – If you want only a specific client to use the boot file system, store the boot file system files in a subdirectory of /etc/netboot. The subdirectory naming convention should be:
net-IP is the IP address of the subnet. client-ID is either the client ID that is assigned by the DHCP server, or a user-specified client ID. For example, if you want a system with the client ID 010003BA152A42 on the subnet 192.168.255.0 to use specific configuration files, create a /etc/netboot/192.168.255.0/010003BA152A42 directory. Then, store the appropriate files in this directory.
truststore – This file contains the digital certificates of certificate signing authorities that the client should trust. These trusted certificates instruct the client to trust the server during the installation.
Note - The certstore file must be located in the client ID directory. See Customizing the Scope of the WAN Boot Installation for more information about subdirectories of the /etc/netboot directory.
For detailed instructions on how to create and store these files, see the following procedures:
To install clients on your network, you might want to share security and configuration files among several different clients, or across entire subnets. You can share these files by distributing your configuration information throughout the /etc/netboot/net-IP/client-ID, /etc/netboot/net-IP, and /etc/netboot directories. The wanboot-cgi program searches these directories for the configuration information that best fits the client, and uses that information during the installation.
/etc/netboot/net-IP/client-ID – The wanboot-cgi program first checks for configuration information that is specific to the client machine. If the /etc/netboot/net-IP/client-ID directory contains all the client configuration information, the wanboot-cgi program does not check for configuration information elsewhere in the /etc/netboot directory.
/etc/netboot/net-IP – If all the required information is not located in the /etc/netboot/net-IP/client-ID directory, the wanboot-cgi program then checks for subnet configuration information in the /etc/netboot/net-IP directory.
/etc/netboot – If the remaining information is not located in the /etc/netboot/net-IP directory, the wanboot-cgi program then checks for global configuration information in the /etc/netboot directory.
Figure 11-2 Sample /etc/netboot Directory
The /etc/netboot directory layout in the figure enables you to perform the following WAN boot installations:
When you install the client 010003BA152A42, the wanboot-cgi program uses the following files in the /etc/netboot/192.168.255.0/010003BA152A42 directory:
The wanboot-cgi program then uses the wanboot.conf file in the /etc/netboot/192.168.255.0 directory.
When you install a client that is located on the 192.168.255.0 subnet, the wanboot-cgi program uses the wanboot.conf, keystore, and truststore files in the /etc/netboot/192.168.255.0 directory. The wanboot-cgi program then uses the system.conf file in the /etc/netboot directory.
When you install a client machine that is not located on the 192.168.255.0 subnet, the wanboot-cgi program uses the following files in the /etc/netboot directory:
The wanboot-cgi program transmits the data and files from the WAN boot server to the client. You must ensure that this program is in a directory on the WAN boot server that is accessible to the client. One method to make this program accessible to the client is to store this program in the cgi-bin directory of the WAN boot server. You might need to configure your web server software to use the wanboot-cgi program as a CGI program. See your web server documentation for information about CGI program requirements.
If you want to add security to your WAN boot installation, you can use digital certificates to enable server and the client authentication. WAN boot can use a digital certificate to establish the identity of the server or the client during an online transaction. Digital certificates are issued by a certificate authority (CA). These certificates contain a serial number, expiration dates, a copy of the certificate holder's public key, and the certificate authority's digital signature.
If you want to require server or both client and server authentication during your installation, you must install digital certificates on the server. Follow these guidelines when you use digital certificates:
If you want to use digital certificates, the digital certificates must be formatted as part of a Public-Key Cryptography Standards #12 (PKCS#12) file.
If you create your own certificates, you must create the certificates as PKCS#12 files.
If you receive your certificates from third-party certificate authorities, request your certificates in the PKCS#12 format.
For detailed instructions about how to use PKCS#12 certificates during your WAN boot installation, see How to Use Digital Certificates for Server and Client Authentication.