MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0

15.7.3 Locks Set by Different SQL Statements in InnoDB

A locking read, an UPDATE, or a DELETE generally set record locks on every index record that is scanned in the processing of the SQL statement. It does not matter whether there are WHERE conditions in the statement that would exclude the row. InnoDB does not remember the exact WHERE condition, but only knows which index ranges were scanned. The locks are normally next-key locks that also block inserts into the gap immediately before the record. However, gap locking can be disabled explicitly, which causes next-key locking not to be used. For more information, see Section 15.7.1, “InnoDB Locking”. The transaction isolation level also can affect which locks are set; see Section 15.7.2.1, “Transaction Isolation Levels”.

If a secondary index is used in a search and index record locks to be set are exclusive, InnoDB also retrieves the corresponding clustered index records and sets locks on them.

If you have no indexes suitable for your statement and MySQL must scan the entire table to process the statement, every row of the table becomes locked, which in turn blocks all inserts by other users to the table. It is important to create good indexes so that your queries do not unnecessarily scan many rows.

InnoDB sets specific types of locks as follows.