MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0

13.1.20 CREATE TABLE Syntax

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    (create_definition,...)
    [table_options]
    [partition_options]

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    [(create_definition,...)]
    [table_options]
    [partition_options]
    [IGNORE | REPLACE]
    [AS] query_expression

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    { LIKE old_tbl_name | (LIKE old_tbl_name) }

create_definition:
    col_name column_definition
  | {INDEX|KEY} [index_name] [index_type] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | {FULLTEXT|SPATIAL} [INDEX|KEY] [index_name] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] PRIMARY KEY
      [index_type] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] UNIQUE [INDEX|KEY]
      [index_name] [index_type] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
      [index_name] (col_name,...)
      reference_definition
  | check_constraint_definition

column_definition:
    data_type [NOT NULL | NULL] [DEFAULT {literal | (expr)} ]
      [AUTO_INCREMENT] [UNIQUE [KEY]] [[PRIMARY] KEY]
      [COMMENT 'string']
      [COLLATE collation_name]
      [COLUMN_FORMAT {FIXED|DYNAMIC|DEFAULT}]
      [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY}]
      [reference_definition]
      [check_constraint_definition]
  | data_type
      [COLLATE collation_name]
      [GENERATED ALWAYS] AS (expr)
      [VIRTUAL | STORED] [NOT NULL | NULL]
      [UNIQUE [KEY]] [[PRIMARY] KEY]
      [COMMENT 'string']
      [reference_definition]
      [check_constraint_definition]

data_type:
    (see Chapter 11, Data Types)

key_part: {col_name [(length)] | (expr)} [ASC | DESC]

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'
  | {VISIBLE | INVISIBLE}

check_constraint_definition:
    [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] CHECK (expr) [[NOT] ENFORCED]

reference_definition:
    REFERENCES tbl_name (key_part,...)
      [MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE]
      [ON DELETE reference_option]
      [ON UPDATE reference_option]

reference_option:
    RESTRICT | CASCADE | SET NULL | NO ACTION | SET DEFAULT

table_options:
    table_option [[,] table_option] ...

table_option:
    AUTO_INCREMENT [=] value
  | AVG_ROW_LENGTH [=] value
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1}
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | COMMENT [=] 'string'
  | COMPRESSION [=] {'ZLIB'|'LZ4'|'NONE'}
  | CONNECTION [=] 'connect_string'
  | {DATA|INDEX} DIRECTORY [=] 'absolute path to directory'
  | DELAY_KEY_WRITE [=] {0 | 1}
  | ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}
  | ENGINE [=] engine_name
  | INSERT_METHOD [=] { NO | FIRST | LAST }
  | KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | MAX_ROWS [=] value
  | MIN_ROWS [=] value
  | PACK_KEYS [=] {0 | 1 | DEFAULT}
  | PASSWORD [=] 'string'
  | ROW_FORMAT [=] {DEFAULT|DYNAMIC|FIXED|COMPRESSED|REDUNDANT|COMPACT}
  | STATS_AUTO_RECALC [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_PERSISTENT [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES [=] value
  | TABLESPACE tablespace_name [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY}]
  | UNION [=] (tbl_name[,tbl_name]...)

partition_options:
    PARTITION BY
        { [LINEAR] HASH(expr)
        | [LINEAR] KEY [ALGORITHM={1|2}] (column_list)
        | RANGE{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)}
        | LIST{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)} }
    [PARTITIONS num]
    [SUBPARTITION BY
        { [LINEAR] HASH(expr)
        | [LINEAR] KEY [ALGORITHM={1|2}] (column_list) }
      [SUBPARTITIONS num]
    ]
    [(partition_definition [, partition_definition] ...)]

partition_definition:
    PARTITION partition_name
        [VALUES
            {LESS THAN {(expr | value_list) | MAXVALUE}
            |
            IN (value_list)}]
        [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name]
        [COMMENT [=] 'string' ]
        [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir']
        [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir']
        [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows]
        [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows]
        [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name]
        [(subpartition_definition [, subpartition_definition] ...)]

subpartition_definition:
    SUBPARTITION logical_name
        [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name]
        [COMMENT [=] 'string' ]
        [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir']
        [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir']
        [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows]
        [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows]
        [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name]

query_expression:
    SELECT ...   (Some valid select or union statement)

CREATE TABLE creates a table with the given name. You must have the CREATE privilege for the table.

By default, tables are created in the default database, using the InnoDB storage engine. An error occurs if the table exists, if there is no default database, or if the database does not exist.

For information about the physical representation of a table, see Section 13.1.20.2, “Files Created by CREATE TABLE”.

The original CREATE TABLE statement, including all specifications and table options are stored by MySQL when the table is created. For more information, see Section 13.1.20.1, “CREATE TABLE Statement Retention”.

There are several aspects to the CREATE TABLE statement, described under the following topics in this section:

Table Name

Temporary Tables

You can use the TEMPORARY keyword when creating a table. A TEMPORARY table is visible only within the current session, and is dropped automatically when the session is closed. For more information, see Section 13.1.20.3, “CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE Syntax”.

Table Cloning and Copying

Column Data Types and Attributes

There is a hard limit of 4096 columns per table, but the effective maximum may be less for a given table and depends on the factors discussed in Section C.10.4, “Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size”.

Indexes, Foreign Keys, and CHECK Constraints

Several keywords apply to creation of indexes, foreign keys, and CHECK constraints. For general background in addition to the following descriptions, see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”, Section 13.1.20.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”, and Section 13.1.20.7, “CHECK Constraints”.

Table Options

Table options are used to optimize the behavior of the table. In most cases, you do not have to specify any of them. These options apply to all storage engines unless otherwise indicated. Options that do not apply to a given storage engine may be accepted and remembered as part of the table definition. Such options then apply if you later use ALTER TABLE to convert the table to use a different storage engine.

Table Partitioning

partition_options can be used to control partitioning of the table created with CREATE TABLE.

Not all options shown in the syntax for partition_options at the beginning of this section are available for all partitioning types. Please see the listings for the following individual types for information specific to each type, and see Chapter 23, Partitioning, for more complete information about the workings of and uses for partitioning in MySQL, as well as additional examples of table creation and other statements relating to MySQL partitioning.

Partitions can be modified, merged, added to tables, and dropped from tables. For basic information about the MySQL statements to accomplish these tasks, see Section 13.1.9, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”. For more detailed descriptions and examples, see Section 23.3, “Partition Management”.

Partitioning by Generated Columns

Partitioning by generated columns is permitted. For example:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
  s1 INT,
  s2 INT AS (EXP(s1)) STORED
)
PARTITION BY LIST (s2) (
  PARTITION p1 VALUES IN (1)
);

Partitioning sees a generated column as a regular column, which enables workarounds for limitations on functions that are not permitted for partitioning (see Section 23.6.3, “Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions”). The preceding example demonstrates this technique: EXP() cannot be used directly in the PARTITION BY clause, but a generated column defined using EXP() is permitted.